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CLEP Educational Psychology Theorists And Theories

Subjects : clep, teaching
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. (Tolman) - these are hypothetical constructs rather than physical parameters. They are definable and measurable but not observable. They have functional relationships with both independent and dependent variables. They are internal cognitive processe






2. Constructive Knowledge.Construct with ideas and concepts of what they know.






3. Social Constructivism; The Zone of Proximal Development is a concept for which he is well known.






4. (Tolman)- the theory that animals (and humans) develop expectancy or anticipation of rewards for completing behaviors they have learned - and this expectancy functions as an internal incentive or motivation.






5. (Spence)- reinforcement combined with frustration or inhibitors facilitated finding a correct stimulus among a cluster which included incorrect ones. This was a 'carrot and stick' model.






6. Learning as a Mental Process






7. Neo-Freudian - humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting 'Who am I?'






8. According to Maslow - the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential






9. Development; Concepts: stages of moral development; Study Basics: Studied boys responses to and processes of reasoning in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is 'Heinz' who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he ste






10. Gestalt Learning Theory






11. Structure of intellect stipulated that intelligence depends on our mental operations (or process of thinking) - our thoughts (i.e. - content) - and the products or end results of these operations.






12. Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels






13. Albert Bandura - 1. Attention - the learner must have his/her senses directed at the model 2. Retention - coding - and storing the patterns so they can be retrieved. This may include vivid imagery an verbal descriptions. 3. Motor reproduction - kines






14. Drive Reduction Theory






15. Cognitive Apprenticeship






16. Theory of Classical Conditioning






17. Physiological- water - sleep food. Safety- security - shelter - protection Belongingness- love - friendship - acceptance. Ego Needs- prestige - status. Self Actualization- self fulfillment - enriching experiances






18. Constructivist; published The Process of Education; theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning






19. (Piaget) - an element of a cognitive structure. Schema refers to a general potential to perform a class of behaviors - and content describes the conditions that prevail during any particular example of that potential being activated. (Schemata = plul






20. 1925 - Observational Learning






21. (Hull)- the notion that behavior occurs in reponse to 'drives' such as hunger - thirst - sexual interest - feeling cold - etc. When the goal of the drive is attained (food - water - mating - warmth) the drive is reduced - and this constitutes reinfor






22. A learning theory in which the probablity of a response is the dependent variable. Independent variables are usually stimuli controlled by the researcher. These are attempts to quantify and objectify learning research.






23. Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor - 2. preoperational - 3. concrete operational - and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation






24. Development; Concepts: gender in moral development; Study Basics: Did moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relations






25. A theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.






26. Insight Learning






27. In the study of motivation - an explanation of behavior that asserts that people actively and regularly determine their own goals and the means of achieving them through thought.






28. Multiple intelligence theory specifies seven different intelligences that presume a broadened definition of intelligence.






29. Learning as a group process; Lev Vygotsky 1896 - 1935 Social Constructivism






30. Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning; The role of the Unconscious Mind in Learning






31. The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished






32. Constructivist; Genetic Epistemology; Stages of Cognitive Development






33. (Brown - Cognitive apprenticeship)- knowledge which lacks application or cross contextual understanding.






34. Coined the term 'Behaviorism'






35. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the 'stamping in' of connections - forgetting involves 'stamping out' connections.






36. Follower of Jean Piaget. Developed and researched advanced organizers. Developed subsumation theorty - that the primary process in learning is subsumation where new material is relation to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure in a subst






37. Discrimination Learning






38. A transitional group - bridging the gap between behaviorism and cognitive theories of learning. timulus-Response; Intervening Internal Variables; Purposive Behavior; E.C.Tolman - Clark Hull - Kenneth W. Spence






39. Cognitive Dissonance






40. (G. A. Miller)- (Test - Operate - Test - Exit). These are operational feedback units that function within a self-regulated system.






41. Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator






42. (Behaviorism)- One explanation for learning in behaviorism; an association is built between two events simply because they occured simultaneously or overlapping in time.For example - if food is presented while some auditory signal is given - a dog wi






43. Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning






44. Vygotsky - ZPD refers to the observation that children - when learning a particular task or body of information - are unable initiallly to do the task. Later they can do it with the assistance of an adult or older child mentor - and finally they can






45. Freud's theory which emphasized that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in he first few years is crucial for healthy personality development






46. Gestalt Theory






47. Variables being observed and measured in response to the independent variables - such as amount of time taken to learn a task or respond after a stimulus is given - number of responses - etc.






48. Dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.






49. Stimulus Sampling Theory (SST)






50. Sign Theory & Latent Learning