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CLEP Biology: Principles Of Evolution

Subjects : clep, science, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. For humans - the complete classification is: Kingdom (Animalia); Phylum (__________); Class (Mammalia); Order (Primates); Family (Hominidae); Genus (Homo); Species (Sapiens).

2. _____________ struggle takes place between the individuals of different species.

3. Organisms struggle for existence. Organisms with advantageous characters survive - while those which lack such variations perish. The advantageous characters are passed on to the offsprings generation after generation and the organisms become better

4. The _______-_________ Law states that an equilibrium of allele frequencies in a gene pool remains in effect in each succeeding generation of a sexually reproducing population if five conditions are met.

5. _____________ is the end of a particular evolutionary line - the end of a species - a family - or a larger group of organisms.

6. In a genetic drift the entire population may become homozygous for the allele or - equally likely - the allele may disappear. Before either of these fates occurs - the allele represents a Polymorphism. This is a case of polymorphism through...

7. ___________ speciation happens when members of a population develop some genetic difference that prevents them from reproducing with the parent type.

8. __________ are the remains of organisms that lived in the past.

9. A comparative study of physiology and biochemistry also supports the common origin for different organisms. The _____________ of all organisms cells is more or less same in composition.

10. In general if two genes have an almost identical DNA sequence - it is likely that they are ____________.

11. ______________ struggle is the struggle of organisms against the physical environment.

12. A ___________ can be defined as one or more populations of interbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated in nature from all other organisms.

13. If a population began with a few individuals - one or more of whom carried a particular allele - that allele may come to be represented in many of the descendants. This is known as ____________.

14. The only kingdom which consists of prokaryotes is the __________ kingdom.

15. Some important structural changes during the evolution of horse are: Increase in size from 11' (Eohippus) to about 60' (Equus) - and ___________ of the head and neck so as that it can reach the ground.

16. All organisms are placed into one of five kingdoms: Monera - Protista - ________ - Plantae - Animalia.

17. _______________ is that branch of biology dealing with the identification and naming of organisms.

18. Homology was defined by Darwin as similarity of structure and position - and distinguished from 'analogy -' which was defined as similarity of _____________ but not necessarily of structure and position.

19. A Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium provides a ___________ by which to judge whether evolution has occurred.

20. The Regional ___________ Hypothesis suggests that regional populations of H. erectus evolved into H. sapiens through interbreeding between the various populations.

21. Populations begin to diverge when gene flow between them is restricted. Geographic isolation is often the first step in ____________ speciation.

22. ____________ organs are formed on the same basic plan though they may be modified variously to perform different functions. They must have a common ancestral structure which gave rise to different modifications.

23. According to Darwin - in spite of the high reproductive potential - the number of individuals in a species remains relatively constant - suggesting _____________ for existence.

24. The ______-____-______ Hypothesis proposes that some Homo erectus remained in Africa and continued to evolve into Homo sapiens - and left Africa about 100 -000-200 -000 years ago. From a single source - Homo sapiens replaced all populations of Homo e

25. Because organisms are continually tested by their changing ______________ - their forms change to suit new conditions.

26. Except for the tail fins - whales greatly resemble fish in outline - but are instead descended from four-legged land ___________.

27. Linnaeus placed all monkeys and apes along with humans into the order _________

28. About 2 million years ago - two groups developed: the australopithecines - generally smaller brained and not users of tools; and the line that led to genus _________ - larger brained and makers and users of tools.

29. A ____________ tree is a graphical means to depict the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms.

30. Speciation by ____________ Equilibrium involves a group of creatures which gets isolated from the rest of their species.

31. Insect ____________ is also an example of convergent evolution - as for example when an edible (palatable) butterfly develops a color pattern similar to a relatively unrelated inedible (unpalatable) butterfly - and by so doing escapes being eaten.

32. Differential reproduction allows one species to gradually evolve into a new species. This is the process of ____________.

33. There are at least ___________ of animals. Humans are members of the phylum Chordata.

34. At some time in their life cycle - chordates have a pair of lateral gill slits or pouches used to obtain __________ in a liquid environment.

35. Biodiversity crashes during ________ extinctions. This has been a powerful force in evolution - wiping the slate clean of up to 96% of all species - and providing the survivors with a world full of opportunities into which they can diversify.

36. The Linnaean system uses two Latin name categories - ________ and species - to designate each type of organism.

37. Homology has to be distinguished from ___________; for instance - the wings of insects and the wings of birds are analogous but not homologous.

38. There are certain animals with intermediate characters between two major groups of animals. They are called ___________ _____.

39. Despite their image as brutish simpletons - _____________were the first humans to bury their dead with artifacts - indicating abstract thought - perhaps a belief in an after-life.

40. An important step toward the modern theory of evolution came in the 1760's - when Count George-Louis Leclerc de Buffon (1707-1788) published his Natural History of Animals with the idea that species __________ over time.

41. Mammals developed from primitive mammal-like reptiles during the __________ Period - some 200-245 million years ago.

42. When carriers have advantages that allow a detrimental allele to persist in a population - ______________ polymorphism is at work.

43. Darwin's Finches illustrated ___________ ____________. This is where species all deriving from a common ancestor have over time successfully adapted to their environment via natural selection.

44. _________ ______ disease causes anemia - joint pain - a swollen spleen - and frequent - severe infections. It illustrates balanced polymorphism because carriers are resistant to malaria - an infection by the parasite that causes cycles of chills and

45. _____________ struggle takes place between the individuals of the same species.

46. An allele may increase - or decrease - in frequency simply through ___________. Not every member of the population will become a parent and not every set of parents will produce the same number of offspring.

47. Members of the phylum _____________ have soft - unsegmented bodies that are usually - but not always - enclosed in hard shells.

48. About 1.8 million years ago - early Homo gave rise to _______ ________ - the species thought to have been ancestral to our own.

49. Scientific classification sorts living organisms by _________ levels of classification - kingdom; phylum; class; order; family; genus; and species.

50. In species which reproduce _____________ - extinction of a species is generally inevitable when there is only one individual of that species left - or only individuals of a single sex.