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GRE Biochemistry

Subjects : gre, science
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Possess an F plasmid that also includes some DNA taken from the bacterial genome. Sometimes it is formed by incorrect excision from the chromosome

2. 1e-14

3. Can result in allele differences - suce as 3:1 and 1:3

4. Catalyzes the addition of bicarbonate to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form the four-carbon compound oxaloacetate

5. Krebs cycle enzyme

6. Derived from golgi vesicles

7. Only one carbon center is changed

8. PKa = pH

9. Donates electrons to form a bond such as N in amines and O in alcohols

10. Acts as a coenzyme in all transamination reactions - and in some decarboxylation and deamination reactions of amino acids. The aldehyde group of PLP forms a Schiff-base linkage (internal aldimine) with the e-amino group of a specific lysine group of

11. Catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins - involved in signal cascades

12. Isoelectric point and MW

13. = pKa+ log(B/A) - -log(Ka)

14. Neutralizes H2O2 - found in lysosomes

15. Irreversible reaction that require ATP first part of glycolosis

16. Ser - Cys - Thr - Gln - Asn

17. Vitamin B7 - cofactor that aids in CO2 transfer (carboxylase)

18. Unwound - participates in the active transcription of DNA to mRNA products - site of RNA Pol II regulation

19. When exons are arranged in multiple orders after removal of introns

20. Operon 1/2 - gene 1/6

21. Val - Leu - Ile - Ala - Met

22. Measure tendency for recombination (frequency) 1cM = 1% chance of being separated

23. Gene duplication

24. Can serve as a primer

25. Gprotein association - exchanges GDP to GTP - converts AMP into cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP binds to protein kinase A: Protein kinase A phosphorylates phosphorylase kinase. increases Ca which binds calmodulin proteins which then binds to phosphorylase kin

26. Dynins and kinesins (movement) - cilia and flagella

27. Vitamin B1 - cofactor that aids in dehydrogenase mostly

28. Measures physical base pair distance

29. Contain their own DNA - mRNA - and proteins to synthesize more

30. Catalyzes the irreversible carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate (OAA).

31. Nuclear lamins - desmins - keratins - internexins (structure)

32. RNA protein-complex

33. Enter cells freely

34. Failure of chromosome pairs to separate during meiosis

35. Enzymes in Krebs cycle that produce NADH

36. Regulator of glycolysis when glucose is low by cleaving 2;6 BPG lowering PFK1 - opposite effect when glucose is high

37. Cis faces the ER and trans faces the plasma membrane

38. Makes Acetyl-CoA from pyruvate

39. Acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA - rate limiting step in fatty acid synthesis

40. Can undergo both lytic and lysogenic cycle

41. Phe - Trp - Tyr - Gly - Pro

42. Catalyzes the transport of tRNA and mRNA down the ribosome in eukaryotes

43. It uncouples oxidative phosphorylation by carrying protons across the mitochondrial membrane - leading to a rapid consumption of energy without generation of ATP.

44. Serine protease that cleaves on c terminal side of aromatics

45. Actin - myosin - and other muscle proteins

46. The most important regulatory enzyme of glycolysis. It is an allosteric enzyme made of 4 subunits and controlled by many activators and inhibitors. PFK-1 catalyzes the important 'committed' step of glycolysis - the conversion of fructose 6-phosphate

47. Tightly packed form of DNA - less accessible to protein factors that usually bind DNA

48. Cleaves on C terminal side of lysine and arginine

49. Secondary messenger - used for intracellular signal transduction - such as transferring the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline - which cannot pass through the cell membrane. It is involved in the activation of protein kinases and regula

50. Preferable to hydrolysis (like in the breakdown of glycogen or starch - as in the example above) because glucose 1-phosphate yields more ATP than does free glucose when subsequently catabolized to pyruvate.