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AP Statistics Vocab

Subjects : statistics, ap
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Ideally tells who was measured - what was measured - how the data were collected - where the data were collected - and when and why the study was performed

2. A variable whose values are compared across different treatments

3. Useful family of models for unimodal - symmetric distributions

4. If data consist of two or more groups that have been thrown together - it is usually best to fit different linear models to each group than to try to fit a single model to all of the data

5. Consists of the individuals who are conveniently available

6. A distribution that's roughly flat

7. A numerical measure of the direction and strength of a linear association

8. This corresponding to a z-score gives the percentage of values in a standard normal distribution found at that z-score or below

9. Lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the count or percentage of observations for each category

10. The most basic situation in a simulation in which something happens at random

11. The number of individuals in a sample

12. Shows how a 'whole' divides into categories by showing a wedge of a circle whose area corresponds to the proportion in each category

13. Data points whose x-values are far from the mean of x are said to exert ____ on a linear model; with high enough ____ - residuals can appear to be deceptively small

14. These are hard to generate - but several websites offer an unlimited supply of equally likely random values

15. A hump or local high point in the shape of the distribution of a variable; the apparent locations of these can change as the scale of a histogram is changed

16. When an observed difference is too large for us to believe that is is likely to have occurred naturally

17. Design Randomization occurring within blocks

18. The lower of this is the value with a quarter of the data below it; the upper of this has a quarter of the data above it

19. In a statistical display - each data value should be represented by the same amount of area

20. Graphs a dot for each case against a single axis

21. Displays the 5-number summary as a central box with whiskers that extend to the non-outlying data values

22. A sample is this if the statistics computed from it accurately reflect the corresponding population parameters

23. Extreme values that don't appear to belong with the rest of the data

24. The differences between data values and the corresponding values predicted by the regression model; ____ = observed value - predicted value

25. The square of the correlation between y and x; gives the fraction of the variability of y accounted for by the least squares linear regression on x; an overall measure of how successful the regression is in linearly relating y to x

26. Manipulates factor levels to create treatments - randomly assigns subjects to these treatment levels - and then compares the responses of the subject groups across treatment levels

27. The middle value with half of the data above and half below it

28. The distribution of a variable restricting the who to consider only a smaller group of individuals

29. A point that does not fit the overall pattern seen in the scatterplot

30. The linear equation y-hat = b0 + b1x that satisfies the least squares criterion

31. To describe this aspect of a distribution - look for single vs. multiple modes - and symmetry vs. skewness

32. A variable in which the numbers act as numerical values; always has units

33. Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sampled fails to respond

34. A variable that names categories (whether with words or numerals)

35. The process - intervention - or other controlled circumstance applied to randomly assigned experimental units

36. The natural tendency of randomly drawn samples to differ

37. A variable whose levels are controlled by the experimenter

38. Gives the possible values of the variable and the relative frequency of each value

39. In a normal model - about 68% of values fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean - about 95% fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean - and about 99.7% fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean

40. An event is this if we know what outcomes could happen - but not which particular values will happen

41. A distribution is this if the two halves on either side of the center look approximately like mirror images of each other

42. Individuals on whom an experiment is performed

43. The parts of a distribution that typically trail off on either side; they can be characterized as long or short

44. A list of individuals from whom the sample is drawn

45. A treatment known to have no effect - administered so that all groups experience the same conditions

46. An individual result of a component of a simulation

47. Any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its population; common errors are voluntary response - undercoverage - nonresponse ____ - and response ____

48. A sampling design in which the population is divided into several subpopulations - and random samples are then drawn from each stratum

49. A quantity or amount adopted as a standard of measurement - such as dollars - hours - or grams

50. A numerically valued attribute of a model for a population