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CLEP Biology: Principles Of Evolution

Subjects : clep, science, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. ____________ organs are formed on the same basic plan though they may be modified variously to perform different functions. They must have a common ancestral structure which gave rise to different modifications.

2. The Linnaean system uses two Latin name categories - ________ and species - to designate each type of organism.

3. The early stages of development of the ___________ of fish - salamander - tortoise - hen and man show remarkable similarity.

4. _____________ is the accumulation of small changes in a gene pool over a relatively short period.

5. For humans - the complete classification is: Kingdom (Animalia); Phylum (__________); Class (Mammalia); Order (Primates); Family (Hominidae); Genus (Homo); Species (Sapiens).

6. The ____________ mammals occupy Australia - and differ from placental mammals because they bear their young inside a pouch (instead of a placenta).

7. Homology is also seen in the structure of eye - brain - joint appendages of arthropods - etc. It is thus evidence for ____________.

8. As the finch population began to flourish in these advantageous conditions - ______________ competition became a factor - and resources on the islands were squeezed and could not sustain the population of the finches for long.

9. The Regional ___________ Hypothesis suggests that regional populations of H. erectus evolved into H. sapiens through interbreeding between the various populations.

10. Humans are ____________ - meaning we walk on two of our limbs. The amount of melanin in our skin is representative of the environment we live in - i.e. dark skinned people occupy hotter climates.

11. Most anthropologists agree that the ______ _______ was populated by a series of three migrations over the temporary land connection between Asia and North America.

12. Darwin's Finches illustrated ___________ ____________. This is where species all deriving from a common ancestor have over time successfully adapted to their environment via natural selection.

13. Scientific classification sorts living organisms by _________ levels of classification - kingdom; phylum; class; order; family; genus; and species.

14. Homo erectus was the first hominid to use ___________ - and have social structures for food gathering.

15. Speciation by ____________ Equilibrium involves a group of creatures which gets isolated from the rest of their species.

16. If a population began with a few individuals - one or more of whom carried a particular allele - that allele may come to be represented in many of the descendants. This is known as ____________.

17. The __________ kingdom consists of one-celled organisms as well - but differs from the Monera kingdom in that it consists of eukaryotes.

18. Homology was defined by Darwin as similarity of structure and position - and distinguished from 'analogy -' which was defined as similarity of _____________ but not necessarily of structure and position.

19. _____________ is the end of a particular evolutionary line - the end of a species - a family - or a larger group of organisms.

20. Humans who have produced offspring that successfully live in a ________ environment tend to be broader and smaller in stature while hotter environments are occupied by thinner taller humans.

21. _________ ______ disease causes anemia - joint pain - a swollen spleen - and frequent - severe infections. It illustrates balanced polymorphism because carriers are resistant to malaria - an infection by the parasite that causes cycles of chills and

22. About 1.8 million years ago - early Homo gave rise to _______ ________ - the species thought to have been ancestral to our own.

23. Members of the phylum _____________ have soft - unsegmented bodies that are usually - but not always - enclosed in hard shells.

24. An allele may increase - or decrease - in frequency simply through ___________. Not every member of the population will become a parent and not every set of parents will produce the same number of offspring.

25. The Neolithic transition - about 10 -000 years ago - involved the change from __________-__________ societies to agricultural ones based on cultivation of plants and domesticated animals.

26. There are at least ___________ of animals. Humans are members of the phylum Chordata.

27. Prior to the scientific discoveries of the past 200 years - _____________ from the Book Of Genesis described how living things came into being.

28. There are certain animals with intermediate characters between two major groups of animals. They are called ___________ _____.

29. Darwin reported that all organisms tend to _____________ in a geometric ratio provided there are no environmental checks. Even slow breeding animals like the elephant may theoretically give rise to 19 million descendants in a period of 750 years.

30. Heritable variations are called _____________ variations. Such variations arising from changes in DNA are passed on within families and to the offspring from the parents.

31. Charles Darwin published a book The Origin of Species in the year 1859. He proposed that the new species came about by a process called ___________ __________.

32. In general if two genes have an almost identical DNA sequence - it is likely that they are ____________.

33. Such a dual level designation is referred to as a _________ nomenclature.

34. __________ are the remains of organisms that lived in the past.

35. Extinctions - mostly at the level of species - have been occurring constantly at a low 'background rate' - usually matched by the rate at which new species appear - with the result that ____________ is constantly increasing.

36. A ___________ can be defined as one or more populations of interbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated in nature from all other organisms.

37. Insect ____________ is also an example of convergent evolution - as for example when an edible (palatable) butterfly develops a color pattern similar to a relatively unrelated inedible (unpalatable) butterfly - and by so doing escapes being eaten.

38. Jean Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829) developed one of the first theories on how species changed. Lamarck - in 1809 - concluded that organisms of higher complexity had __________ from preexisting - less complex organisms.

39. All organisms are placed into one of five kingdoms: Monera - Protista - ________ - Plantae - Animalia.

40. Almost all _________ organisms are either plants or animals.

41. Primates evolved about approximately 30 million years ago in ___________. One branch of primates evolved into the Old and New World Monkeys - the other into the hominoids (the line of descent common to both apes and man).

42. In species which reproduce _____________ - extinction of a species is generally inevitable when there is only one individual of that species left - or only individuals of a single sex.

43. Differential reproduction allows one species to gradually evolve into a new species. This is the process of ____________.

44. ______________ struggle is the struggle of organisms against the physical environment.

45. Mammals developed from primitive mammal-like reptiles during the __________ Period - some 200-245 million years ago.

46. _____________ can occur randomly - from radiation damage (impact with high energy g-rays or cosmic rays) - from exposure to chemical agents called mutagens - or simply by error in the DNA replication process.

47. Biodiversity crashes during ________ extinctions. This has been a powerful force in evolution - wiping the slate clean of up to 96% of all species - and providing the survivors with a world full of opportunities into which they can diversify.

48. At some time in their life cycle - chordates have a pair of lateral gill slits or pouches used to obtain __________ in a liquid environment.

49. The highest category in the Linnaean system of classification is the __________. At this level - organisms are distinguished on the basis of cellular organization and methods of nutrition.

50. According to Darwin - in spite of the high reproductive potential - the number of individuals in a species remains relatively constant - suggesting _____________ for existence.