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CLEP Educational Psychology Theorists And Theories

Subjects : clep, teaching
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Presented a theory of self-efficacy - or the importance of one's personal belief regarding self-ability and chances of success - as key to motivation.






2. Dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.






3. (Hull)- the notion that behavior occurs in reponse to 'drives' such as hunger - thirst - sexual interest - feeling cold - etc. When the goal of the drive is attained (food - water - mating - warmth) the drive is reduced - and this constitutes reinfor






4. 1925 - Observational Learning






5. Follower of Jean Piaget. Developed and researched advanced organizers. Developed subsumation theorty - that the primary process in learning is subsumation where new material is relation to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure in a subst






6. Learning as a Mental Process






7. Cognitive Apprenticeship






8. Perception - Decision making - Attention - Memory - & Problem Solving






9. Discrimination Learning






10. (Spence)- reinforcement combined with frustration or inhibitors facilitated finding a correct stimulus among a cluster which included incorrect ones. This was a 'carrot and stick' model.






11. Coined the term 'Behaviorism'






12. Neo-Freudian - humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting 'Who am I?'






13. Insight Learning






14. (Brown - Cognitive apprenticeship)- knowledge which lacks application or cross contextual understanding.






15. Physiological- water - sleep food. Safety- security - shelter - protection Belongingness- love - friendship - acceptance. Ego Needs- prestige - status. Self Actualization- self fulfillment - enriching experiances






16. (Estes) - A theory developed by Estes that attempts to show how stimuli are sampled and attached to responses. A statistical learning theory.






17. Field Theoretical Approach






18. (Behaviorism)- One explanation for learning in behaviorism; an association is built between two events simply because they occured simultaneously or overlapping in time.For example - if food is presented while some auditory signal is given - a dog wi






19. Vygotsky - ZPD refers to the observation that children - when learning a particular task or body of information - are unable initiallly to do the task. Later they can do it with the assistance of an adult or older child mentor - and finally they can






20. (Behaviorism - Skinner)- a model which states that when a resonse is followed by a reinforcer - the result will be an increase in the probability that this response will occur again under similar conditions.






21. Albert Bandura - 1. Attention - the learner must have his/her senses directed at the model 2. Retention - coding - and storing the patterns so they can be retrieved. This may include vivid imagery an verbal descriptions. 3. Motor reproduction - kines






22. Structure of intellect stipulated that intelligence depends on our mental operations (or process of thinking) - our thoughts (i.e. - content) - and the products or end results of these operations.






23. Theory of Classical Conditioning






24. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the 'stamping in' of connections - forgetting involves 'stamping out' connections.






25. Humanistic; Experiential Learning






26. Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels






27. Operant Conditioning






28. Gestalt Theory






29. Social Constructivism; The Zone of Proximal Development is a concept for which he is well known.






30. Gestalt Learning Theory






31. A theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.






32. (Thorndike) - Responses which occur just prior to a satisfying state of affairs are more likely to be repeated - and responses just prior to an annoying state of affairs are more likely NOT to be repeated.






33. (Tolman) - these are hypothetical constructs rather than physical parameters. They are definable and measurable but not observable. They have functional relationships with both independent and dependent variables. They are internal cognitive processe






34. Freud's theory which emphasized that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in he first few years is crucial for healthy personality development






35. Multiple intelligence theory specifies seven different intelligences that presume a broadened definition of intelligence.






36. (Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response are strengthened by recency - frequency - and contiguity.






37. According to Maslow - the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential






38. Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning






39. Sign Theory & Latent Learning






40. Constructivist; published The Process of Education; theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning






41. Drive Reduction Theory






42. Humanistic Theory of Learning






43. Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning; The role of the Unconscious Mind in Learning






44. Variables being observed and measured in response to the independent variables - such as amount of time taken to learn a task or respond after a stimulus is given - number of responses - etc.






45. A transitional group - bridging the gap between behaviorism and cognitive theories of learning. timulus-Response; Intervening Internal Variables; Purposive Behavior; E.C.Tolman - Clark Hull - Kenneth W. Spence






46. Contiguity Theory; 'One-Trial Learning' (Behaviorism)






47. Development; Concepts: gender in moral development; Study Basics: Did moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relations






48. Constructive Knowledge.Construct with ideas and concepts of what they know.






49. In the study of motivation - an explanation of behavior that asserts that people actively and regularly determine their own goals and the means of achieving them through thought.






50. While earlier theories often focused on abnormal behavior and psychological problems - humanist theories instead emphasized the basic goodness of human beings. Some of these theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.