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1. A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons - which are expressed - are separated from each other by introns.
2. Center of manufacturing - warehousing - sorting - and shipping products are usually modified during their transit from the cis pole to the trans pole
3. A change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair
4. Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.
5. Dissolving agent of a solution
6. A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
7. A coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism
8. A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the chlorophyll a molecule; it accepts an electron from the chlorophyll a molecule.
primary electron acceptor
beta (B) pleated sheet
9. A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
10. Special transport proteins that generate the voltage gradient across a membrane an example is the Na+-K+ pump restores the electrochemical gradient not only by the active transport of Na+ and K+ setting up a concentration gradien but because it pumps
11. An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.
12. Gene carrying structure found in nucleus- consists of 1 very long DNA molecules and associated proteins
beta (B) pleated sheet
13. A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.
duchenne muscular dystropy
14. The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
density dependent inhibitor
15. Network of membrane sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes
16. The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.
receptor mediated endocytosis
17. Having aversion to water tend to coalesce and form droplets of water
18. A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
19. A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen - producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
20. A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
base pair substitution
21. One of several formed bodies with specialized functions - suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
22. The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat - and in spontaneous reactions - the free energy of the system also decreases.
2nd law of thermodynamics
23. An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or from mutagens; specifically - reattachment of a chromosomal fragment to the chromosome from which the fragment originated - but in a reverse orientation.
24. The amount of heat that must be absorbed lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree
saturated fatty acid
25. A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
26. An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
27. A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate.
28. A globular protein that links into chains - two of which twist helically about each other - forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.
29. A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
selective permeability (the ability to allow some sub. to cross the plasma membrane more easily)
30. The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions - bound to specific carrier proteins - across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients
31. The distance between crests of waves - such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
32. Complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome
33. A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
34. Collagen most abundant in animal cells
ECM function in support - adhesion - movement - and regulation (glycoproteins)
35. The tendency of molecules of any substance to spread out in the available space it is driven by intrinsic kinetic energy (thermal motion or heat) of molecules
36. A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three - resulting in the improper grouping of the following nucleotides into codons.
37. A quantum - or discrete amount - of light energy.
38. The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane because it require no energy from the cell to make it happen - the concentration gradient represents potential energy and drives fusion
39. A noncoding - intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene.
40. The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle.
41. A negatively charged ion
42. Span the membrane 1. channel proteins which have a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or ions can use as a tunnel through the membrane (aquaporins facilitate the passage of water through the membrane) 2. carrier proteins bind to molecules and
lactid acid fermentation
43. Genes that are located on the same chromosome.
sodium potassium pump
44. A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules - which make up two subunits
45. A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.
46. A technique for determining genetic abnormalities in a fetus by the presence of certain chemicals or defective fetal cells in the amniotic fluid - obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus.
47. An initial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA.
48. A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen
cyclic electron flow
49. Phase of cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokenisis
50. The covalent bond between two amino acid units - formed by a dehydration reaction
base pair substitution
bye2alvin - 76%
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