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AP Environmental Science

Subjects : science, ap
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. The process by which - according to Darwin's theory of evolution - only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding generations - while those less adap

2. Ozone that exists in the trophosphere.

3. When an area of vegetation is cut down and burned before being planted with crops.

4. States that matter can neither be created nor destroyed.

5. The use of devices - such as solar panels - to collect - focus - transport - or store solar energy.

6. A basic substance; chemically - a substance that absorbs hydrogen ions or releases hydroxyl ions; in reference to natural water - a measure of the base content of the water.

7. When the size of an organism's natural habitat is reduced - or when development occurs that isolates a habitat.

8. The condition in which - at ecosystem boundaries - there is greater species diversity and biological density than there is in the heart of ecological communities.

9. The structure obtained if we organize the amount of energy contained in producers and consumers in an ecosystem by kilocalories per square meter - from largest to smallest.

10. Says that the entropy (disorder) of the universe is increasing. One corollary of the Second Law of thermodynamics is the concept that - in most energy transformations - a significant fraction of energy is lost to the universe as heat.

11. Close - prolonged associations between two or more different organisms of different species that may - but do not necessarily benefit the members.

12. The form petroleum takes when in the ground.

13. Fires that typically burn only the forest's underbrush and do little damage to mature trees. Surface fires actually serve to protect the forest from more harmful fires by removing underbrush and dead materials that would burn quickly and at high temp

14. The use of building materials - building placement - and design to passively collect solar energy that can be used to keep a building warm or cool.

15. The finest soil - made up of particles that are less than 0.002 mm in diameter.

16. The accumulation of a substance - such as a toxic chemical - in various tissues of a living organism.

17. A process that allows the organic material in solid waste to be decomposed and reintroduced into the soil - often as fertilizer.

18. An area in which a particular mineral is concentrated - mining -the excavation of the Earth for the purpose of extracting ore or minerals.

19. The value of natural resources.

20. A semiconductor device that converts the energy of sunlight into electric energy.

21. Pollutants that are formed by the combination of primary pollutants in the atmosphere.

22. A soil horizon; the layer below the O layer is called the A layer. The A layer is formed of weathered rock - with some organic material; often referred to as topsoil.

23. When physically treated sewage water is passed into a settling tank - where suspended solids settle out as sludge; chemically treated polymers may be added to help the suspended solids separate and settle out.

24. The total sum of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment.

25. Being extinct or the process of becoming extinct.

26. To convert or change into a vapor.

27. The raising of fish and other aquatic species in captivity for harvest.

28. The edges of tectonic plates.

29. Any compound that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Also - a water solution that contains a surplus of hydrogen ions.

30. The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into compounds - such as ammonia - by natural agencies or various industrial processes.

31. When populations are well below the size dictated by the carrying capacity of the region they live in - they will grow exponentially - but as they approach the carrying capacity - their growth rate will decrease and the size of the population will ev

32. The solids that remain after the secondary treatment of sewage.

33. The number of live births per 1 -000 members of the population in a year.

34. A climate variation that takes place in the tropical Pacific about every three to seven years - for a duration of about one year.

35. Bacteria or fungi that absorb nutrients from nonliving organic matter like plant material - the wastes of living organisms - and corpses. They convert these materials into inorganic forms.

36. The outermost shell of the atmosphere - between the mesosphere and outer space - where temperatures increase steadily with altitude.

37. The more or less constant winds blowing in horizontal directions over the Earth's surface - as part of Hadley cells.

38. Nets that are dragged through the water and indiscriminately catch everything in their path.

39. The maintenance of a species or ecosystem in order to ensure their perpetuation - with no concern as to their potential monetary value

40. The outer part of the Earth - consisting of the crust and upper mantle - approximately 100 km (62 miles) thick.

41. Power generated using water.

42. Smog resulting from emissions from industry and other sources of gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels - especially coal.

43. A waste product produced by the burning of coal.

44. Piles of gangue - which is the waste material that results from mining.

45. Organisms in the first stages of succession.

46. A symbiotic relationship in which one member is helped by the association and the other is harmed.

47. The least pure coal.

48. A species whose very presence contributes to an ecosystem's diversity and whose extinction would consequently lead to the extinction of other forms of life.

49. A fiscal policy that lowers taxes on income - including wages and profit - and raises taxes on consumption - particularly the unsustainable consumption of non-renewable resources.

50. A system of vertical and horizontal air circulation predominating in tropical and subtropical regions and creating major weather patterns.