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Biochemistry Diseases

Subject : health-sciences
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Aut - dom; mutation of huntingtin (chr 4 - 'hunting 4 food') - CAG repeats. Depression - progressive dementia - choreiform movements - caudate atrophy; manifests 20-50 y/o. Dec GABA - ACh in brain.






2. Microdeletion of short arm of chr 5: 46 -XX or XY - 5p -. Microcephaly - moderate/severe MR - high pitched crying/mewing (cry of the cat) - epicanthal folds - cardiac abnormalities






3. (Pyruvate + NAD+ + CoA --> acetylCoA + CO2 + NADH; 3 enzymes - requires B1 -2 -3 - CoA - lipoic acid). Pyruvate - alanine accumulate --> lactic acidosis (pyruvate to lactate). Congenital or acquired (e.g. alcoholics - B1 deficiency - lactic acidosis!






4. Aut - rec galactokinase deficiency. Galactitol can accumulate if galactose present in diet; relatively mild. Galactose in blood / urine - infantile cataracts (may not track objects - develop social smile.






5. Lysosomal storage disease (a mucopolysaccharidosis). X- linked rec deficiency of iduronate sulfatase; heparan sulfate - dermatan sulfate accumulate. Mild Hurler's phenotype (developmental delay - gargoylism (thickened gingiva + upturned nose) - airwa






6. A 22q11 deletion syndrome. Thymic - parathyroid - cardiac defects. Microdeletion at chr 22q11. Due to aberrant development of 3rd / 4th branchial pouches.






7. Inhibits lipoic acid (required for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex - pyruvate to acetyl - coA). Vomiting - rice water stools - garlic breath.






8. Aut - dom; disorder of blood vessels. Telangiectasia - recurrent epistaxis - skin discolorations - AVMs. Incr. in Utah Mormons






9. Type IV familial dyslipidemia. Hepatic overproduction of VLDL; VLDL increased; blood TGs elevated






10. Dec alpha - ketoacid dehydrogenase activity = blocked degradation of branched amino acid (Ile - Leu - Val = I Love Vermont; maple trees w/ branches). Increased alpha - ketoacids in blood (esp Leu). Severe CNS defects - MR - death. Urine smells like m






11. Energy malnutrition. Tissue / muscle wasting - loss of subQ fat - variable edema.






12. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis) - Aut - rec deficiency of beta - glucocerebrosidase; glucocerebroside accumulates. Hepatosplenomegaly - aseptic necrosis of femur - bone crises - Gaucher's cells (macrophages that look like crumpled tiss






13. Peroxisomal disease; can't metabolize very long chain FA (VLCFAs) or branched - chain FAs (e.g. phytanic acid - via alpha - oxidation). Can't form myelin in CNS. Hypotonia - seizures - hepatomegaly - MR - early death.






14. Skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency (normally breaks down glycogen to 4- glucose residue branched 'limit dextrans'). Type V glycogen storage disease. Incr. glycogen in mm - but can't break down (mm cramps - myoglobinuria with strenuous






15. Type I familial dyslipidemia. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency or altered apolipoprotein C- II (LPL cofactor) = can't degrade TG circulating in chylomicrons - VLDLs. Increased chylomicrons - elevated cholesterol / TGs in blood






16. Aut - rec; can't convert orotic acid to UMP in de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway (defect in orotic acid PRT or orotidine 5''- P- decarboxylase. Incr. orotic acid in urine - megaloblastic anemia (that doesn't get better with B12 / folate supplement






17. Mutation in mismatch repair genes (mismatched nucleotides in unmethylated / newly synthesized string recognized + removed)






18. Microtubule polymerization defect (no lysosomal tracking). Decreased phagocytosis. Recurrent pyogenic infections - partial albinism - peripheral neuropathy.






19. Brittle bone disease; genetic bone disorder. Variety of gene defects. Type II fatal in utero - neonatal. Most common form: AD with abnormal type I collagen (bone): multiple fractures w/ minimal trauma (e.g. during birth) - blue sclerae (translucent c






20. Aut - rec deficiency in apoB-100 (binds LDL receptor; mediates VLDL secretion) and apoB-48 (mediates chylomicron secretion) - so can't synthesize lipoproteins. Sx appear in 1st months of life: FTT - steatorrhea - acanthocytosis (= RBC with spikes - '






21. X- linked frame - shift mutation: deletion of dystrophin (DMD anchors mm fibers - esp. skeletal / cardiac. Longest gene: lots of spontaneous mutations). Accel. mm breakdown (weakness in pelvic girdle -> superiorly). Pseudohypertrophy of calf mm (fibr






22. X- linked trinucleotide repeat disorder (CGG); affects methylation / expression of FMR1 gene - a/w chromosomal breakage. #2 cause of genetic MR (Down's is #1). Macro - orchidism - long face + large jaw - large everted ears - autism.






23. Aut - dom; mutation of NF2 gene (chr 22: 'type 2 = 22'). Bilateral acoustic neuromas - juvenile cataracts.






24. Age dep or hereditary lactose intolerance (blacks / Asians); lose brush - border enzyme. Bloating - cramps - osmotic diarrhea. Avoid dairy / use lactase pills.






25. Aut - dom; mutation on long arm of chr 17 (17 letters in 'von recklinghausen') cafe - au - lait spots - neuronal tumors - Lisch nodules (pigmented iris hamartomas). Skeletal disorders (eg scoliosis) - optic pathway gliomas - pheochromocytoma - increa






26. Lysosomal storage disease (a mucopolysaccharidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of alpha - L- iduronidase; heparan sulfate - dermatan sulfate accumulate. Developmental delay - gargoylism (thickened gingiva + upturned nose) - airway obstruction - corneal cl






27. A 22q11 deletion syndrome. Palate - facial - cardiac defects. Microdeletion at chr 22q11. Due to aberrant development of 3rd / 4th branchial pouches.






28. Adult polycystic kidney disease. Aut - dom - 90% from mutation in APKD1 - chr 16 (16 letters in 'polycystic kidney'). Always bilateral - big kidneys (lots of big cysts). Flank pain - hematuria - HTN - progressive renal failure. a/w polycystic liver d






29. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of galactocerebosidase; galactocerebroside accumulates. Peripheral neuropathy - developmental delay - optic atrophy - globoid cells (multinucleated).






30. Macrocytic - megaloblastic anemia w/o neuro sx. #1 vitamin deficiency in USA; see in alcoholism / pregnancy (neural tube defects; supplement in early pregnancy) - also drugs (phenytoin - sulfas - MTX). From FOLiage (leafy greens) with small reserve p






31. Aut - dom; mutation in APC gene (chr 5 - 'polyp' has 5 letters). Colon covered with adenomatous polyps after puberty. Progresses to colon cancer unless resected






32. Cobalamin = B12. macrocytic - megaloblastic anemia. Neuro sx: paresthesias - subacute combined degeneration from abnormal myelin. Prolonged deficiency = irreversible nervous system damage. Found in animal products; synthesized only by microorganisms.






33. X- linked recessive - absence of HGPRT (hypoxanthine to IMP - guanine to GMP in purine salvage pathway). Can't salvage purines - so increased elimination = incr uric acid production. Retardation - self - mutilation - aggression - hyperuricemia - gout






34. X- linked rec; most common urea cycle disorder (others aut - rec). Can't eliminate ammonia; often dx'd perinatally but can be later. Dx: orotic acid in blood / urine (excess carbamoyl phosphate converted to orotic acid) - dec. BUN - hyperammonemia sx






35. Severe vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency (less severe = glossitis). Diarrhea - dementia - dermatitis. Can be caused by Hartnup disease (dec. tryptophan absorption) - malignant carcinoid syndrome (inc tryptophan metabolism) (B3 made from tryptophan) and






36. 'Bear liver'guy - arthralgias - fatigue - headaches - skin changes - sore throat - alopecia. Also teratogenic (cleft palate - cardiac abnormalities)






37. Aut - dom; I/II/III - familial tumors of endocrine glands (pancreas - parathyroid - pituitary - thyroid - adrenal medulla). II / III a/w ret gene






38. Acquired (e.g. liver dz) or hereditary (urea cycle enzyme deficiencies). inc. NH4 depletes alpha - keotglutarate - inhibiting TCA cycle. Ammonia intox - tremor - slurred speech - somnolence - vomiting - cerebral edema - blurred vision. Tx with benzoa






39. Aut - dom; deletion of VHL gene (tumor suppressor) on chr 3 (3 words for chr 3). Results in constitutive expression of HIF (transcription factor) - activation of angiogenic growth factors. Hemangioblastomas of retina / cerebellum / medulla - 50% get






40. Aut - dom. Facial lesions (adenoma sebaceum) - hypopigmented 'ash - leaf spots' on skin - cortical / retinal hamartomas - seizures - MR - renal cysts - renal angiomyolipomas - cardiac rhabdomyomas. Inc. incidence astrocytomas. Incomplete penetrance w






41. Aut - rec - 3 forms. All interfere with conversion of methionine to cysteine - cysteine becomes essential; homocysteine accumulates. Causes: 1) cystathionine synthase deficiency (Tx: dec Met - inc. Cys intake. Inc B12 / folate in diet to drive conver






42. Aut - rec - defect in renal tubular AA transporter (cysteine - ornithine - lysine - arginine in renal PCT). inc. cystine (2 cysteines w/ disulfide bond) in urine --> cystine kidney stones (cystine staghorn calculi). Common (1:7000); Tx with acetazola






43. Hemolytic anemia (inc fragility of erythrocytes - vit E is antioxidant - protects erythrocytes / membranes from free - radical damage). Muscle weakness - neurodysfunction tooo.






44. Aut - rec deficiency of aldolase B; fructose -1- P accumulates; dec. in phosphate = inhibition of glycogenolysis / gluconeogenesis. Hypoglycemia - jaundice - cirrhosis - vomiting. Tx: limit fructose - sucrose (gluc + fruc) intake.






45. Aut - dom - Fibrillin defect (scaffolding for elastin formation - stretchy protein for lungs - large arteries - elastic ligaments - vocal cords - ligamenta flava). Connective tissue disorder: skeleton - heart - eyes affected. Tall - long extremities






46. Chr 15 - normally active parental (Prader = parental) allele deleted. MR - hyperphagia - obesity - hypogonadism - hypotonia. Other parent's allele inactivated / imprinted by methylation; can also be from uniparental disomy (2 copies of chr from 1 par






47. Glycogen debranching enzyme (alpha -1 -6 glucosidase) deficiency (type III glycogen storage disease). Like type I (Von Gierke's; glucose -6- phosphatase deficiency) but milder (gluconeogensis intact; normal blood lactate levels)






48. B1 (thiamine) deficiency. Polyneuritis - symmetrical muscle wasting






49. Scurvy - swollen gums - bruising - anemia - poor wound healing. In fruits / vegetables. Facilitates Fe absorption: keeps Fe2+ reduced state - more absorbable. Also involved in hydroxylation of proline - lysine in collagen synthesis; antioxident; need






50. Microdeletion of long arm of chr 7 (incl. elastin gene). 'Elfin' faces - MR but good verbal skills - cheerful disposition - extreme friendliness w/ strangers - CV problems