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AP Biology

Subjects : science, ap, biology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Differences between members of the same species.

2. The distance between crests of waves - such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.

3. Fourth subphase of mitosis in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell

4. The second subphase of mitosis - in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear - the nuclear envelope fragments - and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.

5. Nuclear division process; prophase - prometaphase - metaphase - anaphase - and telophse

6. Golgi apparatus--> gives rise to vesicles which pinch off and travel to other sites

7. The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions - bound to specific carrier proteins - across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients

8. Modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus - a process unique to eukaryotes.

9. A homogeneous mixture of two or more substance (liquid)

10. A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.

11. The binding together of like molecules often by hydrogen bonds

12. Electrical potential energy due to the separation of opposite charges

13. A structural polysaccharide of cell walls - consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1 - 4-glycosidic linkages.

14. The enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP - or ribulose bisphosphate).

15. A phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independently inherited

16. A measure of the intensity of heat in degrees reflecting molecules average kinetic energy

17. Constructed from glycerol and fatty acids

18. Having the same solute concentration as another solution.

19. An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. A monohybrid results from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles. For example - parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a monohybrid genotype of Aa.

20. Network of membrane sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes

21. A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate.

22. A double sugar - consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

23. The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat - and in spontaneous reactions - the free energy of the system also decreases.

24. Offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.

25. Any factor that has a greater impact on a population as the population increases

26. Actin (tension bearing elements ) muscle contraction

27. A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes. The greater the frequency of recombination between two genetic markers - the farther apart they are assumed to be. See also geneti

28. A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form - the sporophyte - and a multicellular haploid form - the gametophyte; characteristic of plants.

29. A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction

30. A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).

31. 1. Transport of specific solutes into or out of cells. 2. Enzymatic activity - sometimes catalyzing one of a number of steps of a metabolic pathway 3. Signal transduction - relaying hormonal messages to the cell. 4. Cell-cell recognition - allowing o

32. A globular protein that links into chains - two of which twist helically about each other - forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.

33. Phase of cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokenisis

34. Anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles - formation of nuclear lamina

35. The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions) - involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.

36. Complete complement of organisms genes; genetic material

37. A special transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.

38. The tendency of molecules of any substance to spread out in the available space it is driven by intrinsic kinetic energy (thermal motion or heat) of molecules

39. In comparing two solutions - the one with a lower solute concentration.

40. An instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution.

41. An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.

42. The attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond

43. A substance that is dissolved in a solution

44. Special transport proteins that generate the voltage gradient across a membrane an example is the Na+-K+ pump restores the electrochemical gradient not only by the active transport of Na+ and K+ setting up a concentration gradien but because it pumps

45. A functional group important in energy transfer.

46. Attached to outside of ER or nuclear envelope- proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes or packaging certain organelles (ex: lysosome)

47. An electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom

48. Reproduction of cells

49. A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.

50. A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides - formed by dehydration reactions.