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Biochemistry Diseases

Subject : health-sciences
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Trisomy 13 (P = puberty age) - 1:15 -000. Severe MR - rockerbottom feet - congenital heart disease. Vs. Edwards': cleft lip / Palate - holoProsencephaly - Polydactyly (P's) - micropthalmia - microcephaly. Death w/in 1 yr






2. Hemolytic anemia (inc fragility of erythrocytes - vit E is antioxidant - protects erythrocytes / membranes from free - radical damage). Muscle weakness - neurodysfunction tooo.






3. Cobalamin = B12. macrocytic - megaloblastic anemia. Neuro sx: paresthesias - subacute combined degeneration from abnormal myelin. Prolonged deficiency = irreversible nervous system damage. Found in animal products; synthesized only by microorganisms.






4. Aut - rec - defect in renal tubular AA transporter (cysteine - ornithine - lysine - arginine in renal PCT). inc. cystine (2 cysteines w/ disulfide bond) in urine --> cystine kidney stones (cystine staghorn calculi). Common (1:7000); Tx with acetazola






5. Aut - rec deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase / THB (cofactor) - so can't convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. Results: accumulate phenylalanine (excess phenylketones in urine); tyrosine becomes essential AA. Dx: MR - growth retardation - seizures






6. Converts adenosine to inosine in purine salvage pathway. Excess ATP - dATP in nucleotide pool = imbalance (feedback inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase - preventing DNA synthesis) - so decreased lymphocyte count (major cause of SCID - severe combi






7. Delayed wound healing - hypogonadism - dec. adult hair (axillary / facial / pubic); ?predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis?






8. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of sphingomyelinase; sphingomyelin accumulates. Progressive neurodegeneration - hepatosplenomegaly - cherry- red spot on macula - foam cells.






9. Aut - dom - defect in spectrin or ankyrin. Hemolytic anemia - increased MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration). Splenectomy is curative






10. (Pyruvate + NAD+ + CoA --> acetylCoA + CO2 + NADH; 3 enzymes - requires B1 -2 -3 - CoA - lipoic acid). Pyruvate - alanine accumulate --> lactic acidosis (pyruvate to lactate). Congenital or acquired (e.g. alcoholics - B1 deficiency - lactic acidosis!






11. Peroxisomal disease; can't metabolize very long chain FA (VLCFAs) or branched - chain FAs (e.g. phytanic acid - via alpha - oxidation). Can't form myelin in CNS. Hypotonia - seizures - hepatomegaly - MR - early death.






12. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of hexosaminidase A; GM2 ganglioside accumulates. Progressive neurodegeneration - developmental delay - cherry- red spot on macula - lysosomes with 'onion skin'






13. Protein malnutrition. Skin lesions - edema - liver malfunction (fatty change). Small child - swollen belly.






14. Lysosomal storage disease (a mucopolysaccharidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of alpha - L- iduronidase; heparan sulfate - dermatan sulfate accumulate. Developmental delay - gargoylism (thickened gingiva + upturned nose) - airway obstruction - corneal cl






15. Aut - rec galactokinase deficiency. Galactitol can accumulate if galactose present in diet; relatively mild. Galactose in blood / urine - infantile cataracts (may not track objects - develop social smile.






16. X- linked recessive. G6PD: G6P + NADP+ -> 6PG + NADPH; NADPH needed to reduce GSSG to 2GSH (glutathione reductase) for H2O2 to 2H2O conversion. Only pathway for making reduced GSH in RBC - so can't detoxify free radicals / peroxides (fava beans - sul






17. Age dep or hereditary lactose intolerance (blacks / Asians); lose brush - border enzyme. Bloating - cramps - osmotic diarrhea. Avoid dairy / use lactase pills.






18. Aut - dom; mutation in APC gene (chr 5 - 'polyp' has 5 letters). Colon covered with adenomatous polyps after puberty. Progresses to colon cancer unless resected






19. Night blindness - dry skin






20. Pantothenate; in CoA. Dermatitis - enteritis - alopecia - adrenal insufficiency






21. Immobile cilia (dynein arm defect). Infertility (M/F; sperm immotile) - bronchiectasis - recurrent sinusitis (not pushing out bacteria / particles). A/W situs inversus






22. Aut - dom; I/II/III - familial tumors of endocrine glands (pancreas - parathyroid - pituitary - thyroid - adrenal medulla). II / III a/w ret gene






23. Hypercalcemia - hypercalciuria - loss of appetite - stupor. Seen in sarcoidosis (inc. activation of vitamin D by epithelioid macrophages).






24. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of arylsulfatase A - cerbroside sulfate accumulates. Central / peripheral demyelination - ataxia - dementia.






25. Mitochondrial inheritance (only transmitted via mom); degeneration of retinal ganglion cells / axons; acute loss of central vision






26. Faulty collagen synthesis: hyperextensible skin - tendency to bleed (easy bruising) - hypermobile joints. Mostly type III collagen. 6 types - inheritance / severity vary (AD/AR). A/w joint dislocation - berry aneurysms - organ rupture






27. Severe vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency (less severe = glossitis). Diarrhea - dementia - dermatitis. Can be caused by Hartnup disease (dec. tryptophan absorption) - malignant carcinoid syndrome (inc tryptophan metabolism) (B3 made from tryptophan) and






28. Aut - dom; deletion of VHL gene (tumor suppressor) on chr 3 (3 words for chr 3). Results in constitutive expression of HIF (transcription factor) - activation of angiogenic growth factors. Hemangioblastomas of retina / cerebellum / medulla - 50% get






29. Aut - dom - Fibrillin defect (scaffolding for elastin formation - stretchy protein for lungs - large arteries - elastic ligaments - vocal cords - ligamenta flava). Connective tissue disorder: skeleton - heart - eyes affected. Tall - long extremities






30. Microdeletion of short arm of chr 5: 46 -XX or XY - 5p -. Microcephaly - moderate/severe MR - high pitched crying/mewing (cry of the cat) - epicanthal folds - cardiac abnormalities






31. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis). Aut - rec deficiency of galactocerebosidase; galactocerebroside accumulates. Peripheral neuropathy - developmental delay - optic atrophy - globoid cells (multinucleated).






32. Aut - rec (CFTR gene - chr 7; CFTR channel secretes Cl - in lungs / GI - resorbes Cl - from sweat). Thick mucus - plugs lungs - pancreas - liver. Recurrent pulm infections (Pseudomonas - S aureus) - chronic bronchitis - bronchiectasis - pancreatic in






33. Type IV familial dyslipidemia. Hepatic overproduction of VLDL; VLDL increased; blood TGs elevated






34. Aut - dom. Facial lesions (adenoma sebaceum) - hypopigmented 'ash - leaf spots' on skin - cortical / retinal hamartomas - seizures - MR - renal cysts - renal angiomyolipomas - cardiac rhabdomyomas. Inc. incidence astrocytomas. Incomplete penetrance w






35. Type IIa familial dyslipidemia. Aut - dom absence / decrease in LDL receptors. LDLs increased - blood cholesterol elevated.






36. Rickets in children (bending bones); osteomalacia in adults (soft bones). Also hypocalcemic tetany.






37. Variable presentation - incl CATCH-22: Cleft palate - Abnormal facies - Thymic aplasia / T- cell deficiency - Cardiac defects - Hypocalcemia (2ary to parathyroid aplasia) - from microdeletion at chr 22q11. Due to aberrant development of 3rd / 4th bra






38. Macrocytic - megaloblastic anemia w/o neuro sx. #1 vitamin deficiency in USA; see in alcoholism / pregnancy (neural tube defects; supplement in early pregnancy) - also drugs (phenytoin - sulfas - MTX). From FOLiage (leafy greens) with small reserve p






39. Energy malnutrition. Tissue / muscle wasting - loss of subQ fat - variable edema.






40. Cheilosis - corneal vascularization (the 2 C's)






41. Mutation in mismatch repair genes (mismatched nucleotides in unmethylated / newly synthesized string recognized + removed)






42. A 22q11 deletion syndrome. Thymic - parathyroid - cardiac defects. Microdeletion at chr 22q11. Due to aberrant development of 3rd / 4th branchial pouches.






43. Bleeds (gamma - carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on factors II - VII - IX - X - protein C - S). Neonatal hemorrhage (inc PT - aPTT - normal bleeding time - sterile intestine in newborn - can't synthesize vitK - synthesized by intestinal flora






44. Lysosomal storage disease (a sphingolipidosis) - Aut - rec deficiency of beta - glucocerebrosidase; glucocerebroside accumulates. Hepatosplenomegaly - aseptic necrosis of femur - bone crises - Gaucher's cells (macrophages that look like crumpled tiss






45. Inhibits lipoic acid (required for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex - pyruvate to acetyl - coA). Vomiting - rice water stools - garlic breath.






46. Aut - rec deficiency of aldolase B; fructose -1- P accumulates; dec. in phosphate = inhibition of glycogenolysis / gluconeogenesis. Hypoglycemia - jaundice - cirrhosis - vomiting. Tx: limit fructose - sucrose (gluc + fruc) intake.






47. Type I familial dyslipidemia. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency or altered apolipoprotein C- II (LPL cofactor) = can't degrade TG circulating in chylomicrons - VLDLs. Increased chylomicrons - elevated cholesterol / TGs in blood






48. Dec alpha - ketoacid dehydrogenase activity = blocked degradation of branched amino acid (Ile - Leu - Val = I Love Vermont; maple trees w/ branches). Increased alpha - ketoacids in blood (esp Leu). Severe CNS defects - MR - death. Urine smells like m






49. Microdeletion of long arm of chr 7 (incl. elastin gene). 'Elfin' faces - MR but good verbal skills - cheerful disposition - extreme friendliness w/ strangers - CV problems






50. Mutation in nucleotide excision repair proteins (endonucleases that release oligonucleotides containing damaged bases; DNApol + ligase fill in). Can't repair thymidine dimers (UV light). Dry skin with melanoma + other cancers ('children of the night'