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CLEP Educational Psychology Theorists And Theories

Subjects : clep, teaching
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Connectionism; Wrote the thesis - 'Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals' - in which he concluded that an experimental approach is the only way to understand learning and established his famous 'Law of Eff






2. (Tolman) - these are hypothetical constructs rather than physical parameters. They are definable and measurable but not observable. They have functional relationships with both independent and dependent variables. They are internal cognitive processe






3. Stimulus Sampling Theory (SST)






4. Cognitive Apprenticeship






5. Theory of Classical Conditioning






6. Neo-Freudian - humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting 'Who am I?'






7. (Hull)- the notion that behavior occurs in reponse to 'drives' such as hunger - thirst - sexual interest - feeling cold - etc. When the goal of the drive is attained (food - water - mating - warmth) the drive is reduced - and this constitutes reinfor






8. Operant Conditioning






9. (Brown - Cognitive apprenticeship)- knowledge which lacks application or cross contextual understanding.






10. (Spence)- reinforcement combined with frustration or inhibitors facilitated finding a correct stimulus among a cluster which included incorrect ones. This was a 'carrot and stick' model.






11. Gestalt Learning Theory






12. Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor - 2. preoperational - 3. concrete operational - and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation






13. Insight Learning






14. Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning






15. Presented a theory of self-efficacy - or the importance of one's personal belief regarding self-ability and chances of success - as key to motivation.






16. Humanistic; Experiential Learning






17. 1925 - Observational Learning






18. Variables being observed and measured in response to the independent variables - such as amount of time taken to learn a task or respond after a stimulus is given - number of responses - etc.






19. Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator






20. Sign Theory & Latent Learning






21. Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels






22. (G. A. Miller)- (Test - Operate - Test - Exit). These are operational feedback units that function within a self-regulated system.






23. Constructivist; Genetic Epistemology; Stages of Cognitive Development






24. Social Constructivism; The Zone of Proximal Development is a concept for which he is well known.






25. Multiple intelligence theory specifies seven different intelligences that presume a broadened definition of intelligence.






26. Explanation of development that focuses on the quality of the early emotional relationships developed between children and their caregivers






27. Humanistic; Transformational Learning






28. (Piaget) - an element of a cognitive structure. Schema refers to a general potential to perform a class of behaviors - and content describes the conditions that prevail during any particular example of that potential being activated. (Schemata = plul






29. Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development - Developed the idea of the 'Zone of Proximal Development -' mainly focused on cognitive development of children.






30. Freud's theory which emphasized that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in he first few years is crucial for healthy personality development






31. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the 'stamping in' of connections - forgetting involves 'stamping out' connections.






32. Cognitive Dissonance






33. Dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.






34. Humanistic Theory of Learning






35. Physiological- water - sleep food. Safety- security - shelter - protection Belongingness- love - friendship - acceptance. Ego Needs- prestige - status. Self Actualization- self fulfillment - enriching experiances






36. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response are strengthened by recency - frequency - and contiguity.






37. Constructivist; published The Process of Education; theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning






38. Development; Concepts: gender in moral development; Study Basics: Did moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relations






39. Contiguity Theory; 'One-Trial Learning' (Behaviorism)






40. Albert Bandura - 1. Attention - the learner must have his/her senses directed at the model 2. Retention - coding - and storing the patterns so they can be retrieved. This may include vivid imagery an verbal descriptions. 3. Motor reproduction - kines






41. (Thorndike) - Responses which occur just prior to a satisfying state of affairs are more likely to be repeated - and responses just prior to an annoying state of affairs are more likely NOT to be repeated.






42. Perception - Decision making - Attention - Memory - & Problem Solving






43. Learning as a group process; Lev Vygotsky 1896 - 1935 Social Constructivism






44. Drive Reduction Theory






45. Occurs when the presence of previously learned material interferes with the learning of new material.






46. A theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.






47. Vygotsky - ZPD refers to the observation that children - when learning a particular task or body of information - are unable initiallly to do the task. Later they can do it with the assistance of an adult or older child mentor - and finally they can






48. Field Theoretical Approach






49. Structure of intellect stipulated that intelligence depends on our mental operations (or process of thinking) - our thoughts (i.e. - content) - and the products or end results of these operations.






50. Development; Concepts: stages of moral development; Study Basics: Studied boys responses to and processes of reasoning in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is 'Heinz' who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he ste