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CLEP Educational Psychology Theorists And Theories

Subjects : clep, teaching
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Neo-Freudian - humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting 'Who am I?'






2. Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator






3. Connectionism; Wrote the thesis - 'Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals' - in which he concluded that an experimental approach is the only way to understand learning and established his famous 'Law of Eff






4. Humanistic Theory of Learning






5. (Thorndike) - Responses which occur just prior to a satisfying state of affairs are more likely to be repeated - and responses just prior to an annoying state of affairs are more likely NOT to be repeated.






6. Occurs when the presence of previously learned material interferes with the learning of new material.






7. Albert Bandura - 1. Attention - the learner must have his/her senses directed at the model 2. Retention - coding - and storing the patterns so they can be retrieved. This may include vivid imagery an verbal descriptions. 3. Motor reproduction - kines






8. While earlier theories often focused on abnormal behavior and psychological problems - humanist theories instead emphasized the basic goodness of human beings. Some of these theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.






9. Humanistic; Experiential Learning






10. (Brown - Cognitive apprenticeship)- knowledge which lacks application or cross contextual understanding.






11. Multiple intelligence theory specifies seven different intelligences that presume a broadened definition of intelligence.






12. Sign Theory & Latent Learning






13. Structure of intellect stipulated that intelligence depends on our mental operations (or process of thinking) - our thoughts (i.e. - content) - and the products or end results of these operations.






14. Field Theoretical Approach






15. A theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.






16. Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development - Developed the idea of the 'Zone of Proximal Development -' mainly focused on cognitive development of children.






17. Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning; The role of the Unconscious Mind in Learning






18. (Estes) - A theory developed by Estes that attempts to show how stimuli are sampled and attached to responses. A statistical learning theory.






19. The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished






20. Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels






21. Presented a theory of self-efficacy - or the importance of one's personal belief regarding self-ability and chances of success - as key to motivation.






22. Learning as a Mental Process






23. Cognitive Dissonance






24. (Tolman) - these are hypothetical constructs rather than physical parameters. They are definable and measurable but not observable. They have functional relationships with both independent and dependent variables. They are internal cognitive processe






25. Gestalt Learning Theory






26. Discrimination Learning






27. Constructivist; published The Process of Education; theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning






28. (Behaviorism)- One explanation for learning in behaviorism; an association is built between two events simply because they occured simultaneously or overlapping in time.For example - if food is presented while some auditory signal is given - a dog wi






29. (Piaget) - an element of a cognitive structure. Schema refers to a general potential to perform a class of behaviors - and content describes the conditions that prevail during any particular example of that potential being activated. (Schemata = plul






30. Humanistic; Transformational Learning






31. Stimulus Sampling Theory (SST)






32. (Behaviorism - Skinner)- a model which states that when a resonse is followed by a reinforcer - the result will be an increase in the probability that this response will occur again under similar conditions.






33. Learning as a group process; Lev Vygotsky 1896 - 1935 Social Constructivism






34. Perception - Decision making - Attention - Memory - & Problem Solving






35. Dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.






36. Constructivist; Genetic Epistemology; Stages of Cognitive Development






37. Freud's theory which emphasized that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in he first few years is crucial for healthy personality development






38. Gestalt Theory






39. Theory of Classical Conditioning






40. Cognitive Apprenticeship






41. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response are strengthened by recency - frequency - and contiguity.






42. Development; Concepts: stages of moral development; Study Basics: Studied boys responses to and processes of reasoning in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is 'Heinz' who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he ste






43. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the 'stamping in' of connections - forgetting involves 'stamping out' connections.






44. (Spence)- reinforcement combined with frustration or inhibitors facilitated finding a correct stimulus among a cluster which included incorrect ones. This was a 'carrot and stick' model.






45. A learning theory in which the probablity of a response is the dependent variable. Independent variables are usually stimuli controlled by the researcher. These are attempts to quantify and objectify learning research.






46. Follower of Jean Piaget. Developed and researched advanced organizers. Developed subsumation theorty - that the primary process in learning is subsumation where new material is relation to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure in a subst






47. Contiguity Theory; 'One-Trial Learning' (Behaviorism)






48. Constructive Knowledge.Construct with ideas and concepts of what they know.






49. Development; Concepts: gender in moral development; Study Basics: Did moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relations






50. Social Constructivism; The Zone of Proximal Development is a concept for which he is well known.