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CLEP Human Growth And Development

Subjects : clep, teaching
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. From Lev Vygotsky's theory. the difference between what a child can do with help and what the child can do without any help or guidance.

2. Form of indirect aggression - prevalent in girls - involving spreading rumors - gossiping - and nonverbal putdowns for the purpose of social manipulation

3. 1896-1934; russian developmental psychologist who emphasized the role of the social environment on cognitive development and proposed the idea of zones of proximal development

4. Stage of development when organism is most vulnerable to teratogens.

5. Term coined by animal psychologists Marian Breland Bailey and Keller Breland; tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors following repeated reinforcement

6. Sternberg's theory that intelligence consists of analytical intelligence - creative intelligence - and practical intelligence.

7. The understanding that a certain object or event can be simultaneously perceived by more than one sensory system

8. Suggested children are born into world with empty minds - environment shapes them

9. Harvard researcher that has identified at least eight types of intelligences: linguistic - logical/mathematical - bodily/kinesthetic - musical - spatial (visual) - interpersonal (the ability to understand others) - intrapersonal (the ability to under

10. Those with this disease are often normal weight

11. Term for practical intelligence

12. In Piaget's theory these are flexible and reversible

13. Psychologist who defined 3 styles of parenting: authoritarian - authoritative - permissive.

14. Second of Piaget's (age 2-7). begin to use words as mental symbols and to form mental images. still limited in their ability to use logic to solve problems. do not yet understand conservation.

15. The basis for most human learning

16. Third of Piaget's (7-11). children learn conservation and mathematical transformations.

17. The principle that development proceeds from the center of the body outward

18. Defined the theory of 3 levels of moral development. there are two stages within each level. to achieve advanced moral development - children must be exposed to both sides of moral dilemmas

19. Inflicting harm in order to obtain something of value

20. Hall and Gesel launched this approach in which measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development

21. Psychologist who researched the relationship of body contact and nourishment to attachment - using infant monkeys and artificial mothers

22. Proposed the 5 stages of perspective taking: Egocentrism - Assume one perspective is right - Understands intention - Understands perspective of the larger social group

23. A period of time in the development of identity in which a person delays making a decision about important issues but actively explores various alternatives

24. Piaget's notion of adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

25. Behavior that benefits someone else or society but that generally offers no obvious benefit to the person performing it; can be taught through positive reinforcement - observational learning - modeling - and assignment of responsibilities designed to

26. When infants display a decrease in interest toward an object

27. Play by infants and toddlers. activity that involves simple - repetitive movements and no symbolic thinking required. eg. sand shoveling - splashing water - pushing a toy

28. Oral - anal (1-3) - phallic (4-6) - latency (6-puberty) - genital

29. Child has smaller-than normal brain leading to other disabilities

30. The fact that children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure

31. Piaget's notion of incorporating a novel idea or object into an existing schema or conception

32. Occurs when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply

33. Occurs between 11 and 13 months

34. The generation of adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children

35. The average number of MORPHEMES

36. This causes more deaths in children than physical abuse

37. Joy - Anger - Fear - Surprise - Interest - Disgust - Distress - Sadness

38. Fourth of Piaget's. characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning and think abstractly.

39. We don't inherit a specific IQ; rather we have a range of academic potential

40. Introduced the concept of fast mapping. calculated that children between the ages of 1.5 and 6 learn an average of nine new words per day.

41. In Bronfenbrenner's bioecological approach - settings not experienced directly by individuals still influence their development (for example - effects of events at a parent's workplace on children's development).

42. Big 5 trait that increases for both sexes over their lifetimes

43. First of Piaget's. lasts from birth to acquisition of language. cognitive devmt begins and children learn causality - object permanence towards end

44. Increased exposure to stimuli - enhanced encoding (storing) of information in long-term memory - and increased ease and efficiency in retrieving the stored information will improve this

45. Infant startle response to sudden - intense noise or movement. When startled the newborn arches its back - throws back its head - and flings out its arms and legs.

46. Loss of elasticity of the lens and thus loss of ability to see close objects as a result of the aging process

47. Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level

48. Ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are solved. term coined by Harry Harlow.

49. According to Piaget - we possess these to create abstract - generalized account of repeated events

50. A technique of detecting fetal abnormalities that involves examination of placental tissue extracted from the chorion