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AP Biology

Subjects : science, ap, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Golgi appartus--> usually located near the ER a vesicle that buds from the ER will add its membrane and the contents of its lumen -cavity - to this face






2. A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings






3. A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.






4. Replicated forms of chromosomes joined together by the centromere and separated during mitosis and meiosis II






5. The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' 3' direction.






6. The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.






7. A substance that is dissolved in a solution






8. Region where cells microtubules are initiated






9. A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.






10. Mendel's second law - stating that each allele pair segregates independently during gamete formation; applies when genes for two characteristics are located on different pairs of homologous chromosomes.






11. A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.






12. A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome - instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be monosomic for that chromosome.






13. A network of microtubules - microfilaments - and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions.






14. A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.






15. That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.






16. A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.






17. A type of inheritance in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.






18. Network of membrane sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes






19. Sex cells (haploid cells; egg or sperm) unite to form a diploid zygote






20. Fourth subphase of mitosis in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell






21. The most abundant type of RNA - which together with proteins - forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons.






22. A machine that spins test tubes at the fastest speeds to separate liquids and particles of different densities.






23. (1) An atom's central core - containing protons and neutrons. (2) The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. (3) A cluster of neurons.






24. Actin (tension bearing elements ) muscle contraction






25. Organization of DNA and proteins into fibrous material






26. Splits a membrane along the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. When a freeze-fracture preparation is viewed with an electron microscope - protein particles are interspersed in a smooth matrix - supporting the fluid mosaic model.






27. An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atom; the bonded atoms gain compounds outer electron shells






28. The second subphase of mitosis - in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear - the nuclear envelope fragments - and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.






29. Amphipathic molecules have both hydrophobic regions and hydrophilic regions <phospholipids>.






30. In plants bacteria and fungi it is the major electrogenic pump actively transporting H+ out of the cell






31. In a heterozygote - the allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype.






32. A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.






33. An additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic character.






34. Molecules that are mirror images of each other.






35. An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.






36. A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele - characterized by excessive bleeding following injury.






37. An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.






38. A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA - in some viruses).






39. The mating - or crossing - of two varieties.






40. A globular protein that links into chains - two of which twist helically about each other - forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.






41. A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A) - cytosine (C) - guanine (G) - and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruse






42. The genetic makeup of an organism






43. A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and - through the actions of proteins - for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.






44. One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines.






45. A type of inheritance in which F1 hybrids have an appearance that is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parental varieties






46. Reproduction of cells






47. A type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf.






48. Sythesis of secretory proteins (glycoproteins) specialized cells secrete proteins produced by rough ER ribosomes and membrane production






49. A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.






50. Having two different alleles for a given genetic character