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CLEP Educational Psychology Theorists And Theories

Subjects : clep, teaching
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. While earlier theories often focused on abnormal behavior and psychological problems - humanist theories instead emphasized the basic goodness of human beings. Some of these theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.






2. Contiguity Theory; 'One-Trial Learning' (Behaviorism)






3. Structure of intellect stipulated that intelligence depends on our mental operations (or process of thinking) - our thoughts (i.e. - content) - and the products or end results of these operations.






4. Freud's theory which emphasized that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in he first few years is crucial for healthy personality development






5. (Behaviorism)- One explanation for learning in behaviorism; an association is built between two events simply because they occured simultaneously or overlapping in time.For example - if food is presented while some auditory signal is given - a dog wi






6. Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning






7. A theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.






8. Coined the term 'Behaviorism'






9. Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning; The role of the Unconscious Mind in Learning






10. Humanistic Theory of Learning






11. (Thorndike) - Responses which occur just prior to a satisfying state of affairs are more likely to be repeated - and responses just prior to an annoying state of affairs are more likely NOT to be repeated.






12. Gestalt Learning Theory






13. Development; Concepts: gender in moral development; Study Basics: Did moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relations






14. (Brown - Cognitive apprenticeship)- knowledge which lacks application or cross contextual understanding.






15. Occurs when the presence of previously learned material interferes with the learning of new material.






16. Perception - Decision making - Attention - Memory - & Problem Solving






17. Stimulus Sampling Theory (SST)






18. Operant Conditioning






19. Humanistic; Transformational Learning






20. Insight Learning






21. Constructive Knowledge.Construct with ideas and concepts of what they know.






22. Multiple intelligence theory specifies seven different intelligences that presume a broadened definition of intelligence.






23. Humanistic; Experiential Learning






24. Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor - 2. preoperational - 3. concrete operational - and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation






25. Presented a theory of self-efficacy - or the importance of one's personal belief regarding self-ability and chances of success - as key to motivation.






26. Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels






27. (G. A. Miller)- (Test - Operate - Test - Exit). These are operational feedback units that function within a self-regulated system.






28. Drive Reduction Theory






29. A transitional group - bridging the gap between behaviorism and cognitive theories of learning. timulus-Response; Intervening Internal Variables; Purposive Behavior; E.C.Tolman - Clark Hull - Kenneth W. Spence






30. (Estes) - A theory developed by Estes that attempts to show how stimuli are sampled and attached to responses. A statistical learning theory.






31. Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator






32. In the study of motivation - an explanation of behavior that asserts that people actively and regularly determine their own goals and the means of achieving them through thought.






33. Constructivist; Genetic Epistemology; Stages of Cognitive Development






34. Social Constructivism; The Zone of Proximal Development is a concept for which he is well known.






35. (Spence)- reinforcement combined with frustration or inhibitors facilitated finding a correct stimulus among a cluster which included incorrect ones. This was a 'carrot and stick' model.






36. Cognitive Dissonance






37. Learning as a group process; Lev Vygotsky 1896 - 1935 Social Constructivism






38. (Tolman)- the theory that animals (and humans) develop expectancy or anticipation of rewards for completing behaviors they have learned - and this expectancy functions as an internal incentive or motivation.






39. (Behaviorism - Skinner)- a model which states that when a resonse is followed by a reinforcer - the result will be an increase in the probability that this response will occur again under similar conditions.






40. Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development - Developed the idea of the 'Zone of Proximal Development -' mainly focused on cognitive development of children.






41. (Tolman) - these are hypothetical constructs rather than physical parameters. They are definable and measurable but not observable. They have functional relationships with both independent and dependent variables. They are internal cognitive processe






42. Explanation of development that focuses on the quality of the early emotional relationships developed between children and their caregivers






43. Dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.






44. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the 'stamping in' of connections - forgetting involves 'stamping out' connections.






45. Gestalt Theory






46. Vygotsky - ZPD refers to the observation that children - when learning a particular task or body of information - are unable initiallly to do the task. Later they can do it with the assistance of an adult or older child mentor - and finally they can






47. 1925 - Observational Learning






48. (Piaget) - an element of a cognitive structure. Schema refers to a general potential to perform a class of behaviors - and content describes the conditions that prevail during any particular example of that potential being activated. (Schemata = plul






49. Neo-Freudian - humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting 'Who am I?'






50. Learning as a Mental Process