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GRE Chromosomal And Molecular Basis Of Inheritance

Subjects : gre, science, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Helps relieve strain from the DNA double helix when helicase untwists it at the replication forks - causing tighter twisting ahead of the forks.






2. The process that accounts for the recombination of linked genes. Occurs while replicated homologous chromosomes are pair during prophase of meiosis I - one maternal chromatid and one paternal chromatid break at corresponding points and then are rejoi






3. An enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells - thus restoring their original length and compensating for the shortening that occurs during DNA replication. Made possible by the presence in the telomerase of a short






4. Helps in repairing and proofreading DNA. An enzyme that cuts out a segment of the strand of DNA containing damage - creating a gap which is filled in with nucleotides properly paired with the nucleotides in the undamaged strand by DNA polymerase and






5. A chromosome is missing in a aneuploid cell.






6. A compact object that is the inactive X in each cell of a female. Although female mammals inherit two X chromosomes - one becomes almost completely inactivated during embryonic development and lies along the inside of the nuclear envelope. Most genes






7. A result of nondisjuction of sex chromosomes. Do not exhibit any well-defined syndrome but tend to be somewhat taller than average.






8. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. Occurs when a chromosomal fragment lacking a centromere is lost. The affected chromosome is then missing certain genes.






9. An enzyme that joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments - forming a single new DNA strand.






10. Occurs when a mismatched nucleotide evades proofreading by DNA polymerase or arise after DNA synthesis is completed.






11. In this - all four strands of DNA following replication have a mixture of old and new DNA. Proved incorrect and support came out for the semiconservative model.






12. The most common phenotype in a natural population.






13. Each nucleotide (monomer) consists of a hydrophobic nitrogenous base (T - A - C - or G) - the sugar dioxyribose - and a phosphate group. The phosphate of one nucleotide is attached to the sugar of the next - making up the 'backbone' of alternating ph






14. The mammalian system for determining sex. The sex of the offspring depends on whether the sperm cell contains an X chromosome or a Y.






15. The system for determining sex in birds - some fishes - and some insects. The sex chromosome present in the ovum determines the sex of offspring. The sex chromosomes are designated Z and W. Females are ZW and males are ZZ.






16. Traits that are alternatives to the wild type because they are due to alleles assumed to have arisen as changes - or mutations - in the wild-type allele.






17. Phenotypically female but are sterile because their sex organs do not mature. When provided with estrogen replacement therapy - girls with Turners develop secondary sex characteristics.






18. An abnormal number of a particular chromosome. A condition that arises when an aberrant gamete (a result of nondisjunction) unites with a normal one at fertilization.






19. Predicted by Watson and Crick. Suggests that when a double helix replicates - each of the two daughter molecules will have one old strand - derived from the parent molecule - and one newly made strand.






20. An aneuploid condition. Usually the result of an extra chromosome 21 so that each body cell has a total of 47 chromosomes. Also termed trisomy 21. Includes characteristic facial feature - short stature - heart defects - susceptibility to respiratory






21. A sex-linked recessive disorder. Defined by the absence of one or more of the proteins required for blood clotting. When injured - people with this disease have prolonged bleeding because a firm clot is slow to form. Patients receive intravenous inje






22. A result of nondisjuction of sex chromosomes.






23. An enzyme that catalyzes elongation of new DNA at a replication fork. As individual nucleotides align with complementary nucleotides along a template strand of DNA - DNA polymerase adds them to the growing end of the new DNA strand one by one.






24. Y-shaped region at the end of a replication bubble where the new strands of DNA are elongating.






25. Disorder caused by structurally altered chromosomes - specifically a deletion in chromosome 5. A child born with this deletion is mentally retarded - has a small head with unusual facial features - and has a cry that sounds like the mewing of a cat.






26. Genes located in organelles in the cytoplasm. Mitochondria and plastids contain small circular DNA molecules that carry genes coding for proteins and RNA and do not display Mendelian inheritance. For example - almost all the mitochondria come from th






27. Or phages. Viruses that infect bacteria.






28. The short initial nucleotide chain put in place before DNA polymerase begins synthesizing in the 5' to 3' direction. May consist of either DNA or RNA. In initiating the replication of cellular DNA - the primer is a short stretch of RNA with an availa






29. A method that maps chromosomes and locates genes with respect to chromosomal features - such as stained bands - that can be seen in the microscope. Ultimately show the physical distances between gene loci in DNA nucleotides.






30. The ___________ two genes are - the higher the probability that a crossover will occur between them and therefore the higher the recombination frequency. This process can occasionally break the physical connection between genes on the same chromosome






31. A genetic map based on recombination frequencies.






32. A occasional mishap that may occur during meiosis in which the members of a pair of chromosomes do not move apart properly during meiosis I or sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis II.






33. Each nucleotide added to a growing DNA strand is a nucleoside triphosphate - which is a sugar and a base with three phosphate groups. The triphosphate monomers used are chemically reactive - partly because their triphosphate tails have an unstable cl






34. The new strand of DNA moving in the direction away from the replication fork. Synthesized as a series of segments in contrast to the leading strand that elongates continuously.






35. A gene located on either sex chromosome. In humans - the term has historically referred specifically to a gene on the X chromosome so fathers pass sex-linked alleles to all of their daughters and none of their sons while mothers can pass sex-linked a






36. A molecule that binds unpaired DNA strands - after its been separated by helicase - and stabilizes them until they serve as templates for the synthesis of new complementary strands.






37. An enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks - separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands. This untwisting causes tighter twisting and strain ahead of the replication forks which is relieved






38. An enzyme that can start an RNA chain from scratch. Joins RNA nucleotides together one at a time - making a primer complimentary to the template strand at the location where initiation of the new DNA strand will occur.






39. The various proteins that participate in DNA replication actually form a single large complex since many of the protein-protein interactions actually facilitate the efficiency of the machine as a whole.






40. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. Occurs when a chromosomal fragment breaks and joins a nonhomologous chromosome.






41. A way of expressing distances between genes - defining one map unit as equivalent to a 1% recombination frequency.






42. A result of nondisjuction of sex chromosomes. In this case - it is the result of an extra X chromosome in a male - producting XXY. People have male sex organs - but the testes are abnormally small and the man is sterile. Some breast enlargement and o






43. The most common type of translocation. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. In this - nonhomologous chromosome exchange fragments.






44. Offspring that have new combinations of their parent'S phenotypes. When 50% of offspring are recombinants - geneticists say that there is a 50% frequency of recombination and is observed for any two genes that are located on different chromosomes.






45. The strand of DNA that is added on to the template strand one at a time as the fork progresses--with the DNA polymerase nestled in the replication fork. Moves in the 5' to 3' direction.






46. One of the first imprinted genes to be identified. Although this growth factor is required for normal prenatal growth - only the paternal allele is expressed.






47. The system for determining sex in most species of bees and ants. There are no sex chromosomes in these species - Females develop from fertilized ova and are thus diploid. Males - however - develop from unfertilized ova and are haploid; they have no f






48. According to this theory - Mendelian genes have specific loci (positions) on chromosomes - and it is the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment.






49. A type of change in chromosome structure as a result of some sort of chromosomal breakage. Occurs when a segment within a chromosome reverses.






50. A result of nondisjuction of sex chromosomes. Females are healthy and cannot be distinguished phenotypically from other females.