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CLEP Educational Psychology Theorists And Theories

Subjects : clep, teaching
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Contiguity Theory; 'One-Trial Learning' (Behaviorism)

2. (Behaviorism)- One explanation for learning in behaviorism; an association is built between two events simply because they occured simultaneously or overlapping in time.For example - if food is presented while some auditory signal is given - a dog wi

3. Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels

4. Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator

5. Constructivist; published The Process of Education; theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning

6. Cognitive Dissonance

7. Multiple intelligence theory specifies seven different intelligences that presume a broadened definition of intelligence.

8. The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

9. A theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.

10. Albert Bandura - 1. Attention - the learner must have his/her senses directed at the model 2. Retention - coding - and storing the patterns so they can be retrieved. This may include vivid imagery an verbal descriptions. 3. Motor reproduction - kines

11. Cognitive Apprenticeship

12. Constructivist; Genetic Epistemology; Stages of Cognitive Development

13. Operant Conditioning

14. Humanistic; Transformational Learning

15. According to Maslow - the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

16. Perception - Decision making - Attention - Memory - & Problem Solving

17. (Tolman) - these are hypothetical constructs rather than physical parameters. They are definable and measurable but not observable. They have functional relationships with both independent and dependent variables. They are internal cognitive processe

18. Field Theoretical Approach

19. A learning theory in which the probablity of a response is the dependent variable. Independent variables are usually stimuli controlled by the researcher. These are attempts to quantify and objectify learning research.

20. (Piaget) - an element of a cognitive structure. Schema refers to a general potential to perform a class of behaviors - and content describes the conditions that prevail during any particular example of that potential being activated. (Schemata = plul

21. Development; Concepts: stages of moral development; Study Basics: Studied boys responses to and processes of reasoning in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is 'Heinz' who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he ste

22. Occurs when the presence of previously learned material interferes with the learning of new material.

23. Constructive Knowledge.Construct with ideas and concepts of what they know.

24. Structure of intellect stipulated that intelligence depends on our mental operations (or process of thinking) - our thoughts (i.e. - content) - and the products or end results of these operations.

25. 1925 - Observational Learning

26. A transitional group - bridging the gap between behaviorism and cognitive theories of learning. timulus-Response; Intervening Internal Variables; Purposive Behavior; E.C.Tolman - Clark Hull - Kenneth W. Spence

27. Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning; The role of the Unconscious Mind in Learning

28. Humanistic; Experiential Learning

29. In the study of motivation - an explanation of behavior that asserts that people actively and regularly determine their own goals and the means of achieving them through thought.

30. (Behaviorism - Skinner)- a model which states that when a resonse is followed by a reinforcer - the result will be an increase in the probability that this response will occur again under similar conditions.

31. (G. A. Miller)- (Test - Operate - Test - Exit). These are operational feedback units that function within a self-regulated system.

32. Social Constructivism; The Zone of Proximal Development is a concept for which he is well known.

33. Coined the term 'Behaviorism'

34. (Brown - Cognitive apprenticeship)- knowledge which lacks application or cross contextual understanding.

35. Stimulus Sampling Theory (SST)

36. Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning

37. Learning as a group process; Lev Vygotsky 1896 - 1935 Social Constructivism

38. Discrimination Learning

39. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response are strengthened by recency - frequency - and contiguity.

40. Humanistic Theory of Learning

41. (Hull)- the notion that behavior occurs in reponse to 'drives' such as hunger - thirst - sexual interest - feeling cold - etc. When the goal of the drive is attained (food - water - mating - warmth) the drive is reduced - and this constitutes reinfor

42. (Tolman)- the theory that animals (and humans) develop expectancy or anticipation of rewards for completing behaviors they have learned - and this expectancy functions as an internal incentive or motivation.

43. While earlier theories often focused on abnormal behavior and psychological problems - humanist theories instead emphasized the basic goodness of human beings. Some of these theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.

44. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the 'stamping in' of connections - forgetting involves 'stamping out' connections.

45. Drive Reduction Theory

46. Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development - Developed the idea of the 'Zone of Proximal Development -' mainly focused on cognitive development of children.

47. Gestalt Theory

48. Explanation of development that focuses on the quality of the early emotional relationships developed between children and their caregivers

49. Dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.

50. Learning as a Mental Process