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CLEP Biology: Principles Of Evolution

Subjects : clep, science, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. An allele may increase - or decrease - in frequency simply through ___________. Not every member of the population will become a parent and not every set of parents will produce the same number of offspring.

2. Almost all living organisms use the same basic biochemical molecules - including DNA - ATP - and many identical or nearly identical enzymes. Organisms utilize the same DNA triplet base _________ and the same 20 amino acids in their proteins

3. The _______-_________ Law states that an equilibrium of allele frequencies in a gene pool remains in effect in each succeeding generation of a sexually reproducing population if five conditions are met.

4. In a genetic drift the entire population may become homozygous for the allele or - equally likely - the allele may disappear. Before either of these fates occurs - the allele represents a Polymorphism. This is a case of polymorphism through...

5. _____________ can occur randomly - from radiation damage (impact with high energy g-rays or cosmic rays) - from exposure to chemical agents called mutagens - or simply by error in the DNA replication process.

6. _______________ is that branch of biology dealing with the identification and naming of organisms.

7. Some important structural changes during the evolution of horse are: Increase in size from 11' (Eohippus) to about 60' (Equus) - and ___________ of the head and neck so as that it can reach the ground.

8. If a population began with a few individuals - one or more of whom carried a particular allele - that allele may come to be represented in many of the descendants. This is known as ____________.

9. The only kingdom which consists of prokaryotes is the __________ kingdom.

10. Speciation by ____________ Equilibrium involves a group of creatures which gets isolated from the rest of their species.

11. Most anthropologists agree that the ______ _______ was populated by a series of three migrations over the temporary land connection between Asia and North America.

12. Scientific classification sorts living organisms by _________ levels of classification - kingdom; phylum; class; order; family; genus; and species.

13. There are certain animals with intermediate characters between two major groups of animals. They are called ___________ _____.

14. Differential reproduction allows one species to gradually evolve into a new species. This is the process of ____________.

15. As the finch population began to flourish in these advantageous conditions - ______________ competition became a factor - and resources on the islands were squeezed and could not sustain the population of the finches for long.

16. Humans who have produced offspring that successfully live in a ________ environment tend to be broader and smaller in stature while hotter environments are occupied by thinner taller humans.

17. ___________ is a specific explanation of similarity of form seen in the biological world. In genetics - it is used in reference to protein or DNA sequences - meaning that the given sequences share ancestry.

18. ___________ speciation happens when members of a population develop some genetic difference that prevents them from reproducing with the parent type.

19. Almost all _________ organisms are either plants or animals.

20. A ____________ tree is a graphical means to depict the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms.

21. When carriers have advantages that allow a detrimental allele to persist in a population - ______________ polymorphism is at work.

22. _________ evidence shows that the horse has undergone considerable evolutionary change over a period of 60 million years.

23. Such a dual level designation is referred to as a _________ nomenclature.

24. Heritable variations are called _____________ variations. Such variations arising from changes in DNA are passed on within families and to the offspring from the parents.

25. All organisms are placed into one of five kingdoms: Monera - Protista - ________ - Plantae - Animalia.

26. The highest category in the Linnaean system of classification is the __________. At this level - organisms are distinguished on the basis of cellular organization and methods of nutrition.

27. Except for the tail fins - whales greatly resemble fish in outline - but are instead descended from four-legged land ___________.

28. For humans - the complete classification is: Kingdom (Animalia); Phylum (__________); Class (Mammalia); Order (Primates); Family (Hominidae); Genus (Homo); Species (Sapiens).

29. About 2 million years ago - two groups developed: the australopithecines - generally smaller brained and not users of tools; and the line that led to genus _________ - larger brained and makers and users of tools.

30. Despite their image as brutish simpletons - _____________were the first humans to bury their dead with artifacts - indicating abstract thought - perhaps a belief in an after-life.

31. Insect ____________ is also an example of convergent evolution - as for example when an edible (palatable) butterfly develops a color pattern similar to a relatively unrelated inedible (unpalatable) butterfly - and by so doing escapes being eaten.

32. The early stages of development of the ___________ of fish - salamander - tortoise - hen and man show remarkable similarity.

33. About 1.8 million years ago - early Homo gave rise to _______ ________ - the species thought to have been ancestral to our own.

34. At some time in their life cycle - chordates have a pair of lateral gill slits or pouches used to obtain __________ in a liquid environment.

35. ___________ evolution is an evolutionary process in which organisms not closely related independently acquire some characteristic or characteristics in common.

36. The Neolithic transition - about 10 -000 years ago - involved the change from __________-__________ societies to agricultural ones based on cultivation of plants and domesticated animals.

37. In general if two genes have an almost identical DNA sequence - it is likely that they are ____________.

38. Extinctions - mostly at the level of species - have been occurring constantly at a low 'background rate' - usually matched by the rate at which new species appear - with the result that ____________ is constantly increasing.

39. Organisms struggle for existence. Organisms with advantageous characters survive - while those which lack such variations perish. The advantageous characters are passed on to the offsprings generation after generation and the organisms become better

40. The Linnaean system uses two Latin name categories - ________ and species - to designate each type of organism.

41. The Regional ___________ Hypothesis suggests that regional populations of H. erectus evolved into H. sapiens through interbreeding between the various populations.

42. ______________ struggle is the struggle of organisms against the physical environment.

43. Members of the phylum _____________ have soft - unsegmented bodies that are usually - but not always - enclosed in hard shells.

44. ____________ organs are formed on the same basic plan though they may be modified variously to perform different functions. They must have a common ancestral structure which gave rise to different modifications.

45. A ___________ can be defined as one or more populations of interbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated in nature from all other organisms.

46. The mutation may be harmful (resulting in a reduced probability of survival for the organism involved) - ____________ (it might also do its intended job better) or merely neutral (no effect at all).

47. In species which reproduce _____________ - extinction of a species is generally inevitable when there is only one individual of that species left - or only individuals of a single sex.

48. Charles Darwin published a book The Origin of Species in the year 1859. He proposed that the new species came about by a process called ___________ __________.

49. ____________ reproduction - whether reproduction proceeds with lesser or greater success - is central to the process of natural selection; it determines whether a given mutation becomes established in the general population.

50. When Charles Darwin was in the Galapagos islands - one of the first things he noticed is the variety of ___________ that existed on each of the islands.