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Biochemistry Diseases

Subject : health-sciences
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. A 22q11 deletion syndrome. Palate - facial - cardiac defects. Microdeletion at chr 22q11. Due to aberrant development of 3rd / 4th branchial pouches.

2. 'Bear liver'guy - arthralgias - fatigue - headaches - skin changes - sore throat - alopecia. Also teratogenic (cleft palate - cardiac abnormalities)

3. Pyridoxine = B6. Convulsions - hyperirritability - peripheral neuropathy. Deficiency inducible by INH - oral contraceptives. Converted to pyridoxal phosphate: used in transamination (ALT - AST - etc) - decarboxylation - glycogen phosphorylase - heme

4. Inhibits lipoic acid (required for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex - pyruvate to acetyl - coA). Vomiting - rice water stools - garlic breath.

5. Type IV familial dyslipidemia. Hepatic overproduction of VLDL; VLDL increased; blood TGs elevated

6. Aut - dom - Fibrillin defect (scaffolding for elastin formation - stretchy protein for lungs - large arteries - elastic ligaments - vocal cords - ligamenta flava). Connective tissue disorder: skeleton - heart - eyes affected. Tall - long extremities

7. Trisomy 18 (E=election age) - 1:8000. Severe MR - rockerbottom feet - congenital heart disease. Vs Patau's: micrognathia - low - set ears - clenched hands - prominent occiput. Death w/in 1 yr

8. Microtubule polymerization defect (no lysosomal tracking). Decreased phagocytosis. Recurrent pyogenic infections - partial albinism - peripheral neuropathy.

9. X- linked recessive. G6PD: G6P + NADP+ -> 6PG + NADPH; NADPH needed to reduce GSSG to 2GSH (glutathione reductase) for H2O2 to 2H2O conversion. Only pathway for making reduced GSH in RBC - so can't detoxify free radicals / peroxides (fava beans - sul

10. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis) - Aut - rec deficiency of beta - glucocerebrosidase; glucocerebroside accumulates. Hepatosplenomegaly - aseptic necrosis of femur - bone crises - Gaucher's cells (macrophages that look like crumpled tiss

11. Aut - dom; I/II/III - familial tumors of endocrine glands (pancreas - parathyroid - pituitary - thyroid - adrenal medulla). II / III a/w ret gene

12. Skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency (normally breaks down glycogen to 4- glucose residue branched 'limit dextrans'). Type V glycogen storage disease. Incr. glycogen in mm - but can't break down (mm cramps - myoglobinuria with strenuous

13. Aut - rec fructokinase deficiency. Can't P- late fructose - so can't enter cells. Benign - asymptomatic - just fructose in blood - urine.

14. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of hexosaminidase A; GM2 ganglioside accumulates. Progressive neurodegeneration - developmental delay - cherry- red spot on macula - lysosomes with 'onion skin'

15. Aut - rec - defect in renal tubular AA transporter (cysteine - ornithine - lysine - arginine in renal PCT). inc. cystine (2 cysteines w/ disulfide bond) in urine --> cystine kidney stones (cystine staghorn calculi). Common (1:7000); Tx with acetazola

16. Aut - rec deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase (degradative pathway of tyrosine) - benign disease. Dark connective tissue - pigmented sclera - urine turnes black on standing - may have debilitating arthralgias.

17. Dec alpha - ketoacid dehydrogenase activity = blocked degradation of branched amino acid (Ile - Leu - Val = I Love Vermont; maple trees w/ branches). Increased alpha - ketoacids in blood (esp Leu). Severe CNS defects - MR - death. Urine smells like m

18. Hemolytic anemia (inc fragility of erythrocytes - vit E is antioxidant - protects erythrocytes / membranes from free - radical damage). Muscle weakness - neurodysfunction tooo.

19. Aut - rec - 3 forms. All interfere with conversion of methionine to cysteine - cysteine becomes essential; homocysteine accumulates. Causes: 1) cystathionine synthase deficiency (Tx: dec Met - inc. Cys intake. Inc B12 / folate in diet to drive conver

20. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of galactocerebosidase; galactocerebroside accumulates. Peripheral neuropathy - developmental delay - optic atrophy - globoid cells (multinucleated).

21. Lysosomal storage disease (a mucopolysaccharidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of alpha - L- iduronidase; heparan sulfate - dermatan sulfate accumulate. Developmental delay - gargoylism (thickened gingiva + upturned nose) - airway obstruction - corneal cl

22. Age dep or hereditary lactose intolerance (blacks / Asians); lose brush - border enzyme. Bloating - cramps - osmotic diarrhea. Avoid dairy / use lactase pills.

23. (Pyruvate + NAD+ + CoA --> acetylCoA + CO2 + NADH; 3 enzymes - requires B1 -2 -3 - CoA - lipoic acid). Pyruvate - alanine accumulate --> lactic acidosis (pyruvate to lactate). Congenital or acquired (e.g. alcoholics - B1 deficiency - lactic acidosis!

24. Cheilosis - corneal vascularization (the 2 C's)

25. Adult polycystic kidney disease. Aut - dom - 90% from mutation in APKD1 - chr 16 (16 letters in 'polycystic kidney'). Always bilateral - big kidneys (lots of big cysts). Flank pain - hematuria - HTN - progressive renal failure. a/w polycystic liver d

26. Pantothenate; in CoA. Dermatitis - enteritis - alopecia - adrenal insufficiency

27. Aut - dom; disorder of blood vessels. Telangiectasia - recurrent epistaxis - skin discolorations - AVMs. Incr. in Utah Mormons

28. Aut - rec deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase / THB (cofactor) - so can't convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. Results: accumulate phenylalanine (excess phenylketones in urine); tyrosine becomes essential AA. Dx: MR - growth retardation - seizures

29. Aut - dom; mutation in APC gene (chr 5 - 'polyp' has 5 letters). Colon covered with adenomatous polyps after puberty. Progresses to colon cancer unless resected

30. Severe vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency (less severe = glossitis). Diarrhea - dementia - dermatitis. Can be caused by Hartnup disease (dec. tryptophan absorption) - malignant carcinoid syndrome (inc tryptophan metabolism) (B3 made from tryptophan) and

31. Aut - dom. Facial lesions (adenoma sebaceum) - hypopigmented 'ash - leaf spots' on skin - cortical / retinal hamartomas - seizures - MR - renal cysts - renal angiomyolipomas - cardiac rhabdomyomas. Inc. incidence astrocytomas. Incomplete penetrance w

32. Energy malnutrition. Tissue / muscle wasting - loss of subQ fat - variable edema.

33. Aut - dom cell - signaling defect in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFr3). Dwarfism: short limbs but head/trunk normal. A/W advanced paternal age

34. Type I familial dyslipidemia. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency or altered apolipoprotein C- II (LPL cofactor) = can't degrade TG circulating in chylomicrons - VLDLs. Increased chylomicrons - elevated cholesterol / TGs in blood

35. Converts adenosine to inosine in purine salvage pathway. Excess ATP - dATP in nucleotide pool = imbalance (feedback inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase - preventing DNA synthesis) - so decreased lymphocyte count (major cause of SCID - severe combi

36. Lysosomal alpha -1 -4- glucosidase (acid maltase) deficiency (type II glycogen storage disease. Lysosomal degradation of glycogen impaired (1 -4 = linkages - not branches). Cardiomegaly - systemic findings (liver - muscle) leading to early death. Pom

37. X- linked recessive - absence of HGPRT (hypoxanthine to IMP - guanine to GMP in purine salvage pathway). Can't salvage purines - so increased elimination = incr uric acid production. Retardation - self - mutilation - aggression - hyperuricemia - gout

38. Aut - rec deficiency in apoB-100 (binds LDL receptor; mediates VLDL secretion) and apoB-48 (mediates chylomicron secretion) - so can't synthesize lipoproteins. Sx appear in 1st months of life: FTT - steatorrhea - acanthocytosis (= RBC with spikes - '

39. Lysosomal storage disease (a mucopolysaccharidosis). X- linked rec deficiency of iduronate sulfatase; heparan sulfate - dermatan sulfate accumulate. Mild Hurler's phenotype (developmental delay - gargoylism (thickened gingiva + upturned nose) - airwa

40. Aut - dom; mutation on long arm of chr 17 (17 letters in 'von recklinghausen') cafe - au - lait spots - neuronal tumors - Lisch nodules (pigmented iris hamartomas). Skeletal disorders (eg scoliosis) - optic pathway gliomas - pheochromocytoma - increa

41. Cobalamin = B12. macrocytic - megaloblastic anemia. Neuro sx: paresthesias - subacute combined degeneration from abnormal myelin. Prolonged deficiency = irreversible nervous system damage. Found in animal products; synthesized only by microorganisms.

42. X- linked rec; most common urea cycle disorder (others aut - rec). Can't eliminate ammonia; often dx'd perinatally but can be later. Dx: orotic acid in blood / urine (excess carbamoyl phosphate converted to orotic acid) - dec. BUN - hyperammonemia sx

43. Hypercalcemia - hypercalciuria - loss of appetite - stupor. Seen in sarcoidosis (inc. activation of vitamin D by epithelioid macrophages).

44. Facial flushing (niacin 'flushing' in pharm doses for hyperlipidemia treatment).

45. Delayed wound healing - hypogonadism - dec. adult hair (axillary / facial / pubic); ?predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis?

46. X- linked dominant disorder (M/F offspring of affected mom can be affected; all female offspring of affected father diseased). Inc. phosphate wasting at proximal tubule; rickets - like presentation

47. Rare; from abx or excessive raw egg ingestion (avidin in whites binds biotin). Dermatitis - alopecia - enteritis. Biotin used in carboxylation enzymes.

48. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of sphingomyelinase; sphingomyelin accumulates. Progressive neurodegeneration - hepatosplenomegaly - cherry- red spot on macula - foam cells.

49. Aut - dom - defect in spectrin or ankyrin. Hemolytic anemia - increased MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration). Splenectomy is curative

50. Brittle bone disease; genetic bone disorder. Variety of gene defects. Type II fatal in utero - neonatal. Most common form: AD with abnormal type I collagen (bone): multiple fractures w/ minimal trauma (e.g. during birth) - blue sclerae (translucent c