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1. A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.
2. Many ion channels function as gated channels these channels open or close depending on the presence or absence of a chemical or physical stimulus
electron transport chain
3. An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify - store - and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
4. Digestive compartments (macromolecules) carry out intracellular digestion . Use their hydrolytic enzymes to recycle the cell's own organic material (autophagy)
5. An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or mutagens; duplication of a portion of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome.
6. The covalent bond between two amino acid units - formed by a dehydration reaction
7. The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
8. The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
beta (B) pleated sheet
9. A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele - characterized by excessive bleeding following injury.
10. Drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane 1. chemical force based on an ions concentration gradient. 2. the other is an electrical force based on the effect of the membrane potential on the ion's movement ion diffuses down its electrochemical gra
11. The removal of noncoding portions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis.
chromosome theory of inheritance
12. Charts of chromosomes that locate genes with respect to chromosomal features.
rubisco Ribulose carboxylase
13. A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
14. The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
1st law of thermodynamics
15. The arrangement of phospholipids and proteins in biological membranes is described by the
fluid mosaic model
16. A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes. The greater the frequency of recombination between two genetic markers - the farther apart they are assumed to be. See also geneti
17. An accident of meiosis or mitosis - in which the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to move apart properly.
18. Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
19. A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
20. The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
beta (B) pleated sheet
21. A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule - usually water; also called dehydration reaction.
22. An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
cristae (plural - cristae)
23. Splits a membrane along the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. When a freeze-fracture preparation is viewed with an electron microscope - protein particles are interspersed in a smooth matrix - supporting the fluid mosaic model.
24. An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
25. The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate - induced by entry of the substrate.
26. Unit - a region of a DNA molecule that is transcribed into an RNA molecule
cell cycle control system
27. A team of enzymes that hydrolyze DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides
28. The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient - generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
proton motive force
29. Membranes of neighboring cells are actually fused forming continuous belts around cell to prevent leakage of extracellular fluid
30. Typically transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
31. The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded consisting of protein and polysaccharides.
32. A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
33. The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I.
34. The genetic makeup of an organism
35. The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat - and in spontaneous reactions - the free energy of the system also decreases.
2nd law of thermodynamics
36. The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed - but it cannot be created or destroyed.
1st law of thermodynamics
37. A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis.
38. In comparing two solutions - the one with a lower solute concentration.
39. A single ATP powered pump that transports one solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several other solutes in this mechanism as the solute that has been actively transported diffuses back passively through a transport protein its movemen
40. A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A) - cytosine (C) - guanine (G) - and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruse
41. A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has an extra copy of one chromosome - instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be trisomic for that chromosome.
beta (B) pleated sheet
lactid acid fermentation
42. A heritable feature in a population that varies continuously as a result of environmental influences and the additive effect of two or more genes (polygenic inheritance).
base pair substitution
43. A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP - NADPH - and oxygen. The net electron flow is from water to NADP+.
noncyclic electron flow
44. A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product - such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
45. An accessory pigment - either yellow or orange - in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot - carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
46. A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules - usually by a condensation reaction. Polysaccharides - proteins - and nucleic acids are macromolecules.
47. The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; P stands for parental.
48. Modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus - a process unique to eukaryotes.
49. A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism - an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions - first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids - which release
50. Network of membrane sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes
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