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CLEP Educational Psychology Theorists And Theories

Subjects : clep, teaching
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1. Gestalt Learning Theory

2. Cognitive Apprenticeship

3. Occurs when the presence of previously learned material interferes with the learning of new material.

4. Humanistic; Transformational Learning

5. Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator

6. A theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.

7. Stimulus Sampling Theory (SST)

8. (Estes) - A theory developed by Estes that attempts to show how stimuli are sampled and attached to responses. A statistical learning theory.

9. Sign Theory & Latent Learning

10. Neo-Freudian - humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting 'Who am I?'

11. Operant Conditioning

12. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the 'stamping in' of connections - forgetting involves 'stamping out' connections.

13. Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning; The role of the Unconscious Mind in Learning

14. Humanistic; Experiential Learning

15. Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor - 2. preoperational - 3. concrete operational - and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation

16. Constructivist; published The Process of Education; theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning

17. Physiological- water - sleep food. Safety- security - shelter - protection Belongingness- love - friendship - acceptance. Ego Needs- prestige - status. Self Actualization- self fulfillment - enriching experiances

18. Contiguity Theory; 'One-Trial Learning' (Behaviorism)

19. Connectionism; Wrote the thesis - 'Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals' - in which he concluded that an experimental approach is the only way to understand learning and established his famous 'Law of Eff

20. Theory of Classical Conditioning

21. Development; Concepts: gender in moral development; Study Basics: Did moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relations

22. Field Theoretical Approach

23. (Piaget) - an element of a cognitive structure. Schema refers to a general potential to perform a class of behaviors - and content describes the conditions that prevail during any particular example of that potential being activated. (Schemata = plul

24. Insight Learning

25. A transitional group - bridging the gap between behaviorism and cognitive theories of learning. timulus-Response; Intervening Internal Variables; Purposive Behavior; E.C.Tolman - Clark Hull - Kenneth W. Spence

26. Multiple intelligence theory specifies seven different intelligences that presume a broadened definition of intelligence.

27. According to Maslow - the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

28. Cognitive Dissonance

29. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response are strengthened by recency - frequency - and contiguity.

30. Dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.

31. (Behaviorism - Skinner)- a model which states that when a resonse is followed by a reinforcer - the result will be an increase in the probability that this response will occur again under similar conditions.

32. (Thorndike) - Responses which occur just prior to a satisfying state of affairs are more likely to be repeated - and responses just prior to an annoying state of affairs are more likely NOT to be repeated.

33. Development; Concepts: stages of moral development; Study Basics: Studied boys responses to and processes of reasoning in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is 'Heinz' who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he ste

34. (G. A. Miller)- (Test - Operate - Test - Exit). These are operational feedback units that function within a self-regulated system.

35. Learning as a Mental Process

36. Variables being observed and measured in response to the independent variables - such as amount of time taken to learn a task or respond after a stimulus is given - number of responses - etc.

37. Constructive Knowledge.Construct with ideas and concepts of what they know.

38. (Behaviorism)- One explanation for learning in behaviorism; an association is built between two events simply because they occured simultaneously or overlapping in time.For example - if food is presented while some auditory signal is given - a dog wi

39. Social Constructivism; The Zone of Proximal Development is a concept for which he is well known.

40. Discrimination Learning

41. Presented a theory of self-efficacy - or the importance of one's personal belief regarding self-ability and chances of success - as key to motivation.

42. Humanistic Theory of Learning

43. Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning

44. Gestalt Theory

45. While earlier theories often focused on abnormal behavior and psychological problems - humanist theories instead emphasized the basic goodness of human beings. Some of these theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.

46. (Hull)- the notion that behavior occurs in reponse to 'drives' such as hunger - thirst - sexual interest - feeling cold - etc. When the goal of the drive is attained (food - water - mating - warmth) the drive is reduced - and this constitutes reinfor

47. Follower of Jean Piaget. Developed and researched advanced organizers. Developed subsumation theorty - that the primary process in learning is subsumation where new material is relation to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure in a subst

48. (Brown - Cognitive apprenticeship)- knowledge which lacks application or cross contextual understanding.

49. Structure of intellect stipulated that intelligence depends on our mental operations (or process of thinking) - our thoughts (i.e. - content) - and the products or end results of these operations.

50. Vygotsky - ZPD refers to the observation that children - when learning a particular task or body of information - are unable initiallly to do the task. Later they can do it with the assistance of an adult or older child mentor - and finally they can