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GRE Cell Biology: Cell Cycle

Subjects : gre, science, biology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Second phase of mitosis. The nuclear envelope fragments. The microtubules of the spindle can now invade the nuclear area and interact with the chromosome - which have become even more condensed. Microtubules extend from each centrosome towards the m

2. Prophase - prometaphase - metaphase - anaphase - and telophase.

3. All body cells except the reproductive ones. The nuclei of human somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes made up of two sets of 23 - one set inherited from each parent.

4. A specific protein release by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide.

5. A type of cell division that prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) undergo to reproduce.

6. A nonmembranous organelle that functions throughout the cell cycle to organize the cell'S microtubules. A pair of centrioles is located at the center of the centrosome - but the centrioles are not essential for cell division (most centrosomes of plan

7. Could be an example of cases where ancestral mechanisms have remained relatively unchanged over evolutionary time. The nuclear envelope remains intact during cell division. The microtubules for a spindle within the nucleus and then separate the chrom

8. The narrow 'waist' at a specialized region where two chromatids are most closely attached.

9. Forms during telophase in plant cells in preparation for cytokinesis. Formed by vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus moving along microtubules to the middle of the cell and coalescing. Enlarges until its surrounding membrane fuses with the plas

10. First phase of Mitosis. The chromatin fibers become more tightly coiled - condensing into discrete chromosomes observable with a light microscope. Nucleoli disappear. Each duplicated chromosome appears as two identical sister chromatids joined togeth

11. A shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate. Indicates the beginning of cleavage during cytokinesis. On the cytoplasmic side of the furrow is a contractile ring of actin microfilaments associated with molecules of the protein my

12. The division of the nucleus

13. The reproduction of cells

14. Exhibited by most animal cells. In order to divide - the cells must be attached to a substratum like the extracellular matrix of a tissue. Experiments suggest that anchorage is signaled to the cell cycle control system via pathways involving plasma m

15. A protein that promotes mitosis. Often called a growth factor though.

16. A specific place on the bacterial chromosome where the process of cell division begins by DNA replication - producing two origins. As the chromosome begins to replicate - one origin moves rapidly toward the opposite end of the cell.

17. Abnormal cancer cells that become invasive enough to impair the functions or one or more organs form this. An individual with a malignant tumor is said to have cancer. Abnormalities in cells of malignant tumors: they may have unusual number of chromo

18. The life of a cell from the time it is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells.

19. Proteins that get their name from their cyclically fluctuating concentration in the cell. Activate kinases when the attach to them.

20. Where the DNA molecules are packaged into. Each eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus. Each single chromosome contains one very long - linear DNA molecule that carries several hundred to a few thousand gen

21. A part of the cell cycle - which includes both mitosis and cytokinesis.

22. The process by which cytokinesis occurs in animal cells. The first sign of this beginning is the appearance of a cleavage furrow.

23. Reproductive cells--sperm and egg cells. Have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells. Have one set of 23 chromosomes in humans.

24. 'Maturation-promoting Factor' or 'M-Phase-promoting Factor' Example of cell cycle control molecules.The cyclin-Cdk complex that was first discovered. Triggers the cells passage past the G2 checkpoint into M phase by phosphorylating a variety of prot

25. An imaginary plane that is equidistant between the spindle'S two poles where the chromosome'S centromeres lie during metaphase.

26. Two main types: kinases and cyclins.

27. First phase of interphase. Major period of cell growth. Most variable length in length for all the phases in different types of cells.

28. Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids. Each contain an identical DNA molecule and are initially attached by adhesive proteins all along their lengths. Are most closely attached to one another at the centromere.

29. A type of unicellular protist. Mostly marine plankton.

30. Third phase of mitosis. The longest stage of mitosis (~20mins). The centrosome are now at opposite ends of the cell. The chromosomes convene on the metaphase plate. For each chromosome - the kinetochores of the sister chromatids are attached to kinet

31. A type of unicellular protist.

32. A structure of proteins associated with specific sections of chromosomal DNA at the centromere. Each of the two sister chromatids has one. The chromosome'S two kinetochores face in opposite directions and during prometaphase - some of the spindle mic

33. Could be an example of cases where ancestral mechanisms have remained relatively unchanged over evolutionary time. The nuclear envelope remains intact during cell division and the chromosomes attach to the nuclear envelope. Microtubules pass through

34. Fourth phase of mitosis. The shortest stage of mitosis. Begins with the two sister chromatids of each pair being pulled apart--each becoming a full fledged chromosome. The two liberated chromosomes begin moving towards opposite ends of the cell - as

35. Second phase of interphase. The phase in which chromosomes are duplicated. Occurs between G1 and G2 phase.

36. Usually immediately follows mitosis. The division of the cytoplasm of a cell-where one cell becomes two - each genetically equivalent to the parent cell. Involves the formation of a cleavage furrow - which pinches the cell in two.

37. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases.Enzymes that activate or inactive other proteins by phosphorylating them. Particular ones give the go-ahead signals at the G1 and G2 checkpoints. Present at a constant concentration in the growing cell - but much of the time

38. What eukaryotic chromosomes are made of. A complex of DNA and associated protein molecules.

39. The last phase of interphase - occurring after the S phase. Cell continues to grow but also completes preparations for cell division. In this phase - chromosomes that duplicated during S phase cannot be seen individually because they have not condens

40. A phenomenon in which crowded cells stop dividing. When a cell population reaches a certain density - the availability of nutrients becomes insufficient to allow continued cell growth and division. Not exhibited in cancer cells.

41. Abnormal cells remain at the original sight after transformation (the process that converts normal cells to cancer cells). Usually do not cause serious problems and can be removed by surgery.

42. The nondividing state in the cell cycle. If a cell does not receive a go-ahead signal in the G1 phase - it will exit the cycle and switch into this state. In the human body - fully formed - mature nerve and muscle cells are in this state and never di

43. The last phase (5th) of mitosis before cytokinesis. Two daughter nuclei begin to form in the cell. Nuclear envelopes arise from the fragments of the parent cell'S nuclear envelope and other portions of the endomembrane system. The chromosomes become

44. Experiments have demonstrated that the sequential events of the cell cycle are directed by this cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.

45. Begins to form in the cytoplasm during prophase. Consists of fibers made of microtubules - centrosomes and associated proteins. While it assembles - other microtubules of the cytoskeleton partially disassemble - probably providing the material used t

46. A cell'S endowment of DNA

47. A critical control point where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle. Signals often report whether crucial cellular processes up to that point have been completed correctly and thus whether or not the cell cycle should proceed. Also regis

48. G1 phase (first gap) - S phase ('Synthesis') - and G2 phase (second gap). During all phases - the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria and the ER.

49. A variation of cell division in which you produce gametes - which yields nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes - thus half as many chromosomes as the parent cell. Only occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes).

50. Made by platelets (blood cells). Required for the division of fibroblasts (a type of connective tissue cell that synthesizes the ECM and collagen and is important in wound healing): fibroblasts have PDGF receptors that are tyrosine kinases on their p