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CLEP Biology: Principles Of Evolution

Subjects : clep, science, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Mammals developed from primitive mammal-like reptiles during the __________ Period - some 200-245 million years ago.

2. At the molecular level - life's ability to reproduce begins with the replication of ____________ - during which two new spirals are created that are exact replicas of the original molecule.

3. ___________ speciation happens when members of a population develop some genetic difference that prevents them from reproducing with the parent type.

4. An allele may increase - or decrease - in frequency simply through ___________. Not every member of the population will become a parent and not every set of parents will produce the same number of offspring.

5. Immediately below kingdom is the _________ level of classification. At this level - animals are grouped together based on similarities in basic body plan or organization.

6. Because organisms are continually tested by their changing ______________ - their forms change to suit new conditions.

7. Most anthropologists agree that the ______ _______ was populated by a series of three migrations over the temporary land connection between Asia and North America.

8. A Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium provides a ___________ by which to judge whether evolution has occurred.

9. A ___________ can be defined as one or more populations of interbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated in nature from all other organisms.

10. Homo erectus was the first hominid to use ___________ - and have social structures for food gathering.

11. There are at least ___________ of animals. Humans are members of the phylum Chordata.

12. Almost all living organisms use the same basic biochemical molecules - including DNA - ATP - and many identical or nearly identical enzymes. Organisms utilize the same DNA triplet base _________ and the same 20 amino acids in their proteins

13. Homology has to be distinguished from ___________; for instance - the wings of insects and the wings of birds are analogous but not homologous.

14. _______________ is that branch of biology dealing with the identification and naming of organisms.

15. Darwin reported that all organisms tend to _____________ in a geometric ratio provided there are no environmental checks. Even slow breeding animals like the elephant may theoretically give rise to 19 million descendants in a period of 750 years.

16. Any change of _________ frequencies in a gene pool indicates that evolution has occurred. The Hardy-Weinberg law proposes that those factors that violate the conditions listed - cause evolution.

17. In species which reproduce _____________ - extinction of a species is generally inevitable when there is only one individual of that species left - or only individuals of a single sex.

18. Scientific classification sorts living organisms by _________ levels of classification - kingdom; phylum; class; order; family; genus; and species.

19. The ______-____-______ Hypothesis proposes that some Homo erectus remained in Africa and continued to evolve into Homo sapiens - and left Africa about 100 -000-200 -000 years ago. From a single source - Homo sapiens replaced all populations of Homo e

20. ___________ evolution is an evolutionary process in which organisms not closely related independently acquire some characteristic or characteristics in common.

21. As the finch population began to flourish in these advantageous conditions - ______________ competition became a factor - and resources on the islands were squeezed and could not sustain the population of the finches for long.

22. The __________ kingdom consists of one-celled organisms as well - but differs from the Monera kingdom in that it consists of eukaryotes.

23. The study of ____________ ____________ supports the claim of a common origin of organisms.

24. ______________ struggle is the struggle of organisms against the physical environment.

25. ___________ is a specific explanation of similarity of form seen in the biological world. In genetics - it is used in reference to protein or DNA sequences - meaning that the given sequences share ancestry.

26. _____________ is the end of a particular evolutionary line - the end of a species - a family - or a larger group of organisms.

27. The _______-_________ Law states that an equilibrium of allele frequencies in a gene pool remains in effect in each succeeding generation of a sexually reproducing population if five conditions are met.

28. Darwin's Finches illustrated ___________ ____________. This is where species all deriving from a common ancestor have over time successfully adapted to their environment via natural selection.

29. In a genetic drift the entire population may become homozygous for the allele or - equally likely - the allele may disappear. Before either of these fates occurs - the allele represents a Polymorphism. This is a case of polymorphism through...

30. The ____________ mammals occupy Australia - and differ from placental mammals because they bear their young inside a pouch (instead of a placenta).

31. At some time in their life cycle - chordates have a pair of lateral gill slits or pouches used to obtain __________ in a liquid environment.

32. ____________ reproduction - whether reproduction proceeds with lesser or greater success - is central to the process of natural selection; it determines whether a given mutation becomes established in the general population.

33. __________ are the remains of organisms that lived in the past.

34. According to Darwin - in spite of the high reproductive potential - the number of individuals in a species remains relatively constant - suggesting _____________ for existence.

35. For humans - the complete classification is: Kingdom (Animalia); Phylum (__________); Class (Mammalia); Order (Primates); Family (Hominidae); Genus (Homo); Species (Sapiens).

36. An important step toward the modern theory of evolution came in the 1760's - when Count George-Louis Leclerc de Buffon (1707-1788) published his Natural History of Animals with the idea that species __________ over time.

37. Homology is also seen in the structure of eye - brain - joint appendages of arthropods - etc. It is thus evidence for ____________.

38. Members of the phylum _____________ have soft - unsegmented bodies that are usually - but not always - enclosed in hard shells.

39. Such a dual level designation is referred to as a _________ nomenclature.

40. ____________ organs are formed on the same basic plan though they may be modified variously to perform different functions. They must have a common ancestral structure which gave rise to different modifications.

41. The highest category in the Linnaean system of classification is the __________. At this level - organisms are distinguished on the basis of cellular organization and methods of nutrition.

42. Populations begin to diverge when gene flow between them is restricted. Geographic isolation is often the first step in ____________ speciation.

43. About 1.8 million years ago - early Homo gave rise to _______ ________ - the species thought to have been ancestral to our own.

44. Charles Darwin published a book The Origin of Species in the year 1859. He proposed that the new species came about by a process called ___________ __________.

45. When Charles Darwin was in the Galapagos islands - one of the first things he noticed is the variety of ___________ that existed on each of the islands.

46. The mutation may be harmful (resulting in a reduced probability of survival for the organism involved) - ____________ (it might also do its intended job better) or merely neutral (no effect at all).

47. Differential reproduction allows one species to gradually evolve into a new species. This is the process of ____________.

48. Homology was defined by Darwin as similarity of structure and position - and distinguished from 'analogy -' which was defined as similarity of _____________ but not necessarily of structure and position.

49. _____________ struggle takes place between the individuals of the same species.

50. In the 1680s Ariaantje and Gerrit Jansz emigrated from Holland to South Africa - one of them bringing along an allele for the mild metabolic disease porphyria. Today more than 30000 South Africans carry this allele and - in every case examined - can