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Biochemistry Diseases

Subject : health-sciences
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Mutation in nucleotide excision repair proteins (endonucleases that release oligonucleotides containing damaged bases; DNApol + ligase fill in). Can't repair thymidine dimers (UV light). Dry skin with melanoma + other cancers ('children of the night'

2. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of arylsulfatase A - cerbroside sulfate accumulates. Central / peripheral demyelination - ataxia - dementia.

3. Aut - rec absence of galactose -1- phosphate uridyltransferase; toxic substances accumulate (e.g. galactitol in lens of eye). FTT - jaundice - hepatomegaly - infantile cataracts - MR. Tx: no galactose / lactose (glucose + galactose).

4. Aut - rec galactokinase deficiency. Galactitol can accumulate if galactose present in diet; relatively mild. Galactose in blood / urine - infantile cataracts (may not track objects - develop social smile.

5. Aut - rec fructokinase deficiency. Can't P- late fructose - so can't enter cells. Benign - asymptomatic - just fructose in blood - urine.

6. Type I familial dyslipidemia. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency or altered apolipoprotein C- II (LPL cofactor) = can't degrade TG circulating in chylomicrons - VLDLs. Increased chylomicrons - elevated cholesterol / TGs in blood

7. Mitochondrial inheritance (only transmitted via mom); degeneration of retinal ganglion cells / axons; acute loss of central vision

8. Defects in type IV collagen synthesis; most common form X- linked recessive. Hereditary nephritis - deafness +/- ocular disturbances (type IV collagen important in BM of kidney - ears - eyes)

9. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). X- linked recessive (all other sphingolipidoses AR); deficiency of alpha - galactosidase A ceramide trihexoside accumulates. Peripheral neuropathy (hands / feet) - angiokeratomas - CV / renal disease

10. Hypercalcemia - hypercalciuria - loss of appetite - stupor. Seen in sarcoidosis (inc. activation of vitamin D by epithelioid macrophages).

11. Age dep or hereditary lactose intolerance (blacks / Asians); lose brush - border enzyme. Bloating - cramps - osmotic diarrhea. Avoid dairy / use lactase pills.

12. Aut - rec deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase / THB (cofactor) - so can't convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. Results: accumulate phenylalanine (excess phenylketones in urine); tyrosine becomes essential AA. Dx: MR - growth retardation - seizures

13. Skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency (normally breaks down glycogen to 4- glucose residue branched 'limit dextrans'). Type V glycogen storage disease. Incr. glycogen in mm - but can't break down (mm cramps - myoglobinuria with strenuous

14. X- linked trinucleotide repeat disorder (CGG); affects methylation / expression of FMR1 gene - a/w chromosomal breakage. #2 cause of genetic MR (Down's is #1). Macro - orchidism - long face + large jaw - large everted ears - autism.

15. Trisomy 18 (E=election age) - 1:8000. Severe MR - rockerbottom feet - congenital heart disease. Vs Patau's: micrognathia - low - set ears - clenched hands - prominent occiput. Death w/in 1 yr

16. Cheilosis - corneal vascularization (the 2 C's)

17. X- linked recessive. G6PD: G6P + NADP+ -> 6PG + NADPH; NADPH needed to reduce GSSG to 2GSH (glutathione reductase) for H2O2 to 2H2O conversion. Only pathway for making reduced GSH in RBC - so can't detoxify free radicals / peroxides (fava beans - sul

18. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis) - Aut - rec deficiency of beta - glucocerebrosidase; glucocerebroside accumulates. Hepatosplenomegaly - aseptic necrosis of femur - bone crises - Gaucher's cells (macrophages that look like crumpled tiss

19. Mutation in mismatch repair genes (mismatched nucleotides in unmethylated / newly synthesized string recognized + removed)

20. Aut - dom - Fibrillin defect (scaffolding for elastin formation - stretchy protein for lungs - large arteries - elastic ligaments - vocal cords - ligamenta flava). Connective tissue disorder: skeleton - heart - eyes affected. Tall - long extremities

21. Severe vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency (less severe = glossitis). Diarrhea - dementia - dermatitis. Can be caused by Hartnup disease (dec. tryptophan absorption) - malignant carcinoid syndrome (inc tryptophan metabolism) (B3 made from tryptophan) and

22. Dec alpha - ketoacid dehydrogenase activity = blocked degradation of branched amino acid (Ile - Leu - Val = I Love Vermont; maple trees w/ branches). Increased alpha - ketoacids in blood (esp Leu). Severe CNS defects - MR - death. Urine smells like m

23. Night blindness - dry skin

24. A 22q11 deletion syndrome. Thymic - parathyroid - cardiac defects. Microdeletion at chr 22q11. Due to aberrant development of 3rd / 4th branchial pouches.

25. Aut - dom cell - signaling defect in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFr3). Dwarfism: short limbs but head/trunk normal. A/W advanced paternal age

26. Cobalamin = B12. macrocytic - megaloblastic anemia. Neuro sx: paresthesias - subacute combined degeneration from abnormal myelin. Prolonged deficiency = irreversible nervous system damage. Found in animal products; synthesized only by microorganisms.

27. Lysosomal storage disease (a mucopolysaccharidosis). X- linked rec deficiency of iduronate sulfatase; heparan sulfate - dermatan sulfate accumulate. Mild Hurler's phenotype (developmental delay - gargoylism (thickened gingiva + upturned nose) - airwa

28. X- linked rec; most common urea cycle disorder (others aut - rec). Can't eliminate ammonia; often dx'd perinatally but can be later. Dx: orotic acid in blood / urine (excess carbamoyl phosphate converted to orotic acid) - dec. BUN - hyperammonemia sx

29. Aut - dom. Facial lesions (adenoma sebaceum) - hypopigmented 'ash - leaf spots' on skin - cortical / retinal hamartomas - seizures - MR - renal cysts - renal angiomyolipomas - cardiac rhabdomyomas. Inc. incidence astrocytomas. Incomplete penetrance w

30. Rickets in children (bending bones); osteomalacia in adults (soft bones). Also hypocalcemic tetany.

31. Microdeletion of long arm of chr 7 (incl. elastin gene). 'Elfin' faces - MR but good verbal skills - cheerful disposition - extreme friendliness w/ strangers - CV problems

32. Glucose -6- phosphatase deficiency (type I glycogen storage disease). Can't de - plate G6P (glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis). Severe fasting hypoglycemia - inc. glycogen in liver - inc. blood lactate (gluconeogenesis impaired) - hepatomegaly.

33. Type IIa familial dyslipidemia. Aut - dom absence / decrease in LDL receptors. LDLs increased - blood cholesterol elevated.

34. Lysosomal alpha -1 -4- glucosidase (acid maltase) deficiency (type II glycogen storage disease. Lysosomal degradation of glycogen impaired (1 -4 = linkages - not branches). Cardiomegaly - systemic findings (liver - muscle) leading to early death. Pom

35. X- linked mutated dystrophin. Less severe than Duchenne's. Onset: adolescence - early adulthood.

36. Aut - rec - 3 forms. All interfere with conversion of methionine to cysteine - cysteine becomes essential; homocysteine accumulates. Causes: 1) cystathionine synthase deficiency (Tx: dec Met - inc. Cys intake. Inc B12 / folate in diet to drive conver

37. Aut - dom; mutation of NF2 gene (chr 22: 'type 2 = 22'). Bilateral acoustic neuromas - juvenile cataracts.

38. Brittle bone disease; genetic bone disorder. Variety of gene defects. Type II fatal in utero - neonatal. Most common form: AD with abnormal type I collagen (bone): multiple fractures w/ minimal trauma (e.g. during birth) - blue sclerae (translucent c

39. Bleeds (gamma - carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on factors II - VII - IX - X - protein C - S). Neonatal hemorrhage (inc PT - aPTT - normal bleeding time - sterile intestine in newborn - can't synthesize vitK - synthesized by intestinal flora

40. Peroxisomal disease; can't metabolize very long chain FA (VLCFAs) or branched - chain FAs (e.g. phytanic acid - via alpha - oxidation). Can't form myelin in CNS. Hypotonia - seizures - hepatomegaly - MR - early death.

41. Trisomy 21; MR - flat facies - epicanthal folds - simian crease - gap btwn 1-2nd toes - duodenal atresia - congenital heart dz (esp septum - primum - type ASD) - a/w inc risk All - Alz dz (>35 y/o). #1 cause congenital MR; #1 chr disorder (1:700). 95

42. Inclusion cell disease. Can't add mannose -6- P to lysosome proteins. Enzymes secreted outside of cell instead of targeted to lysosome. Lysosomal storage disorder. Coarse facial features - clouded corneas - restricted joint movement - high plasma lev

43. (Pyruvate + NAD+ + CoA --> acetylCoA + CO2 + NADH; 3 enzymes - requires B1 -2 -3 - CoA - lipoic acid). Pyruvate - alanine accumulate --> lactic acidosis (pyruvate to lactate). Congenital or acquired (e.g. alcoholics - B1 deficiency - lactic acidosis!

44. Aut - rec - defect in renal tubular AA transporter (cysteine - ornithine - lysine - arginine in renal PCT). inc. cystine (2 cysteines w/ disulfide bond) in urine --> cystine kidney stones (cystine staghorn calculi). Common (1:7000); Tx with acetazola

45. B1 (thiamine) deficiency. Polyneuritis - symmetrical muscle wasting

46. Aut - rec deficiency in apoB-100 (binds LDL receptor; mediates VLDL secretion) and apoB-48 (mediates chylomicron secretion) - so can't synthesize lipoproteins. Sx appear in 1st months of life: FTT - steatorrhea - acanthocytosis (= RBC with spikes - '

47. Acquired (e.g. liver dz) or hereditary (urea cycle enzyme deficiencies). inc. NH4 depletes alpha - keotglutarate - inhibiting TCA cycle. Ammonia intox - tremor - slurred speech - somnolence - vomiting - cerebral edema - blurred vision. Tx with benzoa

48. Hemolytic anemia (inc fragility of erythrocytes - vit E is antioxidant - protects erythrocytes / membranes from free - radical damage). Muscle weakness - neurodysfunction tooo.

49. Aut - dom; deletion of VHL gene (tumor suppressor) on chr 3 (3 words for chr 3). Results in constitutive expression of HIF (transcription factor) - activation of angiogenic growth factors. Hemangioblastomas of retina / cerebellum / medulla - 50% get

50. X- linked frame - shift mutation: deletion of dystrophin (DMD anchors mm fibers - esp. skeletal / cardiac. Longest gene: lots of spontaneous mutations). Accel. mm breakdown (weakness in pelvic girdle -> superiorly). Pseudohypertrophy of calf mm (fibr