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Inductive Reasoning

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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. A comparison of two or more things alike in specific respects.

2. Reason that because two or more things are similar in several respects - they must be similar in some further respect. We evaluate arguments by analogy according to several criteria: (1) the number of relevant similarities between things being compar

3. A form of inductive reasoning in which we reason from premises about a state of affairs to an explanation for that state of affairs:

4. A sample that is selected randomly from a target group in such a way as to ensure that the sample is representative. In a simple random selection - every member of the target group has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.

5. The relevant factor present when a phenomenon occurs - and absent when the phenomenon does not occur - must be the cause.

6. Argument intended to give probable support for its conclusion.

7. In statistical theory - the probability that the sample will accurately represent the target group within the margin of error.

8. A sample that does not properly represent the target group.

9. Argue from premises about some members of a group to a generalization about the entire group. The entire group is called the target group; the observed members of the group - the sample; and the group characteristics we're interested in - the relevan

10. (after that - therefore because of that). The fallacy of reasoning that just because B followed A - A must have caused B.

11. If two or more occurrences of a phenomenon have only one relevant factor in common - that factor must be the cause.

12. A condition for the occurrence of an event that guarantees that the event occurs.

13. A statement about the cause of things.

14. Inductive argument whose conclusion contains a causal claim. There are several inductive patterns of reasoning used to assess causal connections. These include the Method of Agreement - the Method of Difference - the Method of Agreement and Differenc

15. In enumerative induction - a sample that resembles the target group in all relevant ways.

16. (or property in question) In enumerative induction - a property - or characteristic - that is of interest in the target group.

17. An enumerative induction can fail to be strong by having a sample that's too small or not representative. When we draw a conclusion about a target group based on an inadequate sample size

18. The variation between the values derived from a sample and the true values of the whole target group.

19. (or target population) In enumerative induction - the whole collection of individuals under study.

20. A condition for the occurrence of an event without which the event cannot occur.

21. When two events are correlated--when one varies in close connection w/ the other--they are probably related.

22. Enumerative inductive arguments - or the basis of enumerative inductive arguments - and must be judged by the same general criteria used to judge any other enumerative induction.

23. (or sample member) In enumerative induction - the observed members of the target group.

24. Enumerative - Analogical - & Causal.