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AP Statistics Vocab

Subjects : statistics, ap
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Displays the 5-number summary as a central box with whiskers that extend to the non-outlying data values

2. The differences between data values and the corresponding values predicted by the regression model; ____ = observed value - predicted value

3. A distribution is this if the two halves on either side of the center look approximately like mirror images of each other

4. Having one mode; this is a useful term for describing the shape of a histogram when it's generally mound-shaped

5. Data points whose x-values are far from the mean of x are said to exert ____ on a linear model; with high enough ____ - residuals can appear to be deceptively small

6. Holds information about the same characteristic for many cases

7. This corresponding to a z-score gives the percentage of values in a standard normal distribution found at that z-score or below

8. A numerically valued attribute of a model for a population

9. Useful family of models for unimodal - symmetric distributions

10. Doing this is equivalent to changing its units

11. If data consist of two or more groups that have been thrown together - it is usually best to fit different linear models to each group than to try to fit a single model to all of the data

12. When omitting a point from the data results in a very different regression model - the point is an ____

13. All experimental units have an equal chance of receiving any treatment

14. Individuals on whom an experiment is performed

15. In a statistical display - each data value should be represented by the same amount of area

16. An arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and each column represents a variable

17. A sampling scheme that biases the sample in a way that gives a part of the population less representation than it has in the population

18. The square of the correlation between y and x; gives the fraction of the variability of y accounted for by the least squares linear regression on x; an overall measure of how successful the regression is in linearly relating y to x

19. When averages are taken across different groups - they can appear to contradict the overall averages

20. This of sample size n is one in which each set of n elements in the population has an equal chance of selection

21. Uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of vales in a quantitative variable; each bar represents the frequency (or relative frequency) of values falling in an interval of values

22. The natural tendency of randomly drawn samples to differ

23. When an observed difference is too large for us to believe that is is likely to have occurred naturally

24. Each predicted y-hat tends to be fewer standard deviations from its mean than its corresponding x was from its mean

25. Distributions with more than two modes

26. The parts of a distribution that typically trail off on either side; they can be characterized as long or short

27. In a normal model - about 68% of values fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean - about 95% fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean - and about 99.7% fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean

28. Anything in a survey design that influences response

29. The entire group of individuals or instances about whom we hope to learn

30. The sequence of several components representing events that we are pretending will take place

31. The sum of squared deviations from the mean - divided by the count minus one

32. A variable that is not explicitly part of a model but affects the way the variables in the model appear to be related

33. Found by summing all the data values and dividing by the count

34. Value calculated from data to summarize aspects of the data

35. A point that does not fit the overall pattern seen in the scatterplot

36. Places in order the effects that many re-expressions have on the data

37. Consists of the minimum and maximum - the quartiles Q1 and Q3 - and the median

38. When groups of experimental units are similar - it is a good idea to gather them together into these

39. A normal model with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1

40. Numerically valued attribute of a model

41. An event is this if we know what outcomes could happen - but not which particular values will happen

42. The most basic situation in a simulation in which something happens at random

43. Done to eliminate units; values can be compared and combined even if the original variables had different units and magnitudes

44. Gives the possible values of the variable and the frequency or relative frequency of each value

45. A distribution that's roughly flat

46. A list of individuals from whom the sample is drawn

47. Gives a value in 'y-units per x-unit'; changes of one unit in x are associated with changes of b1 units in predicted values of y

48. A sampling design in which entire groups are chosen at random

49. The square root of the variance

50. A variable whose values are compared across different treatments