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GMAT Critical Reasoning

Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Follows on from the conclusion instead of identifying an assumption that underlies the conclusion






2. The main point of the argument - logically supported by the assumptions and premises. In the form of an opinion or claim.






3. Extreme words make the answer choices incorrect - unless the argument explicitly justifies/states extreme words. A correct answer choice must be 100% true. When you see boundary or extreme words in an answer - ask 'what is the most extreme example I






4. Commonly uses words 'assumption - assume - flaw or questionable'. Assumptions serve as a necessary bridge between the premises and the conclusion. The correct answer choice of an assumption question must be necessary to the conclusion of the argument






5. Proposes faulty mathematical or logical reasoning - make sure that any substituted expressions are truly synonyms






6. Solve a problem posed by the premises - correct AC should directly counteract or fix a given problem. Tend to appear as a new premise - wrong AC will address some piece of the argument but not counteract or fix the problem. Some wrong AC will reinfor






7. Explains or leads to a premise instead of the conclusion






8. Stated pieces of information or evidence that provide support for the conclusion (facts - opinions or claims).






9. Look for the assumption to: 1. Bridge agap between any premise and the conclusion. 2. Support/strengthen/validate the conclusion. The answer doesn't have to be the only necessary assumption. The right answer is often 'necessary but not sufficient.' I






10. Describe the role of a part or parts of an argument - often use argument/counterargument structure (use modified T-diagram) Don't spend too much time - eliminate a few choices and move on. Two boldfaced statements - determine the role each one plays






11. Tied to a premise and provides unnecessary information about a premise - if the premise is already a stated fact - it doesn't need support - make sure the answer choice is not simply related to the conclusion but supports it






12. To help the process of elimination: 1. Write down letters A-E. 2. Evaluate each answer choice and note whether a. It strengthens the conclusion with an S b. it weakens the conclusion with a W c. Is irrelevant to the conclusion with a slash through it






13. If you have two claims X & Y - ask yourself which leads to the other. A) 'X - therefore Y'. If this works - Y is the conclusion. B) 'Y - therefore X'. If this works - X is the conclusion. The deduction that takes place last logically in the sequence






14. Identify the conclusion and choose the best AC that restates or paraphrases it






15. Therefore - As a result - Suggests - It follows that - Indicates - Accordingly - So - Consequently - Thus - Hence - Should






16. When reading any question stem - try to classify the problem. Then - as you diagram - proactively find answers for the question type. Read the question stem first. If it is not immediately helpful - do not dwell. The process of diagramming will gener






17. To strengthen an argument - look for an answer choice that fixes a weakness of the conclusion - validates an assumption - or introduces new supporting evidence. A premise can strengthen or support a conclusion without being necessary for that conclus






18. Many answer choices weaken the argument instead of strengthening it - make sure to note the question type so as to choose the correct answer






19. Premise + (assumption) = Conclusion






20. Read the passage and label each boldface as Fact - Opinion - or Conclusion. Skim each answer choice - only looking for terminology matching F - O - C. Eliminate AC that don't match F - O - C classification.






21. Since - Due to - As a result of - Because - Given that - As






22. Conclude something from a given set of premises - the conclusion you draw must be true as a result of only the given premises; it should not require any additional assumptions. Sample question stems: 'If the statements above are true - which of the f






23. 1. Find the assumption. 2. Draw a conclusion. 3. Strengthen the conclusion. 4. Weaken the conclusion. 5. Explain an event or discrepancy. 6. Analyze the argument structure. 7. Evaluate the conclusion. 8. Resolve a problem. 9. Provide an example. 10.






24. A category of assumption - uses some type of superlative qualifier like only/best/worst way - there shouldn't be another way or better/worse way.






25. Analyze the logical flow of a argument and choose the AC that most closely mimics the argument flow or structure - be sure to not spend too much time






26. 1. Focus on the essential meaning. 2. Use EXTREME shorthand.3. Keep terms the same - try to keep exact wording of key points. 4. Make sure you understand what you are writing.






27. A category of assumption - Reflects opinions or claims and that these are true or that a sequence of events will occur in a way the argument assumes.






28. A powerful technique. If an answer choice in a question is negated and the argument becomes nonsensical - then the answer choice is almost certainly correct. An argument might depend on several assumptions - any of which could be the answer. However






29. The answer choice MUST be true!






30. Select a situation that best exemplifies the conclusion






31. Answer choice replaces a fundamental term with something that seems like a synonym or introduces extreme words - common between numbers - percentages and proportions






32. Always - never - all -none - etc. They make the argument very broad or far-reaching - making it susceptible to attack. Note any extreme language used in premises or conclusions with an (!). This strategy ONLY applies to words in the argument. _______






33. A category of assumption - cause and effect conclusions; correlation is not causation. - look for an assumption that eliminates an alternate model of causation - you must rule out the causality in the other direction






34. 1. Look for the conclusion - often the last sentence of an argument - but sometimes the first. 2. Find the premises that lead to the conclusion - provide ALL the pieces of information written in the argument. - provide evidence that supports or leads






35. 1. Abbreviate anything you can but don't abbreviate so much that you change or lose the argument. 2. Underline key words - details and boundary words. 3. Use arrows to indicate cause and effect relationships. 4. Identify point of view with a colon to






36. Presented in 3 common ways - so read the question first! 1. Question contains the conclusion. 2. Question hints at the conclusion in the argument. 3. Argument contains an obvious conclusion - indicated by a clear signal word. Some GMAT questions ask






37. The conclusion you select should be supported by at least some of the premises. The conclusion does NOT need to address all of the premises. A correct answer may be a mathematical or logical deduction. In this type of question - the entire body of th






38. They limit the scope of an argument and can be useful in identifying incorrect answer choices. They provide nuances to the argument - which can help you make some answer choices correct or incorrect. When diagramming - be sure to include boundary wor






39. Make sure to note if a question is strengthen or weaken the conclusion so as to not mistakenly choose the wrong answer - use an S-W-slash chart






40. An answer choice that weakens the conclusion without requiring significant leaps of logic is likely correct. Use an S-W-slash chart on EXCEPT questions with confusing wording. Four answer choices will weaken - one will not. The correct answer choice






41. Answers require you to assume at least one piece of information not explicitly presented in the argument.






42. Use your paper to visibly eliminate answer choices A-E. Cross out incorrect choices and circle the correct answers. Check all of the answer choices even if you believe you have found the correct one. You may find that another answer choice is potenti






43. Always - only - all >> insert not necessarily or sometimes... Not - Never - none - not one - not once >> at least one - at least once - Some - a few - several >> no - none - Sometimes - on occasion - often >> never - At least - at most - more than -






44. Provide unnecessary information about a premise - make sure answer choices are not simply related to the conclusion but also weaken it - an answer choice can seem realistic - but only need to determine whether it weakens the argument






45. What do you do when two or more answer choices are very tempting? Use the Least Extreme Negation (LEN) technique. - negate answer choices to see whether the argument fails - use the least extreme negation possible. If the conclusion can still follow






46. 1. Draw a large T - leaving more room on the left 'pro' side than the right 'con' side. 2. Look for the conclusion and write it on the top of the T. 3. Read the argument sentence by sentence. Write any pro premises on the left and cons on the right.






47. In 'Explain an Event or Discrepancy' - Look for __________ that shows why the discrepancy is not one - after you add it to existing premises - it shoul make sense all together - correct AC fills a logical hole in the argument - allowing all premises






48. Only use this method when the primary patterns do not apply. A) predict the future - will - should - can be expected to - could result in - are likely to B) subjective opinion - anything that cannot be proven C) cause & effect - if...then - as a resu






49. Answer choice provides the opposite of what you are looking for






50. Most common among critical reasoning questions.Correct answers do NOT need to make the conclusion false or invalid; just needs to make it less likely that the conclusion is valid.