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Important Court Cases

Subject : law
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1. Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools

2. Halt to all death penalty punishments in nation until a less arbitrary method of sentencing was found

3. Students don't 'shed their constitutional rights at the schoolhouse door -' Iowa students suspended for wearing armbands to protest Vietnam war

4. Mandated 21-year-old drinking age (if you don't feds will take away all federal highway funds

5. Invalidated 1989 Flag Protection Act

6. State prohibition of consensual sodomy in private is unreasonable invasion of privacy

7. Peaceable assembly for lawful discussion cannot be made a crime - selectively incorporated right to lawful assembly to all state governments

8. Race cannot be sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative district boundaries (1982 VRA wants them to do that - though)

9. States not allowed to prevent or punish inflammatory speech unless it will lead to imminent lawless action

10. Florida recount in 2000 election was a violation of fourteenth amendment's equal protection clause

11. BSA could expel any homosexual member they wanted because of first amendment right of expressive association

12. Not libel when they thought it was true at the time of printing

13. State govs must provide counsel in cases involving the death penalty to those who can't afford it

14. Selectively incorporates freedom of the press - prevents prior restraint -state injunctions to prevent publication unconstitutional

15. Giving money to political campaign = free speech - so wealthy people can now spend as much of their own money as they want if they choose to run for federal office

16. Overruled Powell - state govs do not have to provide lawyers to indigent defendants in capital cases

17. Forbids state-mandated bible reading

18. Federal wiretaps of phone conversation is constitutional

19. Parents may remove children from public school for religious reasons

20. Executive efforts to prevent publication forbidden (Ellsburg & Vietnam)

21. Libel and obscenity not protected by first amendment - so three-part obscenity test established

22. States did not have power to tax the national bank - reinforces supremacy clause

23. Protesters have substantially fewer assembly rights in malls and other private establishments

24. First time court overturned state law on constitutional grounds.

25. Ordered house districts to be near as equal as possible - enshrined principal of 'one man - one vote.'

26. African Americans denied right to vote in primaries = violate fifteenth amendment

27. Race-based affirmative action was permissible so long as it was in the service of creating greater diversity

28. FCRA mandated that places of public accommodation are prohibited from discrimination against blacks

29. Prohibited states from banning teaching of evolution in public schools

30. Intentional infliction of emotional distress was permissible First Amendment speech as long as it was about a public official - and no one would actually think it was fact

31. Established exclusionary rule

32. Confessions given immediately before rights are given means the confession is still admissible

33. Overturned Olmstead - warrants were required to listen in on phone conversation

34. All state governments must provide an attorney in all cases for those who can't afford one - powerful repudiation of Betts v Brady

35. Cross burning = 'fighting words' = unconstitutional

36. You can burn the flag

37. Separate is not equal

38. Helped states to engage in eminent domain - said that fifth amendment right to take private property for public use is legal for states without eminent domain

39. School district can suspend students for lewd or indecent speech

40. NC makes mandatory punishment for certain crimes - deemed unconstitutional

41. States can regulate abortion but not with regulations that impose an 'undue burden' on women

42. Strikes by labor unions are constitutional

43. Any defendant who asked for a lawyer had to have one granted to him - or any confession after that point is inadmissible

44. Separate but equal for races

45. Extended exclusionary rule to the states

46. Right to privacy

47. NY could not grant steamship company monopoly - increased federal power over interstate commerce

48. All defendants must be informed of legal rights before they are arrested

49. Court rebuffed an attempt by state of New Hampshire to take control of Dartmouth by holding that Dartmouth's corporate charter was qualified as a contract between private parties

50. Banned presidential use of a line=item veto as a violation of legislative powers.