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AP Statistics Vocab

Subjects : statistics, ap
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. A positive ____ or association means that - in general - as one variable increases - so does the other; when increases in one variable generally correspond to decreases in the other - the association is negative

2. The sum of squared deviations from the mean - divided by the count minus one

3. When groups of experimental units are similar - it is a good idea to gather them together into these

4. This of sample size n is one in which each set of n elements in the population has an equal chance of selection

5. Adding a constant to each data value adds the same constant to the mean - the median - and the quartiles - but does not change the standard deviation or IQR

6. The best defense against bias - in which each individual is given a fair - random chance of selection

7. The ____ we care about most is straight

8. A point that does not fit the overall pattern seen in the scatterplot

9. A representative subset of a population - examined in hope of learning about the population

10. The specific values that the experimenter chooses for a factor

11. The most basic situation in a simulation in which something happens at random

12. To describe this aspect of a distribution - look for single vs. multiple modes - and symmetry vs. skewness

13. When an observed difference is too large for us to believe that is is likely to have occurred naturally

14. A numerically valued attribute of a model for a population

15. A variable other than x and y that simultaneously affects both variables - accounting for the correlation between the two

16. Data points whose x-values are far from the mean of x are said to exert ____ on a linear model; with high enough ____ - residuals can appear to be deceptively small

17. Anything in a survey design that influences response

18. The differences between data values and the corresponding values predicted by the regression model; ____ = observed value - predicted value

19. Doing this is equivalent to changing its units

20. To be valid - an experiment must assign experimental units to treatment groups at random

21. A distribution is this if the two halves on either side of the center look approximately like mirror images of each other

22. Control - randomize - replicate - block

23. Consists of the minimum and maximum - the quartiles Q1 and Q3 - and the median

24. An individual result of a component of a simulation

25. Ideally tells who was measured - what was measured - how the data were collected - where the data were collected - and when and why the study was performed

26. A scatterplot shows an association that is this if there is little scatter around the underlying relationship

27. An equation of the form y-hat = b0 + b1x

28. The difference between the lowest and highest values in a data set

29. The square root of the variance

30. Summarized with the standard deviation - interquartile range - and range

31. Values of this record the results of each trial with respect to what we were interested in

32. The linear equation y-hat = b0 + b1x that satisfies the least squares criterion

33. A sample is this if the statistics computed from it accurately reflect the corresponding population parameters

34. Gives a value in 'y-units per x-unit'; changes of one unit in x are associated with changes of b1 units in predicted values of y

35. Displays the 5-number summary as a central box with whiskers that extend to the non-outlying data values

36. These are hard to generate - but several websites offer an unlimited supply of equally likely random values

37. A variable that is not explicitly part of a model but affects the way the variables in the model appear to be related

38. Numerically valued attribute of a model

39. A numerical summary of how tightly the values are clustered around the 'center'

40. Useful family of models for unimodal - symmetric distributions

41. An equation or formula that simplifies and represents reality

42. A value that attempts the impossible by summarizing the entire distribution with a single number - a 'typical' value

43. Shows quantitative data values in a way that sketches the distribution of the data

44. The lower of this is the value with a quarter of the data below it; the upper of this has a quarter of the data above it

45. This - b0 - gives a starting value in y-units; it's the y-hat-value when x is 0

46. Summarized with the mean or the median

47. An event is this if we know what outcomes could happen - but not which particular values will happen

48. This corresponding to a z-score gives the percentage of values in a standard normal distribution found at that z-score or below

49. Lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the count or percentage of observations for each category

50. In a normal model - about 68% of values fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean - about 95% fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean - and about 99.7% fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean