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CLEP Educational Psychology Theorists And Theories

Subjects : clep, teaching
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels






2. Humanistic; Experiential Learning






3. Connectionism; Wrote the thesis - 'Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals' - in which he concluded that an experimental approach is the only way to understand learning and established his famous 'Law of Eff






4. Social Constructivism; The Zone of Proximal Development is a concept for which he is well known.






5. (Tolman)- the theory that animals (and humans) develop expectancy or anticipation of rewards for completing behaviors they have learned - and this expectancy functions as an internal incentive or motivation.






6. Field Theoretical Approach






7. Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning






8. A theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.






9. Occurs when the presence of previously learned material interferes with the learning of new material.






10. Gestalt Learning Theory






11. Contiguity Theory; 'One-Trial Learning' (Behaviorism)






12. Vygotsky - ZPD refers to the observation that children - when learning a particular task or body of information - are unable initiallly to do the task. Later they can do it with the assistance of an adult or older child mentor - and finally they can






13. (Piaget) - an element of a cognitive structure. Schema refers to a general potential to perform a class of behaviors - and content describes the conditions that prevail during any particular example of that potential being activated. (Schemata = plul






14. Follower of Jean Piaget. Developed and researched advanced organizers. Developed subsumation theorty - that the primary process in learning is subsumation where new material is relation to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure in a subst






15. Theory of Classical Conditioning






16. Multiple intelligence theory specifies seven different intelligences that presume a broadened definition of intelligence.






17. Constructivist; published The Process of Education; theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning






18. Gestalt Theory






19. Physiological- water - sleep food. Safety- security - shelter - protection Belongingness- love - friendship - acceptance. Ego Needs- prestige - status. Self Actualization- self fulfillment - enriching experiances






20. Humanistic Theory of Learning






21. Dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.






22. Humanistic; Transformational Learning






23. Insight Learning






24. Explanation of development that focuses on the quality of the early emotional relationships developed between children and their caregivers






25. The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished






26. According to Maslow - the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential






27. Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor - 2. preoperational - 3. concrete operational - and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation






28. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the 'stamping in' of connections - forgetting involves 'stamping out' connections.






29. Development; Concepts: stages of moral development; Study Basics: Studied boys responses to and processes of reasoning in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is 'Heinz' who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he ste






30. Cognitive Dissonance






31. (Spence)- reinforcement combined with frustration or inhibitors facilitated finding a correct stimulus among a cluster which included incorrect ones. This was a 'carrot and stick' model.






32. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response are strengthened by recency - frequency - and contiguity.






33. Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator






34. Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning; The role of the Unconscious Mind in Learning






35. Freud's theory which emphasized that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in he first few years is crucial for healthy personality development






36. Learning as a group process; Lev Vygotsky 1896 - 1935 Social Constructivism






37. (Estes) - A theory developed by Estes that attempts to show how stimuli are sampled and attached to responses. A statistical learning theory.






38. Variables being observed and measured in response to the independent variables - such as amount of time taken to learn a task or respond after a stimulus is given - number of responses - etc.






39. Drive Reduction Theory






40. Perception - Decision making - Attention - Memory - & Problem Solving






41. Presented a theory of self-efficacy - or the importance of one's personal belief regarding self-ability and chances of success - as key to motivation.






42. (Brown - Cognitive apprenticeship)- knowledge which lacks application or cross contextual understanding.






43. Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development - Developed the idea of the 'Zone of Proximal Development -' mainly focused on cognitive development of children.






44. Learning as a Mental Process






45. (Behaviorism)- One explanation for learning in behaviorism; an association is built between two events simply because they occured simultaneously or overlapping in time.For example - if food is presented while some auditory signal is given - a dog wi






46. A transitional group - bridging the gap between behaviorism and cognitive theories of learning. timulus-Response; Intervening Internal Variables; Purposive Behavior; E.C.Tolman - Clark Hull - Kenneth W. Spence






47. (Hull)- the notion that behavior occurs in reponse to 'drives' such as hunger - thirst - sexual interest - feeling cold - etc. When the goal of the drive is attained (food - water - mating - warmth) the drive is reduced - and this constitutes reinfor






48. Sign Theory & Latent Learning






49. Constructive Knowledge.Construct with ideas and concepts of what they know.






50. Cognitive Apprenticeship