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CLEP Educational Psychology Theorists And Theories

Subjects : clep, teaching
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor - 2. preoperational - 3. concrete operational - and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation






2. Explanation of development that focuses on the quality of the early emotional relationships developed between children and their caregivers






3. (Hull)- the notion that behavior occurs in reponse to 'drives' such as hunger - thirst - sexual interest - feeling cold - etc. When the goal of the drive is attained (food - water - mating - warmth) the drive is reduced - and this constitutes reinfor






4. Learning as a group process; Lev Vygotsky 1896 - 1935 Social Constructivism






5. Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator






6. Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels






7. (G. A. Miller)- (Test - Operate - Test - Exit). These are operational feedback units that function within a self-regulated system.






8. The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished






9. In the study of motivation - an explanation of behavior that asserts that people actively and regularly determine their own goals and the means of achieving them through thought.






10. Neo-Freudian - humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting 'Who am I?'






11. Cognitive Dissonance






12. (Brown - Cognitive apprenticeship)- knowledge which lacks application or cross contextual understanding.






13. Cognitive Apprenticeship






14. 1925 - Observational Learning






15. (Piaget) - an element of a cognitive structure. Schema refers to a general potential to perform a class of behaviors - and content describes the conditions that prevail during any particular example of that potential being activated. (Schemata = plul






16. Structure of intellect stipulated that intelligence depends on our mental operations (or process of thinking) - our thoughts (i.e. - content) - and the products or end results of these operations.






17. Discrimination Learning






18. Constructivist; Genetic Epistemology; Stages of Cognitive Development






19. Gestalt Theory






20. Presented a theory of self-efficacy - or the importance of one's personal belief regarding self-ability and chances of success - as key to motivation.






21. Field Theoretical Approach






22. Development; Concepts: stages of moral development; Study Basics: Studied boys responses to and processes of reasoning in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is 'Heinz' who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he ste






23. Humanistic; Experiential Learning






24. Multiple intelligence theory specifies seven different intelligences that presume a broadened definition of intelligence.






25. (Tolman)- the theory that animals (and humans) develop expectancy or anticipation of rewards for completing behaviors they have learned - and this expectancy functions as an internal incentive or motivation.






26. Physiological- water - sleep food. Safety- security - shelter - protection Belongingness- love - friendship - acceptance. Ego Needs- prestige - status. Self Actualization- self fulfillment - enriching experiances






27. Social Constructivism; The Zone of Proximal Development is a concept for which he is well known.






28. (Estes) - A theory developed by Estes that attempts to show how stimuli are sampled and attached to responses. A statistical learning theory.






29. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the 'stamping in' of connections - forgetting involves 'stamping out' connections.






30. Insight Learning






31. Gestalt Learning Theory






32. Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning; The role of the Unconscious Mind in Learning






33. Development; Concepts: gender in moral development; Study Basics: Did moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relations






34. A learning theory in which the probablity of a response is the dependent variable. Independent variables are usually stimuli controlled by the researcher. These are attempts to quantify and objectify learning research.






35. Drive Reduction Theory






36. (Behaviorism - Skinner)- a model which states that when a resonse is followed by a reinforcer - the result will be an increase in the probability that this response will occur again under similar conditions.






37. Vygotsky - ZPD refers to the observation that children - when learning a particular task or body of information - are unable initiallly to do the task. Later they can do it with the assistance of an adult or older child mentor - and finally they can






38. A theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.






39. While earlier theories often focused on abnormal behavior and psychological problems - humanist theories instead emphasized the basic goodness of human beings. Some of these theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.






40. Theory of Classical Conditioning






41. Humanistic; Transformational Learning






42. Dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.






43. Constructive Knowledge.Construct with ideas and concepts of what they know.






44. A transitional group - bridging the gap between behaviorism and cognitive theories of learning. timulus-Response; Intervening Internal Variables; Purposive Behavior; E.C.Tolman - Clark Hull - Kenneth W. Spence






45. Contiguity Theory; 'One-Trial Learning' (Behaviorism)






46. Constructivist; published The Process of Education; theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning






47. (Thorndike) - Responses which occur just prior to a satisfying state of affairs are more likely to be repeated - and responses just prior to an annoying state of affairs are more likely NOT to be repeated.






48. Follower of Jean Piaget. Developed and researched advanced organizers. Developed subsumation theorty - that the primary process in learning is subsumation where new material is relation to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure in a subst






49. Learning as a Mental Process






50. Albert Bandura - 1. Attention - the learner must have his/her senses directed at the model 2. Retention - coding - and storing the patterns so they can be retrieved. This may include vivid imagery an verbal descriptions. 3. Motor reproduction - kines