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Biochemistry Diseases

Subject : health-sciences
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Trisomy 13 (P = puberty age) - 1:15 -000. Severe MR - rockerbottom feet - congenital heart disease. Vs. Edwards': cleft lip / Palate - holoProsencephaly - Polydactyly (P's) - micropthalmia - microcephaly. Death w/in 1 yr

2. Type IV familial dyslipidemia. Hepatic overproduction of VLDL; VLDL increased; blood TGs elevated

3. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). X- linked recessive (all other sphingolipidoses AR); deficiency of alpha - galactosidase A ceramide trihexoside accumulates. Peripheral neuropathy (hands / feet) - angiokeratomas - CV / renal disease

4. Glycogen debranching enzyme (alpha -1 -6 glucosidase) deficiency (type III glycogen storage disease). Like type I (Von Gierke's; glucose -6- phosphatase deficiency) but milder (gluconeogensis intact; normal blood lactate levels)

5. Pyridoxine = B6. Convulsions - hyperirritability - peripheral neuropathy. Deficiency inducible by INH - oral contraceptives. Converted to pyridoxal phosphate: used in transamination (ALT - AST - etc) - decarboxylation - glycogen phosphorylase - heme

6. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of arylsulfatase A - cerbroside sulfate accumulates. Central / peripheral demyelination - ataxia - dementia.

7. Night blindness - dry skin

8. Microtubule polymerization defect (no lysosomal tracking). Decreased phagocytosis. Recurrent pyogenic infections - partial albinism - peripheral neuropathy.

9. Immobile cilia (dynein arm defect). Infertility (M/F; sperm immotile) - bronchiectasis - recurrent sinusitis (not pushing out bacteria / particles). A/W situs inversus

10. Peroxisomal disease; can't metabolize very long chain FA (VLCFAs) or branched - chain FAs (e.g. phytanic acid - via alpha - oxidation). Can't form myelin in CNS. Hypotonia - seizures - hepatomegaly - MR - early death.

11. Aut - dom; disorder of blood vessels. Telangiectasia - recurrent epistaxis - skin discolorations - AVMs. Incr. in Utah Mormons

12. Aut - dom; mutation of NF2 gene (chr 22: 'type 2 = 22'). Bilateral acoustic neuromas - juvenile cataracts.

13. Inclusion cell disease. Can't add mannose -6- P to lysosome proteins. Enzymes secreted outside of cell instead of targeted to lysosome. Lysosomal storage disorder. Coarse facial features - clouded corneas - restricted joint movement - high plasma lev

14. Aut - rec galactokinase deficiency. Galactitol can accumulate if galactose present in diet; relatively mild. Galactose in blood / urine - infantile cataracts (may not track objects - develop social smile.

15. Aut - dom - Fibrillin defect (scaffolding for elastin formation - stretchy protein for lungs - large arteries - elastic ligaments - vocal cords - ligamenta flava). Connective tissue disorder: skeleton - heart - eyes affected. Tall - long extremities

16. Mitochondrial inheritance (only transmitted via mom); degeneration of retinal ganglion cells / axons; acute loss of central vision

17. Aut - dom; I/II/III - familial tumors of endocrine glands (pancreas - parathyroid - pituitary - thyroid - adrenal medulla). II / III a/w ret gene

18. Peroxisomal disease; no alpha - oxidation of branched - chain FA like phytanic acid. Neuro sx; Tx = avoid chlorophyll

19. Aut - dom; mutation in APC gene (chr 5 - 'polyp' has 5 letters). Colon covered with adenomatous polyps after puberty. Progresses to colon cancer unless resected

20. Faulty collagen synthesis: hyperextensible skin - tendency to bleed (easy bruising) - hypermobile joints. Mostly type III collagen. 6 types - inheritance / severity vary (AD/AR). A/w joint dislocation - berry aneurysms - organ rupture

21. High output cardiac failure (dilated CM) - edema

22. Protein malnutrition. Skin lesions - edema - liver malfunction (fatty change). Small child - swollen belly.

23. Macrocytic - megaloblastic anemia w/o neuro sx. #1 vitamin deficiency in USA; see in alcoholism / pregnancy (neural tube defects; supplement in early pregnancy) - also drugs (phenytoin - sulfas - MTX). From FOLiage (leafy greens) with small reserve p

24. Type IIa familial dyslipidemia. Aut - dom absence / decrease in LDL receptors. LDLs increased - blood cholesterol elevated.

25. Skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency (normally breaks down glycogen to 4- glucose residue branched 'limit dextrans'). Type V glycogen storage disease. Incr. glycogen in mm - but can't break down (mm cramps - myoglobinuria with strenuous

26. Glucose -6- phosphatase deficiency (type I glycogen storage disease). Can't de - plate G6P (glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis). Severe fasting hypoglycemia - inc. glycogen in liver - inc. blood lactate (gluconeogenesis impaired) - hepatomegaly.

27. Facial flushing (niacin 'flushing' in pharm doses for hyperlipidemia treatment).

28. Aut - dom; mutation of huntingtin (chr 4 - 'hunting 4 food') - CAG repeats. Depression - progressive dementia - choreiform movements - caudate atrophy; manifests 20-50 y/o. Dec GABA - ACh in brain.

29. Microdeletion of short arm of chr 5: 46 -XX or XY - 5p -. Microcephaly - moderate/severe MR - high pitched crying/mewing (cry of the cat) - epicanthal folds - cardiac abnormalities

30. Converts adenosine to inosine in purine salvage pathway. Excess ATP - dATP in nucleotide pool = imbalance (feedback inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase - preventing DNA synthesis) - so decreased lymphocyte count (major cause of SCID - severe combi

31. Dec alpha - ketoacid dehydrogenase activity = blocked degradation of branched amino acid (Ile - Leu - Val = I Love Vermont; maple trees w/ branches). Increased alpha - ketoacids in blood (esp Leu). Severe CNS defects - MR - death. Urine smells like m

32. Adult polycystic kidney disease. Aut - dom - 90% from mutation in APKD1 - chr 16 (16 letters in 'polycystic kidney'). Always bilateral - big kidneys (lots of big cysts). Flank pain - hematuria - HTN - progressive renal failure. a/w polycystic liver d

33. Microdeletion of long arm of chr 7 (incl. elastin gene). 'Elfin' faces - MR but good verbal skills - cheerful disposition - extreme friendliness w/ strangers - CV problems

34. Hypercalcemia - hypercalciuria - loss of appetite - stupor. Seen in sarcoidosis (inc. activation of vitamin D by epithelioid macrophages).

35. X- linked rec; most common urea cycle disorder (others aut - rec). Can't eliminate ammonia; often dx'd perinatally but can be later. Dx: orotic acid in blood / urine (excess carbamoyl phosphate converted to orotic acid) - dec. BUN - hyperammonemia sx

36. Delayed wound healing - hypogonadism - dec. adult hair (axillary / facial / pubic); ?predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis?

37. Inhibits lipoic acid (required for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex - pyruvate to acetyl - coA). Vomiting - rice water stools - garlic breath.

38. Type I familial dyslipidemia. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency or altered apolipoprotein C- II (LPL cofactor) = can't degrade TG circulating in chylomicrons - VLDLs. Increased chylomicrons - elevated cholesterol / TGs in blood

39. Defects in type IV collagen synthesis; most common form X- linked recessive. Hereditary nephritis - deafness +/- ocular disturbances (type IV collagen important in BM of kidney - ears - eyes)

40. Aut - rec - 3 forms. All interfere with conversion of methionine to cysteine - cysteine becomes essential; homocysteine accumulates. Causes: 1) cystathionine synthase deficiency (Tx: dec Met - inc. Cys intake. Inc B12 / folate in diet to drive conver

41. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis) - Aut - rec deficiency of beta - glucocerebrosidase; glucocerebroside accumulates. Hepatosplenomegaly - aseptic necrosis of femur - bone crises - Gaucher's cells (macrophages that look like crumpled tiss

42. Aut - rec deficiency in apoB-100 (binds LDL receptor; mediates VLDL secretion) and apoB-48 (mediates chylomicron secretion) - so can't synthesize lipoproteins. Sx appear in 1st months of life: FTT - steatorrhea - acanthocytosis (= RBC with spikes - '

43. Rare; from abx or excessive raw egg ingestion (avidin in whites binds biotin). Dermatitis - alopecia - enteritis. Biotin used in carboxylation enzymes.

44. Aut - dom cell - signaling defect in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFr3). Dwarfism: short limbs but head/trunk normal. A/W advanced paternal age

45. Age dep or hereditary lactose intolerance (blacks / Asians); lose brush - border enzyme. Bloating - cramps - osmotic diarrhea. Avoid dairy / use lactase pills.

46. Aut - rec fructokinase deficiency. Can't P- late fructose - so can't enter cells. Benign - asymptomatic - just fructose in blood - urine.

47. Mutation in nucleotide excision repair proteins (endonucleases that release oligonucleotides containing damaged bases; DNApol + ligase fill in). Can't repair thymidine dimers (UV light). Dry skin with melanoma + other cancers ('children of the night'

48. Bleeds (gamma - carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on factors II - VII - IX - X - protein C - S). Neonatal hemorrhage (inc PT - aPTT - normal bleeding time - sterile intestine in newborn - can't synthesize vitK - synthesized by intestinal flora

49. Chr 15 - normally active parental (Prader = parental) allele deleted. MR - hyperphagia - obesity - hypogonadism - hypotonia. Other parent's allele inactivated / imprinted by methylation; can also be from uniparental disomy (2 copies of chr from 1 par

50. Severe vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency (less severe = glossitis). Diarrhea - dementia - dermatitis. Can be caused by Hartnup disease (dec. tryptophan absorption) - malignant carcinoid syndrome (inc tryptophan metabolism) (B3 made from tryptophan) and