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AP Biology

Subjects : science, ap, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.






2. In a heterozygote - the allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype.






3. The chlorophyll a molecule and the primary electron acceptor in a photosystem; they trigger the light reactions of photosynthesis. The chlorophyll donates an electron - excited by light energy - to the primary electron acceptor - which passes an elec






4. The amount of heat that must be absorbed lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree






5. A gene located on a sex chromosome.






6. A substance that is dissolved in a solution






7. Walled cells become _____ as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment.






8. The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells - serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration






9. An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.






10. A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product - such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.






11. Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.






12. An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.






13. An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.






14. Chromosome pairs of the same length - centromere position - and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father - the other from the mother.






15. A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.






16. A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution






17. The first filial - or hybrid - offspring in a genetic cross-fertilization.






18. One of a family of closely related plant organelles - including chloroplasts - chromoplasts - and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).






19. The most common type of mutation - a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.






20. Attached to outside of ER or nuclear envelope- proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes or packaging certain organelles (ex: lysosome)






21. The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell.






22. Period when cell cycle when cell is not dividing- cell metabolic activity is high - chromsomes and organelles are duplicated and cell size may increase. 90% of cell cycle






23. The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.






24. A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.






25. Chromatin - nucleolus - nuclear envelope--> directs protein synthesis by synthesizing RNA (mRNA) and sending it to the cytoplasm via nuclear pores-->the mRNA is made according to instruction provided by DNA --> mRNA reaches cytoplasm ribosomes transl






26. Penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer - often completely spanning the membrane (as transmembrane proteins).






27. An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.






28. One of several atomic forms of an element each containing different number of neutrons and different in atomic mass






29. A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis.






30. The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier - thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.






31. A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell - separating the cytosol from the cell sap






32. 1. Transport of specific solutes into or out of cells. 2. Enzymatic activity - sometimes catalyzing one of a number of steps of a metabolic pathway 3. Signal transduction - relaying hormonal messages to the cell. 4. Cell-cell recognition - allowing o






33. A measure of the intensity of heat in degrees reflecting molecules average kinetic energy






34. The X-shaped - microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis.






35. Walled cells are _____ in isotonic surroundings - where there is no tendency for water to enter.






36. A membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.






37. A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.






38. Mendel's first law - stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formation - and then randomly re-form as pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization.






39. The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.






40. A threadlike - gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.






41. A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen - producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.






42. Complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome






43. An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.






44. A functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.






45. A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness - symbolized by S.






46. A regularity protein whose concentration fluctuates cyclically






47. The electron acceptor in a redox reaction.






48. Anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles - formation of nuclear lamina






49. The electron donor in a redox reaction.






50. Membranes of neighboring cells are actually fused forming continuous belts around cell to prevent leakage of extracellular fluid