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Biochemistry Diseases

Subject : health-sciences
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Faulty collagen synthesis: hyperextensible skin - tendency to bleed (easy bruising) - hypermobile joints. Mostly type III collagen. 6 types - inheritance / severity vary (AD/AR). A/w joint dislocation - berry aneurysms - organ rupture






2. Aut - rec (CFTR gene - chr 7; CFTR channel secretes Cl - in lungs / GI - resorbes Cl - from sweat). Thick mucus - plugs lungs - pancreas - liver. Recurrent pulm infections (Pseudomonas - S aureus) - chronic bronchitis - bronchiectasis - pancreatic in






3. X- linked trinucleotide repeat disorder (CGG); affects methylation / expression of FMR1 gene - a/w chromosomal breakage. #2 cause of genetic MR (Down's is #1). Macro - orchidism - long face + large jaw - large everted ears - autism.






4. Chr 15 - normally active parental (Prader = parental) allele deleted. MR - hyperphagia - obesity - hypogonadism - hypotonia. Other parent's allele inactivated / imprinted by methylation; can also be from uniparental disomy (2 copies of chr from 1 par






5. Hypercalcemia - hypercalciuria - loss of appetite - stupor. Seen in sarcoidosis (inc. activation of vitamin D by epithelioid macrophages).






6. Aut - dom; mutation in APC gene (chr 5 - 'polyp' has 5 letters). Colon covered with adenomatous polyps after puberty. Progresses to colon cancer unless resected






7. Aut - dom; mutation of huntingtin (chr 4 - 'hunting 4 food') - CAG repeats. Depression - progressive dementia - choreiform movements - caudate atrophy; manifests 20-50 y/o. Dec GABA - ACh in brain.






8. Immobile cilia (dynein arm defect). Infertility (M/F; sperm immotile) - bronchiectasis - recurrent sinusitis (not pushing out bacteria / particles). A/W situs inversus






9. 'Bear liver'guy - arthralgias - fatigue - headaches - skin changes - sore throat - alopecia. Also teratogenic (cleft palate - cardiac abnormalities)






10. Aut - rec absence of galactose -1- phosphate uridyltransferase; toxic substances accumulate (e.g. galactitol in lens of eye). FTT - jaundice - hepatomegaly - infantile cataracts - MR. Tx: no galactose / lactose (glucose + galactose).






11. Hemolytic anemia (inc fragility of erythrocytes - vit E is antioxidant - protects erythrocytes / membranes from free - radical damage). Muscle weakness - neurodysfunction tooo.






12. Aut - rec - 3 forms. All interfere with conversion of methionine to cysteine - cysteine becomes essential; homocysteine accumulates. Causes: 1) cystathionine synthase deficiency (Tx: dec Met - inc. Cys intake. Inc B12 / folate in diet to drive conver






13. Chr 15 - normally active maternal (AngelMan = maternal) allele deleted. MR - seizures ataxia - inappropriate laughter ('happy puppet'). Other parent's allele inactivated / imprinted by methylation; can also be from uniparental disomy (2 copies of chr






14. Aut - dom; mutation of NF2 gene (chr 22: 'type 2 = 22'). Bilateral acoustic neuromas - juvenile cataracts.






15. Facial flushing (niacin 'flushing' in pharm doses for hyperlipidemia treatment).






16. Pyridoxine = B6. Convulsions - hyperirritability - peripheral neuropathy. Deficiency inducible by INH - oral contraceptives. Converted to pyridoxal phosphate: used in transamination (ALT - AST - etc) - decarboxylation - glycogen phosphorylase - heme






17. X- linked frame - shift mutation: deletion of dystrophin (DMD anchors mm fibers - esp. skeletal / cardiac. Longest gene: lots of spontaneous mutations). Accel. mm breakdown (weakness in pelvic girdle -> superiorly). Pseudohypertrophy of calf mm (fibr






18. Variable inheritance (locus heterogeneity); vs ocular albinism (x- linked recessive). Congenital deficiency of either 1) tyrosinase (can't make melanin from tyrosine; aut - rec); 2) defective tyrosine transporters (dec. tyrosine = dec. melanin); can






19. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of hexosaminidase A; GM2 ganglioside accumulates. Progressive neurodegeneration - developmental delay - cherry- red spot on macula - lysosomes with 'onion skin'






20. Acquired (e.g. liver dz) or hereditary (urea cycle enzyme deficiencies). inc. NH4 depletes alpha - keotglutarate - inhibiting TCA cycle. Ammonia intox - tremor - slurred speech - somnolence - vomiting - cerebral edema - blurred vision. Tx with benzoa






21. Inhibits lipoic acid (required for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex - pyruvate to acetyl - coA). Vomiting - rice water stools - garlic breath.






22. Aut - rec deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase / THB (cofactor) - so can't convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. Results: accumulate phenylalanine (excess phenylketones in urine); tyrosine becomes essential AA. Dx: MR - growth retardation - seizures






23. Energy malnutrition. Tissue / muscle wasting - loss of subQ fat - variable edema.






24. Peroxisomal disease; no alpha - oxidation of branched - chain FA like phytanic acid. Neuro sx; Tx = avoid chlorophyll






25. High output cardiac failure (dilated CM) - edema






26. Variable presentation - incl CATCH-22: Cleft palate - Abnormal facies - Thymic aplasia / T- cell deficiency - Cardiac defects - Hypocalcemia (2ary to parathyroid aplasia) - from microdeletion at chr 22q11. Due to aberrant development of 3rd / 4th bra






27. Inclusion cell disease. Can't add mannose -6- P to lysosome proteins. Enzymes secreted outside of cell instead of targeted to lysosome. Lysosomal storage disorder. Coarse facial features - clouded corneas - restricted joint movement - high plasma lev






28. Lysosomal storage disease (a mucopolysaccharidosis). X- linked rec deficiency of iduronate sulfatase; heparan sulfate - dermatan sulfate accumulate. Mild Hurler's phenotype (developmental delay - gargoylism (thickened gingiva + upturned nose) - airwa






29. Aut - dom; defective / absent LDL receptor. Elevated LDL. Heterozygotes (1:500) have cholesterol = 300 mg/dL. Homozygotes (rare) chol > 700 mg /dL - severe atherosclerotic dz early in life - tendon xanthomas (classically Achilles); may have MI < 20 y






30. Aut - dom; disorder of blood vessels. Telangiectasia - recurrent epistaxis - skin discolorations - AVMs. Incr. in Utah Mormons






31. Defects in type IV collagen synthesis; most common form X- linked recessive. Hereditary nephritis - deafness +/- ocular disturbances (type IV collagen important in BM of kidney - ears - eyes)






32. Bleeds (gamma - carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on factors II - VII - IX - X - protein C - S). Neonatal hemorrhage (inc PT - aPTT - normal bleeding time - sterile intestine in newborn - can't synthesize vitK - synthesized by intestinal flora






33. Aut - dom; mutation on long arm of chr 17 (17 letters in 'von recklinghausen') cafe - au - lait spots - neuronal tumors - Lisch nodules (pigmented iris hamartomas). Skeletal disorders (eg scoliosis) - optic pathway gliomas - pheochromocytoma - increa






34. Delayed wound healing - hypogonadism - dec. adult hair (axillary / facial / pubic); ?predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis?






35. Aut - dom; deletion of VHL gene (tumor suppressor) on chr 3 (3 words for chr 3). Results in constitutive expression of HIF (transcription factor) - activation of angiogenic growth factors. Hemangioblastomas of retina / cerebellum / medulla - 50% get






36. X- linked dominant disorder (M/F offspring of affected mom can be affected; all female offspring of affected father diseased). Inc. phosphate wasting at proximal tubule; rickets - like presentation






37. Macrocytic - megaloblastic anemia w/o neuro sx. #1 vitamin deficiency in USA; see in alcoholism / pregnancy (neural tube defects; supplement in early pregnancy) - also drugs (phenytoin - sulfas - MTX). From FOLiage (leafy greens) with small reserve p






38. X- linked recessive. G6PD: G6P + NADP+ -> 6PG + NADPH; NADPH needed to reduce GSSG to 2GSH (glutathione reductase) for H2O2 to 2H2O conversion. Only pathway for making reduced GSH in RBC - so can't detoxify free radicals / peroxides (fava beans - sul






39. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of sphingomyelinase; sphingomyelin accumulates. Progressive neurodegeneration - hepatosplenomegaly - cherry- red spot on macula - foam cells.






40. X- linked rec; most common urea cycle disorder (others aut - rec). Can't eliminate ammonia; often dx'd perinatally but can be later. Dx: orotic acid in blood / urine (excess carbamoyl phosphate converted to orotic acid) - dec. BUN - hyperammonemia sx






41. Mitochondrial inheritance (only transmitted via mom); degeneration of retinal ganglion cells / axons; acute loss of central vision






42. A 22q11 deletion syndrome. Palate - facial - cardiac defects. Microdeletion at chr 22q11. Due to aberrant development of 3rd / 4th branchial pouches.






43. (Pyruvate + NAD+ + CoA --> acetylCoA + CO2 + NADH; 3 enzymes - requires B1 -2 -3 - CoA - lipoic acid). Pyruvate - alanine accumulate --> lactic acidosis (pyruvate to lactate). Congenital or acquired (e.g. alcoholics - B1 deficiency - lactic acidosis!






44. Aut - rec galactokinase deficiency. Galactitol can accumulate if galactose present in diet; relatively mild. Galactose in blood / urine - infantile cataracts (may not track objects - develop social smile.






45. X- linked recessive - absence of HGPRT (hypoxanthine to IMP - guanine to GMP in purine salvage pathway). Can't salvage purines - so increased elimination = incr uric acid production. Retardation - self - mutilation - aggression - hyperuricemia - gout






46. Peroxisomal disease; can't metabolize very long chain FA (VLCFAs) or branched - chain FAs (e.g. phytanic acid - via alpha - oxidation). Can't form myelin in CNS. Hypotonia - seizures - hepatomegaly - MR - early death.






47. B1 (thiamine) deficiency. Polyneuritis - symmetrical muscle wasting






48. Scurvy - swollen gums - bruising - anemia - poor wound healing. In fruits / vegetables. Facilitates Fe absorption: keeps Fe2+ reduced state - more absorbable. Also involved in hydroxylation of proline - lysine in collagen synthesis; antioxident; need






49. Aut - dom; I/II/III - familial tumors of endocrine glands (pancreas - parathyroid - pituitary - thyroid - adrenal medulla). II / III a/w ret gene






50. Skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency (normally breaks down glycogen to 4- glucose residue branched 'limit dextrans'). Type V glycogen storage disease. Incr. glycogen in mm - but can't break down (mm cramps - myoglobinuria with strenuous