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GRE Chromosomal And Molecular Basis Of Inheritance

Subjects : gre, science, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Special site on a DNA molecule which replication begins. Indicated by a specific sequence of nucleotides.






2. Y-shaped region at the end of a replication bubble where the new strands of DNA are elongating.






3. DNA repair that involves cleaving by nuclease and gap refilling by DNA polymerase and ligase.






4. A way of expressing distances between genes - defining one map unit as equivalent to a 1% recombination frequency.






5. According to this theory - Mendelian genes have specific loci (positions) on chromosomes - and it is the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment.






6. A human sex-linked disorder. A disease characterized by progressive weakening of the muscles and loss of coordination. Affected individuals rarely live past their early 20s. A result of the absence of a key muscle protein called dystrophin.






7. An enzyme that catalyzes elongation of new DNA at a replication fork. As individual nucleotides align with complementary nucleotides along a template strand of DNA - DNA polymerase adds them to the growing end of the new DNA strand one by one.






8. The system for determining sex in most species of bees and ants. There are no sex chromosomes in these species - Females develop from fertilized ova and are thus diploid. Males - however - develop from unfertilized ova and are haploid; they have no f






9. An ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome.






10. A result of nondisjuction of sex chromosomes.






11. The mammalian system for determining sex. The sex of the offspring depends on whether the sperm cell contains an X chromosome or a Y.






12. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. Occurs when a chromosomal fragment repeats a segment. In some cases - if meiosis is in progress - a deleted fragment may become as an extra segment to a sister






13. Genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses. These results deviate from those expected from Mendel'S law of independent assortment.






14. Alleles of genes on nonhomologous chromosome assort independently during gamete formation.






15. A result of nondisjuction of sex chromosomes. Females are healthy and cannot be distinguished phenotypically from other females.






16. Or phages. Viruses that infect bacteria.






17. An enzyme that can start an RNA chain from scratch. Joins RNA nucleotides together one at a time - making a primer complimentary to the template strand at the location where initiation of the new DNA strand will occur.






18. A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.






19. An enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks - separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands. This untwisting causes tighter twisting and strain ahead of the replication forks which is relieved






20. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. Occurs when a chromosomal fragment breaks and joins a nonhomologous chromosome.






21. A result of nondisjuction of sex chromosomes. Do not exhibit any well-defined syndrome but tend to be somewhat taller than average.






22. The ___________ two genes are - the higher the probability that a crossover will occur between them and therefore the higher the recombination frequency. This process can occasionally break the physical connection between genes on the same chromosome






23. The sex-determining region of Y. The gene on the Y chromosome required for the development of testes. In the absence of SRY - the gonads develop into ovaries. SRY is simply the trigger and other genes on the Y chromosome are required for normal testi






24. Each nucleotide added to a growing DNA strand is a nucleoside triphosphate - which is a sugar and a base with three phosphate groups. The triphosphate monomers used are chemically reactive - partly because their triphosphate tails have an unstable cl






25. A chromosome is present in triplicate in an aneuploid cell.






26. 1. deletion 2. duplication 3. inversion 4. translocation






27. A method that maps chromosomes and locates genes with respect to chromosomal features - such as stained bands - that can be seen in the microscope. Ultimately show the physical distances between gene loci in DNA nucleotides.






28. The new strand of DNA moving in the direction away from the replication fork. Synthesized as a series of segments in contrast to the leading strand that elongates continuously.






29. A chromosome is missing in a aneuploid cell.






30. A molecule that binds unpaired DNA strands - after its been separated by helicase - and stabilizes them until they serve as templates for the synthesis of new complementary strands.






31. Each nucleotide (monomer) consists of a hydrophobic nitrogenous base (T - A - C - or G) - the sugar dioxyribose - and a phosphate group. The phosphate of one nucleotide is attached to the sugar of the next - making up the 'backbone' of alternating ph






32. The various proteins that participate in DNA replication actually form a single large complex since many of the protein-protein interactions actually facilitate the efficiency of the machine as a whole.






33. An abnormal number of a particular chromosome. A condition that arises when an aberrant gamete (a result of nondisjunction) unites with a normal one at fertilization.






34. The segments of the lagging strand that get added to the template strand. The segments get joined together by DNA ligase.






35. An enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells - thus restoring their original length and compensating for the shortening that occurs during DNA replication. Made possible by the presence in the telomerase of a short






36. Helps relieve strain from the DNA double helix when helicase untwists it at the replication forks - causing tighter twisting ahead of the forks.






37. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. Occurs when a chromosomal fragment lacking a centromere is lost. The affected chromosome is then missing certain genes.






38. Helps in repairing and proofreading DNA. An enzyme that cuts out a segment of the strand of DNA containing damage - creating a gap which is filled in with nucleotides properly paired with the nucleotides in the undamaged strand by DNA polymerase and






39. Offspring that have new combinations of their parent'S phenotypes. When 50% of offspring are recombinants - geneticists say that there is a 50% frequency of recombination and is observed for any two genes that are located on different chromosomes.






40. A sex-linked recessive disorder. Defined by the absence of one or more of the proteins required for blood clotting. When injured - people with this disease have prolonged bleeding because a firm clot is slow to form. Patients receive intravenous inje






41. A occasional mishap that may occur during meiosis in which the members of a pair of chromosomes do not move apart properly during meiosis I or sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis II.






42. Can be distinguished from Watson and Crick'S semiconservative model in which the parent molecule somehow re-forms after the process of replication. Proved incorrect and support came out for the semiconservative model.






43. The most common type of translocation. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. In this - nonhomologous chromosome exchange fragments.






44. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. Occurs when a segment within a chromosome reverses.






45. Genes located in organelles in the cytoplasm. Mitochondria and plastids contain small circular DNA molecules that carry genes coding for proteins and RNA and do not display Mendelian inheritance. For example - almost all the mitochondria come from th






46. The general term for a chromosomal alteration in which an organism has more than two complete chromosome sets. There are more specific terms like triploidy (3n) and tetraploidy (4n) indicating 3 or 4 chromosomal sets - respectively.






47. A cancer implicated by chromosomal translocations. The exchange of a larger portion of chromosome 22 with a small fragment from a tip of chromosome 9 produces a much shorted - easily recognized chromosome 22 - called the Philadelphia chromosome. Affe






48. The two alleles for each gene separate during gamete formation.






49. A genetic map based on recombination frequencies.






50. Traits that are alternatives to the wild type because they are due to alleles assumed to have arisen as changes - or mutations - in the wild-type allele.