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Bad Thinking

  • Answer 11 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. We believe them on the basis of insufficient and - frequently - biased samples from which all negative evidence has been eliminated. (e.g - Overlooking the fact that good things sometimes happen on Fri. the 13th and bad things on other days.)

2. We engage in this psychological ploy when we ignore or deny unpleasant evidence so as to feel justified in doing what we want to do or in believing what we find comfortable to believe.Most common form of self- deception.

3. Consciously believing what a deeper level we know to questionable.

4. Viewing everything in terms of 'us against them' or 'my right opinions against your wrong ones'

5. Tends to keep our beliefs - and thus our actions - within the bounds of what society as a whole will accept. (e.g - Failing to notice the undemocratic and nasty things our own government does on the international scene.)

6. Thinking ill of others without sufficient warrant.

7. A natural tendency to identify with the ideas - interests - and kinds of behavior favored by those with which we identify. (e.g - black with blacks - women with women)

8. Our reasoning sometimes is mislead from the truth and it inclines us to see our own society and its beliefs in a more favorable light than the evidence may warrant.

9. Others we can blame for our own troubles and mistakes- when in fact we ourselves may bear a large measure of responsibility.

10. Avoid stressful thoughts by either not thinking about them or more commonly by thinking non stressful thoughts/We change our interpretation of the situation to perceive it as less threatening.

11. Believing what we would like to be true - no matter what the evidence.