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AP Biology

Subjects : science, ap, biology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P700 reaction-center chlorophyll.

2. The passive transport of water; diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane; the direction of osmosis is determined only by a difference in total solute concentration ; the kind of solutes in the solution do not matter

3. Golgi appartus--> usually located near the ER a vesicle that buds from the ER will add its membrane and the contents of its lumen -cavity - to this face

4. Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.

5. A type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf.

6. (1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.

7. Penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer - often completely spanning the membrane (as transmembrane proteins).

8. A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product - such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.

9. A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen

10. The mating - or crossing - of two varieties.

11. The genetic makeup of an organism

12. A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion - formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.

13. Smallest unit of matter that retains property of an element

14. A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.

15. (1) The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics. (2) A phenomenon in which external DNA is taken up by a cell and functions there.

16. Nuclear division process; prophase - prometaphase - metaphase - anaphase - and telophse

17. An acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.

18. A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.

19. The removal of noncoding portions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis.

20. The passive movement of molecules down their concentration gradient via transport proteins

21. An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.

22. Charts of chromosomes that locate genes with respect to chromosomal features.

23. The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded consisting of protein and polysaccharides.

24. Amphipathic molecules have both hydrophobic regions and hydrophilic regions <phospholipids>.

25. A double-stranded - helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.

26. A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness - symbolized by S.

27. The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions - bound to specific carrier proteins - across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients

28. Electrical potential energy due to the separation of opposite charges

29. A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).

30. An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or mutagens; duplication of a portion of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome.

31. A substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.

32. 3rd subphase in mitosis; spindle is complete and the chromosomes attached to microtubules at their kinetochores are aligned at he metaphase plate

33. Complete complement of organisms genes; genetic material

34. The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.

35. An individual with the normal phenotype.

36. A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.

37. Chromatin - nucleolus - nuclear envelope--> directs protein synthesis by synthesizing RNA (mRNA) and sending it to the cytoplasm via nuclear pores-->the mRNA is made according to instruction provided by DNA --> mRNA reaches cytoplasm ribosomes transl

38. Uses energy to move solutes against their gradients; requires the cell to expend metabolic energy; enables a cell to maintain its internal concentrations of small molecules that would otherwise diffuse across he membrane ; ATP supplies the energy for

39. The cell engulfs a particle by extending psedopodia around it and packaging it in a large vacuole

40. An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atom; the bonded atoms gain compounds outer electron shells

41. The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier - thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.

42. Organization of DNA and proteins into fibrous material

43. Having an affinity to water

44. An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify - store - and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.

45. An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. A monohybrid results from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles. For example - parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a monohybrid genotype of Aa.

46. A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings

47. A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons - which are expressed - are separated from each other by introns.

48. A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents.

49. A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution - accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.

50. A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast - used to convert light energy to chemical energy.