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AP Biology

Subjects : science, ap, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness - symbolized by S.






2. Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.






3. A subatomic particle with a single negative charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus






4. A specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.






5. That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.






6. A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.






7. Penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer - often completely spanning the membrane (as transmembrane proteins).






8. The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.






9. The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of 'language' from nucleotides to amino acids






10. Sequence of events in the life of a cell - from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two composed of M - G1 - S - and G2 phases






11. A type of inheritance in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.






12. A measure of the intensity of heat in degrees reflecting molecules average kinetic energy






13. A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.






14. A type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom. making one slightly negative and the other slightly positive






15. Many ion channels function as gated channels these channels open or close depending on the presence or absence of a chemical or physical stimulus






16. An electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom






17. A phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independently inherited






18. Organization of DNA and proteins into fibrous material






19. A membrane that cloaks the capsid that in turn encloses a viral genome.






20. The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I.






21. The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' 3' direction.






22. In cellular metabolism - the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.






23. An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.






24. The second growth face of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs






25. A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the chlorophyll a molecule; it accepts an electron from the chlorophyll a molecule.






26. The removal of noncoding portions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis.






27. A gene located on a sex chromosome.






28. A change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair






29. A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides - formed by dehydration reactions.






30. A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.






31. The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.






32. A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction






33. A mass of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue - caused by the uncontrolled growth of a transformed cell






34. An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists - the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where th






35. A loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.






36. An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.






37. An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function in important metabolic reactions.






38. Mendel's first law - stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formation - and then randomly re-form as pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization.






39. Special transport proteins that generate the voltage gradient across a membrane an example is the Na+-K+ pump restores the electrochemical gradient not only by the active transport of Na+ and K+ setting up a concentration gradien but because it pumps






40. A complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA - releasing the intron - and joining the two adjacent exons.






41. (1) The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics. (2) A phenomenon in which external DNA is taken up by a cell and functions there.






42. The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.






43. Cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair function of one or more organs






44. A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in female mammalian cells - representing an inactivated X chromosome.






45. A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.






46. Are not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all. Instead - the are loosely bound to the surface of the protein - often connected to integral proteins






47. The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing -exists as a mass of very long - thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.






48. The most common type of mutation - a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.






49. The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; P stands for parental.






50. An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.