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AP Biology

Subjects : science, ap, biology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets.

2. A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.

3. One of several atomic forms of an element each containing different number of neutrons and different in atomic mass

4. A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes - having a polar - hydrophilic head and a nonpolar - hydrophobic tail.

5. An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. A monohybrid results from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles. For example - parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a monohybrid genotype of Aa.

6. A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.

7. A functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (SH).

8. In cellular metabolism - the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.

9. A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.

10. The most common type of mutation - a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.

11. A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.

12. One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P680 reaction-center chlorophyll.

13. A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.

14. The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions - bound to specific carrier proteins - across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients

15. The spread of cancer to locations distant form original site

16. Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.

17. A technique for determining genetic abnormalities in a fetus by the presence of certain chemicals or defective fetal cells in the amniotic fluid - obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus.

18. Containing oxygen; referring to an organism - environment - or cellular process that requires oxygen.

19. An aggregation of several ribosomes attached to one messenger RNA molecule.

20. A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A) - cytosine (C) - guanine (G) - and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruse

21. A non dividing face of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins

22. A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides - formed by dehydration reactions.

23. A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.

24. A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form - the sporophyte - and a multicellular haploid form - the gametophyte; characteristic of plants.

25. A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in female mammalian cells - representing an inactivated X chromosome.

26. An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.

27. An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

28. A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

29. Having two different alleles for a given genetic character

30. A type of yellow-green accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.

31. A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.

32. A team of enzymes that hydrolyze DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides

33. (1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.

34. Centralized region that joins the two sister chromatids

35. Drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane 1. chemical force based on an ions concentration gradient. 2. the other is an electrical force based on the effect of the membrane potential on the ion's movement ion diffuses down its electrochemical gra

36. The passive transport of water; diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane; the direction of osmosis is determined only by a difference in total solute concentration ; the kind of solutes in the solution do not matter

37. Special transport proteins that generate the voltage gradient across a membrane an example is the Na+-K+ pump restores the electrochemical gradient not only by the active transport of Na+ and K+ setting up a concentration gradien but because it pumps

38. A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes. The greater the frequency of recombination between two genetic markers - the farther apart they are assumed to be. See also geneti

39. A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion - formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules - ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.

40. Gene carrying structure found in nucleus- consists of 1 very long DNA molecules and associated proteins

41. An iron-containing protein - a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts

42. A structural polysaccharide of cell walls - consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1 - 4-glycosidic linkages.

43. A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

44. Anything takes up space and has mass

45. A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele - characterized by excessive bleeding following injury.

46. The mating - or crossing - of two varieties.

47. The coupling of the 'downhill' diffusion of one substance to the 'uphill' transport of another against its own concentration gradient.

48. Use info - from the DNA to make proteins and carry out protein synthesis

49. Center of manufacturing - warehousing - sorting - and shipping products are usually modified during their transit from the cis pole to the trans pole

50. Walled cells become _____ as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment.