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AP Biology

Subjects : science, ap, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. A globular protein that links into chains - two of which twist helically about each other - forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.

2. A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule - which then departs from the gene

3. A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.

4. A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction

5. 3rd subphase in mitosis; spindle is complete and the chromosomes attached to microtubules at their kinetochores are aligned at he metaphase plate

6. The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure - which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.

7. A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall forms during cytokenisis

8. Chromatin - nucleolus - nuclear envelope--> directs protein synthesis by synthesizing RNA (mRNA) and sending it to the cytoplasm via nuclear pores-->the mRNA is made according to instruction provided by DNA --> mRNA reaches cytoplasm ribosomes transl

9. A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.

10. The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat - and in spontaneous reactions - the free energy of the system also decreases.

11. The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.

12. A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.

13. Having two different alleles for a given genetic character

14. A paired set of homologous chromosomes - each composed of two sister chromatids. Tetrads form during prophase I of meiosis.

15. A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.

16. The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle.

17. The tendency of molecules of any substance to spread out in the available space it is driven by intrinsic kinetic energy (thermal motion or heat) of molecules

18. An acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.

19. The removal of noncoding portions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis.

20. Electrical potential energy due to the separation of opposite charges

21. A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.

22. A membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.

23. Function like rivets fastening cells together into strong sheets Intermediate filaments reinforce this

24. The passive transport of water; diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane; the direction of osmosis is determined only by a difference in total solute concentration ; the kind of solutes in the solution do not matter

25. A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen - releases carbon dioxide - generates no ATP - and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot - dry - bright days - when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of car

26. A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage. See phage.

27. A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate.

28. The electrons in the outermost electron shell

29. That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.

30. Maintenance of cell shape (compression resisting girders) cell motility organelle and chromosome movement

31. The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.

32. An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.

33. Double membrane perforated by pores which regulate entry and exit of certain macromolecules and particles

34. In comparing two solutions - referring to the one with a greater solute concentration.

35. (1) An atom's central core - containing protons and neutrons. (2) The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. (3) A cluster of neurons.

36. Digestive compartments (macromolecules) carry out intracellular digestion . Use their hydrolytic enzymes to recycle the cell's own organic material (autophagy)

37. An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.

38. A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy

39. 1. Transport of specific solutes into or out of cells. 2. Enzymatic activity - sometimes catalyzing one of a number of steps of a metabolic pathway 3. Signal transduction - relaying hormonal messages to the cell. 4. Cell-cell recognition - allowing o

40. In plants bacteria and fungi it is the major electrogenic pump actively transporting H+ out of the cell

41. (1) The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics. (2) A phenomenon in which external DNA is taken up by a cell and functions there.

42. The first filial - or hybrid - offspring in a genetic cross-fertilization.

43. A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.

44. An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.

45. Voltage across a membrane. ranges from -50 to -200 millivolts. inside of cell negative compared to the outside

46. A chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.

47. The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).

48. Span the membrane 1. channel proteins which have a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or ions can use as a tunnel through the membrane (aquaporins facilitate the passage of water through the membrane) 2. carrier proteins bind to molecules and

49. Any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis.

50. A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.