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GRE Chromosomal And Molecular Basis Of Inheritance

Subjects : gre, science, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. A gene located on either sex chromosome. In humans - the term has historically referred specifically to a gene on the X chromosome so fathers pass sex-linked alleles to all of their daughters and none of their sons while mothers can pass sex-linked a






2. An enzyme that catalyzes elongation of new DNA at a replication fork. As individual nucleotides align with complementary nucleotides along a template strand of DNA - DNA polymerase adds them to the growing end of the new DNA strand one by one.






3. Offspring that inherit a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.






4. Occurs when a mismatched nucleotide evades proofreading by DNA polymerase or arise after DNA synthesis is completed.






5. Alleles of genes on nonhomologous chromosome assort independently during gamete formation.






6. A compact object that is the inactive X in each cell of a female. Although female mammals inherit two X chromosomes - one becomes almost completely inactivated during embryonic development and lies along the inside of the nuclear envelope. Most genes






7. A result of nondisjuction of sex chromosomes. In this case - it is the result of an extra X chromosome in a male - producting XXY. People have male sex organs - but the testes are abnormally small and the man is sterile. Some breast enlargement and o






8. Nucleotide sequences found in eukaryotic chromosomal DNA that make up for the fact that DNA polymerases cannot replicate the ends of DNA strands since there is no 3' end there. Do not contain genes but rather the DNA has multiple repetitions of one s






9. A result of nondisjuction of sex chromosomes. Do not exhibit any well-defined syndrome but tend to be somewhat taller than average.






10. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. Occurs when a chromosomal fragment repeats a segment. In some cases - if meiosis is in progress - a deleted fragment may become as an extra segment to a sister






11. An ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome.






12. The ___________ two genes are - the higher the probability that a crossover will occur between them and therefore the higher the recombination frequency. This process can occasionally break the physical connection between genes on the same chromosome






13. The mammalian system for determining sex. The sex of the offspring depends on whether the sperm cell contains an X chromosome or a Y.






14. DNA repair that involves cleaving by nuclease and gap refilling by DNA polymerase and ligase.






15. A genetic map based on recombination frequencies.






16. 1. deletion 2. duplication 3. inversion 4. translocation






17. Adenine doubles bonds thymine and guanine triple bonds cytosine.






18. Genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses. These results deviate from those expected from Mendel'S law of independent assortment.






19. Helps in repairing and proofreading DNA. An enzyme that cuts out a segment of the strand of DNA containing damage - creating a gap which is filled in with nucleotides properly paired with the nucleotides in the undamaged strand by DNA polymerase and






20. The system for determining sex in birds - some fishes - and some insects. The sex chromosome present in the ovum determines the sex of offspring. The sex chromosomes are designated Z and W. Females are ZW and males are ZZ.






21. The short initial nucleotide chain put in place before DNA polymerase begins synthesizing in the 5' to 3' direction. May consist of either DNA or RNA. In initiating the replication of cellular DNA - the primer is a short stretch of RNA with an availa






22. The most common type of translocation. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. In this - nonhomologous chromosome exchange fragments.






23. Can be distinguished from Watson and Crick'S semiconservative model in which the parent molecule somehow re-forms after the process of replication. Proved incorrect and support came out for the semiconservative model.






24. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. Occurs when a chromosomal fragment lacking a centromere is lost. The affected chromosome is then missing certain genes.






25. Offspring that have new combinations of their parent'S phenotypes. When 50% of offspring are recombinants - geneticists say that there is a 50% frequency of recombination and is observed for any two genes that are located on different chromosomes.






26. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. Occurs when a chromosomal fragment breaks and joins a nonhomologous chromosome.






27. A result of nondisjuction of sex chromosomes. Females are healthy and cannot be distinguished phenotypically from other females.






28. An aneuploid condition. Usually the result of an extra chromosome 21 so that each body cell has a total of 47 chromosomes. Also termed trisomy 21. Includes characteristic facial feature - short stature - heart defects - susceptibility to respiratory






29. Traits that are alternatives to the wild type because they are due to alleles assumed to have arisen as changes - or mutations - in the wild-type allele.






30. The two alleles for each gene separate during gamete formation.






31. Special site on a DNA molecule which replication begins. Indicated by a specific sequence of nucleotides.






32. A cancer implicated by chromosomal translocations. The exchange of a larger portion of chromosome 22 with a small fragment from a tip of chromosome 9 produces a much shorted - easily recognized chromosome 22 - called the Philadelphia chromosome. Affe






33. Y-shaped region at the end of a replication bubble where the new strands of DNA are elongating.






34. The system for determining sex in most species of bees and ants. There are no sex chromosomes in these species - Females develop from fertilized ova and are thus diploid. Males - however - develop from unfertilized ova and are haploid; they have no f






35. The segments of the lagging strand that get added to the template strand. The segments get joined together by DNA ligase.






36. A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.






37. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. Occurs when a segment within a chromosome reverses.






38. A sex-linked recessive disorder. Defined by the absence of one or more of the proteins required for blood clotting. When injured - people with this disease have prolonged bleeding because a firm clot is slow to form. Patients receive intravenous inje






39. An enzyme that can start an RNA chain from scratch. Joins RNA nucleotides together one at a time - making a primer complimentary to the template strand at the location where initiation of the new DNA strand will occur.






40. The general term for a chromosomal alteration in which an organism has more than two complete chromosome sets. There are more specific terms like triploidy (3n) and tetraploidy (4n) indicating 3 or 4 chromosomal sets - respectively.






41. Predicted by Watson and Crick. Suggests that when a double helix replicates - each of the two daughter molecules will have one old strand - derived from the parent molecule - and one newly made strand.






42. According to this theory - Mendelian genes have specific loci (positions) on chromosomes - and it is the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment.






43. The strand of DNA that is added on to the template strand one at a time as the fork progresses--with the DNA polymerase nestled in the replication fork. Moves in the 5' to 3' direction.






44. A method that maps chromosomes and locates genes with respect to chromosomal features - such as stained bands - that can be seen in the microscope. Ultimately show the physical distances between gene loci in DNA nucleotides.






45. A result of nondisjuction of sex chromosomes.






46. A occasional mishap that may occur during meiosis in which the members of a pair of chromosomes do not move apart properly during meiosis I or sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis II.






47. A way of expressing distances between genes - defining one map unit as equivalent to a 1% recombination frequency.






48. Traits that depend on which parent passed along the alleles for those traits. An exception to the display of Mendelian inheritance.






49. Genes located in organelles in the cytoplasm. Mitochondria and plastids contain small circular DNA molecules that carry genes coding for proteins and RNA and do not display Mendelian inheritance. For example - almost all the mitochondria come from th






50. Or phages. Viruses that infect bacteria.