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GRE Biochemistry

Subjects : gre, science
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins - involved in signal cascades

2. Measures physical base pair distance

3. = pKa+ log(B/A) - -log(Ka)

4. Catalyzes the addition of bicarbonate to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form the four-carbon compound oxaloacetate

5. Preferable to hydrolysis (like in the breakdown of glycogen or starch - as in the example above) because glucose 1-phosphate yields more ATP than does free glucose when subsequently catabolized to pyruvate.

6. Neutralizes H2O2 - found in lysosomes

7. 1e-14

8. Vitamin B7 - cofactor that aids in CO2 transfer (carboxylase)

9. FAD-2 - NADP-3

10. Recognizes and targets specific proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes and the plasma membrane in prokaryotes

11. Gprotein association - exchanges GDP to GTP - converts AMP into cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP binds to protein kinase A: Protein kinase A phosphorylates phosphorylase kinase. increases Ca which binds calmodulin proteins which then binds to phosphorylase kin

12. Donates electrons to form a bond such as N in amines and O in alcohols

13. Isoelectric point and MW

14. MRNA

15. (His - Arg - Lys +) - (Glu - Asp -)

16. It uncouples oxidative phosphorylation by carrying protons across the mitochondrial membrane - leading to a rapid consumption of energy without generation of ATP.

17. Non-protein chemical compound that is bound to a protein and is required for the protein'S biological activity

18. Repeated replication w/o cell division

19. Contain their own DNA - mRNA - and proteins to synthesize more

20. Val - Leu - Ile - Ala - Met

21. Secondary messenger - used for intracellular signal transduction - such as transferring the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline - which cannot pass through the cell membrane. It is involved in the activation of protein kinases and regula

22. Vitamin B1 - cofactor that aids in dehydrogenase mostly

23. An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from its substrate

24. Tightly packed form of DNA - less accessible to protein factors that usually bind DNA

25. Cleaves on C terminal side of lysine and arginine

26. Converts oxaloacetate into phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide.

27. Measure tendency for recombination (frequency) 1cM = 1% chance of being separated

28. Circular and double stranded

29. Possess an F plasmid that also includes some DNA taken from the bacterial genome. Sometimes it is formed by incorrect excision from the chromosome

30. PKa = pH

31. Unwound - participates in the active transcription of DNA to mRNA products - site of RNA Pol II regulation

32. Do not contain F factor

33. Ser - Cys - Thr - Gln - Asn

34. Irreversible reaction that require ATP first part of glycolosis

35. Cis faces the ER and trans faces the plasma membrane

36. Enzymes in Krebs cycle that produce NADH

37. Dynins and kinesins (movement) - cilia and flagella

38. Acts as a coenzyme in all transamination reactions - and in some decarboxylation and deamination reactions of amino acids. The aldehyde group of PLP forms a Schiff-base linkage (internal aldimine) with the e-amino group of a specific lysine group of

39. Only one carbon center is changed

40. Nuclear lamins - desmins - keratins - internexins (structure)

41. Enter cells freely

42. Serine protease that cleaves on c terminal side of aromatics

43. Can undergo both lytic and lysogenic cycle

44. Recruits RecA protein - inhibited by LexA - results in mutagenesis

45. Derived from golgi vesicles

46. Catalyzes the irreversible carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate (OAA).

47. Gene has multiple effects

48. Possess F factor integrated into the bacterial genome. After integration into the host chromosomal DNA - these plasmids possess portions of - or entire - F factor and portions of the bacterial genome.

49. Gene duplication

50. The most important regulatory enzyme of glycolysis. It is an allosteric enzyme made of 4 subunits and controlled by many activators and inhibitors. PFK-1 catalyzes the important 'committed' step of glycolysis - the conversion of fructose 6-phosphate