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AP Biology

Subjects : science, ap, biology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. A protein that must be present in the extracellular environment for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells

2. Synthesis phase of cell cycle; portion of interphase which DNA is replicated

3. The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier - thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.

4. Chromosome pairs of the same length - centromere position - and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father - the other from the mother.

5. An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or from mutagens; specifically - reattachment of a chromosomal fragment to the chromosome from which the fragment originated - but in a reverse orientation.

6. An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.

7. The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.

8. The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects.

9. The passive movement of molecules down their concentration gradient via transport proteins

10. The protective structure at each end of a eukaryotic chromosome. Specifically - the tandemly repetitive DNA at the end of the chromosome's DNA molecule. See also repetitive DNA.

11. A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

12. The chlorophyll a molecule and the primary electron acceptor in a photosystem; they trigger the light reactions of photosynthesis. The chlorophyll donates an electron - excited by light energy - to the primary electron acceptor - which passes an elec

13. The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.

14. The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.

15. A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction

16. A double sugar - consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

17. The most abundant type of RNA - which together with proteins - forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons.

18. The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.

19. One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual

20. Maintenance of cell shape (compression resisting girders) cell motility organelle and chromosome movement

21. An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis

22. An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.

23. A membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.

24. Walled cells become _____ as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment.

25. A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.

26. The second subphase of mitosis - in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear - the nuclear envelope fragments - and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.

27. For proteins - a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation - thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA - the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH - sal

28. The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.

29. Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells - important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center.

30. Sythesis of secretory proteins (glycoproteins) specialized cells secrete proteins produced by rough ER ribosomes and membrane production

31. A type of inheritance in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.

32. The reactant on which an enzyme works

33. A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes - having a polar - hydrophilic head and a nonpolar - hydrophobic tail.

34. Differences between members of the same species.

35. The form of native DNA - referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.

36. A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism - an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions - first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids - which release

37. Chromatin - nucleolus - nuclear envelope--> directs protein synthesis by synthesizing RNA (mRNA) and sending it to the cytoplasm via nuclear pores-->the mRNA is made according to instruction provided by DNA --> mRNA reaches cytoplasm ribosomes transl

38. A quantum - or discrete amount - of light energy.

39. A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells - bacteria - fungi - and some protists. In plant cells - the wall is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix. The primary cell wall is thin and flexible

40. The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.

41. Electrical potential energy due to the separation of opposite charges

42. Golgi apparatus--> gives rise to vesicles which pinch off and travel to other sites

43. The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell.

44. A profile of the relative performance of different wavelengths of light.

45. A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.

46. Network of membrane sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes

47. A type of endocytosis involving large - particulate substances.

48. A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes. The greater the frequency of recombination between two genetic markers - the farther apart they are assumed to be. See also geneti

49. Unit - a region of a DNA molecule that is transcribed into an RNA molecule

50. Double membrane perforated by pores which regulate entry and exit of certain macromolecules and particles