Test your basic knowledge |

Biochemistry Diseases

Subject : health-sciences
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Aut - dom cell - signaling defect in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFr3). Dwarfism: short limbs but head/trunk normal. A/W advanced paternal age






2. Mutation in mismatch repair genes (mismatched nucleotides in unmethylated / newly synthesized string recognized + removed)






3. Lysosomal storage disease (a mucopolysaccharidosis). X- linked rec deficiency of iduronate sulfatase; heparan sulfate - dermatan sulfate accumulate. Mild Hurler's phenotype (developmental delay - gargoylism (thickened gingiva + upturned nose) - airwa






4. Mutation in nucleotide excision repair proteins (endonucleases that release oligonucleotides containing damaged bases; DNApol + ligase fill in). Can't repair thymidine dimers (UV light). Dry skin with melanoma + other cancers ('children of the night'






5. Trisomy 18 (E=election age) - 1:8000. Severe MR - rockerbottom feet - congenital heart disease. Vs Patau's: micrognathia - low - set ears - clenched hands - prominent occiput. Death w/in 1 yr






6. Aut - dom; disorder of blood vessels. Telangiectasia - recurrent epistaxis - skin discolorations - AVMs. Incr. in Utah Mormons






7. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of arylsulfatase A - cerbroside sulfate accumulates. Central / peripheral demyelination - ataxia - dementia.






8. Aut - dom; deletion of VHL gene (tumor suppressor) on chr 3 (3 words for chr 3). Results in constitutive expression of HIF (transcription factor) - activation of angiogenic growth factors. Hemangioblastomas of retina / cerebellum / medulla - 50% get






9. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of hexosaminidase A; GM2 ganglioside accumulates. Progressive neurodegeneration - developmental delay - cherry- red spot on macula - lysosomes with 'onion skin'






10. Brittle bone disease; genetic bone disorder. Variety of gene defects. Type II fatal in utero - neonatal. Most common form: AD with abnormal type I collagen (bone): multiple fractures w/ minimal trauma (e.g. during birth) - blue sclerae (translucent c






11. Lysosomal alpha -1 -4- glucosidase (acid maltase) deficiency (type II glycogen storage disease. Lysosomal degradation of glycogen impaired (1 -4 = linkages - not branches). Cardiomegaly - systemic findings (liver - muscle) leading to early death. Pom






12. Aut - rec absence of galactose -1- phosphate uridyltransferase; toxic substances accumulate (e.g. galactitol in lens of eye). FTT - jaundice - hepatomegaly - infantile cataracts - MR. Tx: no galactose / lactose (glucose + galactose).






13. Bleeds (gamma - carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on factors II - VII - IX - X - protein C - S). Neonatal hemorrhage (inc PT - aPTT - normal bleeding time - sterile intestine in newborn - can't synthesize vitK - synthesized by intestinal flora






14. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis) - Aut - rec deficiency of beta - glucocerebrosidase; glucocerebroside accumulates. Hepatosplenomegaly - aseptic necrosis of femur - bone crises - Gaucher's cells (macrophages that look like crumpled tiss






15. Aut - dom; I/II/III - familial tumors of endocrine glands (pancreas - parathyroid - pituitary - thyroid - adrenal medulla). II / III a/w ret gene






16. Glucose -6- phosphatase deficiency (type I glycogen storage disease). Can't de - plate G6P (glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis). Severe fasting hypoglycemia - inc. glycogen in liver - inc. blood lactate (gluconeogenesis impaired) - hepatomegaly.






17. Aut - rec fructokinase deficiency. Can't P- late fructose - so can't enter cells. Benign - asymptomatic - just fructose in blood - urine.






18. Inhibits lipoic acid (required for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex - pyruvate to acetyl - coA). Vomiting - rice water stools - garlic breath.






19. Trisomy 13 (P = puberty age) - 1:15 -000. Severe MR - rockerbottom feet - congenital heart disease. Vs. Edwards': cleft lip / Palate - holoProsencephaly - Polydactyly (P's) - micropthalmia - microcephaly. Death w/in 1 yr






20. Aut - rec deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase / THB (cofactor) - so can't convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. Results: accumulate phenylalanine (excess phenylketones in urine); tyrosine becomes essential AA. Dx: MR - growth retardation - seizures






21. Pyridoxine = B6. Convulsions - hyperirritability - peripheral neuropathy. Deficiency inducible by INH - oral contraceptives. Converted to pyridoxal phosphate: used in transamination (ALT - AST - etc) - decarboxylation - glycogen phosphorylase - heme






22. Energy malnutrition. Tissue / muscle wasting - loss of subQ fat - variable edema.






23. Hemolytic anemia (inc fragility of erythrocytes - vit E is antioxidant - protects erythrocytes / membranes from free - radical damage). Muscle weakness - neurodysfunction tooo.






24. Severe vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency (less severe = glossitis). Diarrhea - dementia - dermatitis. Can be caused by Hartnup disease (dec. tryptophan absorption) - malignant carcinoid syndrome (inc tryptophan metabolism) (B3 made from tryptophan) and






25. Aut - rec - defect in renal tubular AA transporter (cysteine - ornithine - lysine - arginine in renal PCT). inc. cystine (2 cysteines w/ disulfide bond) in urine --> cystine kidney stones (cystine staghorn calculi). Common (1:7000); Tx with acetazola






26. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of sphingomyelinase; sphingomyelin accumulates. Progressive neurodegeneration - hepatosplenomegaly - cherry- red spot on macula - foam cells.






27. (Pyruvate + NAD+ + CoA --> acetylCoA + CO2 + NADH; 3 enzymes - requires B1 -2 -3 - CoA - lipoic acid). Pyruvate - alanine accumulate --> lactic acidosis (pyruvate to lactate). Congenital or acquired (e.g. alcoholics - B1 deficiency - lactic acidosis!






28. Aut - dom; mutation of huntingtin (chr 4 - 'hunting 4 food') - CAG repeats. Depression - progressive dementia - choreiform movements - caudate atrophy; manifests 20-50 y/o. Dec GABA - ACh in brain.






29. Peroxisomal disease; can't metabolize very long chain FA (VLCFAs) or branched - chain FAs (e.g. phytanic acid - via alpha - oxidation). Can't form myelin in CNS. Hypotonia - seizures - hepatomegaly - MR - early death.






30. Hypercalcemia - hypercalciuria - loss of appetite - stupor. Seen in sarcoidosis (inc. activation of vitamin D by epithelioid macrophages).






31. Aut - dom - Fibrillin defect (scaffolding for elastin formation - stretchy protein for lungs - large arteries - elastic ligaments - vocal cords - ligamenta flava). Connective tissue disorder: skeleton - heart - eyes affected. Tall - long extremities






32. Scurvy - swollen gums - bruising - anemia - poor wound healing. In fruits / vegetables. Facilitates Fe absorption: keeps Fe2+ reduced state - more absorbable. Also involved in hydroxylation of proline - lysine in collagen synthesis; antioxident; need






33. Acquired (e.g. liver dz) or hereditary (urea cycle enzyme deficiencies). inc. NH4 depletes alpha - keotglutarate - inhibiting TCA cycle. Ammonia intox - tremor - slurred speech - somnolence - vomiting - cerebral edema - blurred vision. Tx with benzoa






34. Mitochondrial inheritance (only transmitted via mom); degeneration of retinal ganglion cells / axons; acute loss of central vision






35. Inclusion cell disease. Can't add mannose -6- P to lysosome proteins. Enzymes secreted outside of cell instead of targeted to lysosome. Lysosomal storage disorder. Coarse facial features - clouded corneas - restricted joint movement - high plasma lev






36. X- linked dominant disorder (M/F offspring of affected mom can be affected; all female offspring of affected father diseased). Inc. phosphate wasting at proximal tubule; rickets - like presentation






37. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). X- linked recessive (all other sphingolipidoses AR); deficiency of alpha - galactosidase A ceramide trihexoside accumulates. Peripheral neuropathy (hands / feet) - angiokeratomas - CV / renal disease






38. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of galactocerebosidase; galactocerebroside accumulates. Peripheral neuropathy - developmental delay - optic atrophy - globoid cells (multinucleated).






39. Aut - rec deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase (degradative pathway of tyrosine) - benign disease. Dark connective tissue - pigmented sclera - urine turnes black on standing - may have debilitating arthralgias.






40. Facial flushing (niacin 'flushing' in pharm doses for hyperlipidemia treatment).






41. Immobile cilia (dynein arm defect). Infertility (M/F; sperm immotile) - bronchiectasis - recurrent sinusitis (not pushing out bacteria / particles). A/W situs inversus






42. A 22q11 deletion syndrome. Palate - facial - cardiac defects. Microdeletion at chr 22q11. Due to aberrant development of 3rd / 4th branchial pouches.






43. Aut - dom - defect in spectrin or ankyrin. Hemolytic anemia - increased MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration). Splenectomy is curative






44. Chr 15 - normally active parental (Prader = parental) allele deleted. MR - hyperphagia - obesity - hypogonadism - hypotonia. Other parent's allele inactivated / imprinted by methylation; can also be from uniparental disomy (2 copies of chr from 1 par






45. High output cardiac failure (dilated CM) - edema






46. Faulty collagen synthesis: hyperextensible skin - tendency to bleed (easy bruising) - hypermobile joints. Mostly type III collagen. 6 types - inheritance / severity vary (AD/AR). A/w joint dislocation - berry aneurysms - organ rupture






47. Rickets in children (bending bones); osteomalacia in adults (soft bones). Also hypocalcemic tetany.






48. Cobalamin = B12. macrocytic - megaloblastic anemia. Neuro sx: paresthesias - subacute combined degeneration from abnormal myelin. Prolonged deficiency = irreversible nervous system damage. Found in animal products; synthesized only by microorganisms.






49. Pantothenate; in CoA. Dermatitis - enteritis - alopecia - adrenal insufficiency






50. Aut - rec; can't convert orotic acid to UMP in de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway (defect in orotic acid PRT or orotidine 5''- P- decarboxylase. Incr. orotic acid in urine - megaloblastic anemia (that doesn't get better with B12 / folate supplement