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1. Dissolving agent of a solution
2. A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
3. A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
law of independent assortment
4. The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.
sex linked genes
receptor mediated endocytosis
5. In comparing two solutions - referring to the one with a greater solute concentration.
6. A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.
7. A technique for determining genetic abnormalities in a fetus by the presence of certain chemicals or defective fetal cells in the amniotic fluid - obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus.
8. Charts of chromosomes that locate genes with respect to chromosomal features.
9. A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
10. The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
11. A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.
duchenne muscular dystropy
12. A heritable feature in a population that varies continuously as a result of environmental influences and the additive effect of two or more genes (polygenic inheritance).
13. The reactant on which an enzyme works
14. A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
15. An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
saturated fatty acid
16. A specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
17. Containing oxygen; referring to an organism - environment - or cellular process that requires oxygen.
18. The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
19. A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
20. An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
21. Any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
22. A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea - Bacteria - and Eukarya.
23. Gene carrying structure found in nucleus- consists of 1 very long DNA molecules and associated proteins
24. Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
25. Synthesis phase of cell cycle; portion of interphase which DNA is replicated
cyclic electron flow
26. A threadlike - gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
27. A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three - resulting in the improper grouping of the following nucleotides into codons.
28. A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
29. The cellular process that uses special enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides.
30. The electron donor in a redox reaction.
31. Offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.
32. 3rd subphase in mitosis; spindle is complete and the chromosomes attached to microtubules at their kinetochores are aligned at he metaphase plate
33. The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded consisting of protein and polysaccharides.
sex linked genes
34. A human genetic disease of red blood cells caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; it is the most common inherited disease among African Americans.
sickle cell anemia
35. A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.
36. Splits a membrane along the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. When a freeze-fracture preparation is viewed with an electron microscope - protein particles are interspersed in a smooth matrix - supporting the fluid mosaic model.
37. A single ATP powered pump that transports one solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several other solutes in this mechanism as the solute that has been actively transported diffuses back passively through a transport protein its movemen
38. The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane because it require no energy from the cell to make it happen - the concentration gradient represents potential energy and drives fusion
39. Complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome
sex linked genes
40. A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets.
41. Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.
42. The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area.
43. Sex cells (haploid cells; egg or sperm) unite to form a diploid zygote
44. A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
law of segregration
45. The most abundant type of RNA - which together with proteins - forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons.
46. A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
47. A quantum - or discrete amount - of light energy.
48. The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I.
49. One of several atomic forms of an element each containing different number of neutrons and different in atomic mass
50. Mendel's first law - stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formation - and then randomly re-form as pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization.
law of segregration
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