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NCLEX Essential Concepts

Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Purposes 1. Relaxes muscle spasm 2. Softens exudate for removal 3. Vasodilates; hastens healing 4. Localizes infection 5. Reduces congestion 6. Relaxes - comforts






2. Manifestations 1) Headache - flushed skin - tachycardia 2) Venous distention 3) Increased venous pressure 4) Coughing - dyspnea - cyanosis 5) Pulmonary edema b. Prevention 1) Check for preexisting heart condition 2) Monitor flow rate of solution 3) P






3. When opening a sterile package open the first flap away from you B. Never turn your back on a sterile field C. Avoid talking D. Keep all objects within vies; below the waist is not a sterile field. E. Moisture carries organisms through a barrier F. O






4. Made in the hypothalamus and stored and secreted by the posterior pituitary b. Causes kidney to retain sodium and water






5. Professional negligence - misconduct - or unreasonable lack of skill resulting in injury or loss to the recipient of the professional services.






6. PH 7.32 2. pCO2 30 3. HCO3 18 4. Causes: a. Diabetes b. Renal failure c. Diarrhea






7. Analgesics - antipyretic - anticoagulant - anti - inflammatory






8. Obesity B. Aging - plus recovery C. Concomitant diseases 1. Cardiovascular a. Danger of congestive failure - avoid fluid overload b. Avoid prolonged immobilization as it may cause venous stasis c. Encourage change of position; avoid sudden exertion 2






9. Rescue Alarm Contain Evacuate






10. 3.5 - 5.5 mEq/l






11. The pressure demonstrated when a solvent moves through the semipermeable membrane from weaker to stronger concentrations






12. Caused by a decrease in peripheral resistance - vasoconstriction






13. Short duration B. Serves as a warning C. Subsides as healing occurs D. Autonomic nervous system symptoms frequently present






14. Partial thickness loss of skin involving epidermis and/or part of dermis






15. Adjust to retirement C. Adjust to loss of friends - family D. View own death as appropriate outcome of life






16. Routine tasks b. Routine vital signs






17. Manifestations 1) Muscle weakness 2) Weak pulse and ECG changes b. Causes 1) Potassium depleting diuretics 2) Burns 3) Diarrhea - colitis 4) Vomiting c. Management: Potassium replacement -- DO Not give Digoxin






18. Act by altering perception of and response to pain 2. Act on the central nervous system 3. Adverse reactions a. Depress respirations b. Decrease alertness c. Decrease coughing d. Decrease blood pressure and pulse e. Slow peristalsis f. Constrict pupi






19. Cold vasoconstricts and controls bleeding and swelling 2. Local anesthetic effect 3. Intermittently applied 4. Sterile technique for open wound






20. Manifestations 1) Tenderness and pain in vein 2) Edema and redness at site 3) Warmth b. Management 1) Cold compresses immediately to relieve pain and inflammation 2) Follow with moist warm compresses to stimulate circulation and promote absorption






21. PH 7.52 2. pCO2 30 3. HCO3 20 4. Cause: hyperventilation; rebreathe CO2






22. Place the wheel chair on the patient's strong side B. Position the open part of the chair toward the foot of the bed. C. Have patient stand on strong foot and pivot - then sit in chair






23. Immobilized patient at risk for orthostatic hypotension 2. After prolonged period of immobility - gradually sit patient up






24. Higher osmotic pressure than blood serum; causes cells to shrink; pulls fluid out of cells into blood stream a. Dextrose 5% or higher in saline b. Dextrose stronger than 5% in water c. Albumin






25. Acts of both omission and commission. 2. Failure to provide care that a reasonably prudent heath care professional would provide in the given circumstances. 3. Failure to provide care that meets the accepted standards of care - or giving care that re






26. On the person's abdomen 2. Prevents hip flexion contractures






27. Acts by blocking opiate receptors in the brain 2. Used to treat: a. Opiate induced respiratory depression b. Opiate overdose 3. Side effects: a. Withdrawal symptoms in addicted persons b. Return of pain 4. Drug is rapid acting; narcotic may last long






28. On the person's back 2. Maintains alignment






29. Glaucoma and cataracts (lens becomes opaque) occur frequently 2. Presbyopia (farsightedness of aging) occurs in almost all persons as they age Difficulty seeing in dim light due to loss of light responsiveness Presbycussis: progressive hearing loss a






30. Causes 1) Decreased water intake 2) Increased sodium intake 3) Impaired renal function b. Manifestations 1) Edema 2) Dry - sticky mucous membranes 3) Thirst 4) Elevated temp. 5) Flushed skin c. Management: Give water






31. Head and trunk flat with legs elevated 2. Preferred for shock 3. Increases venous return without putting pressure on the diaphragm






32. Emergency care can be given to stabilize patient who is not able to give consent. 2. Age of majority is eighteen 3. Unconscious adults need permission for care by parents or spouse if married. 4. Persons who are not alert or have been given mind alte






33. Changes in color:( red - blue - purple) - temperature changes - and skin stiffness






34. Patient is moved all at once so there is no twisting of spine B. One person moves the head and shoulders C. Second person moves the feet and legs at the same time D. Turning sheet may be helpful E. Place the bed in a high position to promote good bod






35. Extracellular volume excess 1. Causes a. Too many I.V. fluids too quickly b. Decreased kidney or heart function 2. Manifestations a. Cough - dyspnea - rales - tachypnea b. Increased blood pressure c. Increased CVP d. Neck vein distention e. Tachycard






36. Made in the adrenal cortex b. Causes kidney to retain sodium and water and get rid of potassium






37. PH 7.35-7.45 2. pCO2 = 35 - 45 3. pO2 = 80 - 100 4. HCO3 = 22 - 26






38. Causative agent --> reservoir -->portal of exit --> Mode of transmission -->portal of entry-->susceptible host






39. Caused by poor heart action.- drugs that make heart beat more effectively






40. Full thickness skin loss with severe destruction - necrosis - or damage to muscles - bone - or supporting structures






41. VS - LOC - Skin color - IV infusions - Drainage Tubes - Dressings - DB & C-h






42. Head up 20 to 30 degrees 2. Reduces intracranial pressure; good for head injuries and craniotomies 3. Good for cervical neck surgery






43. Legs up in stirrups 2. Uses a. Gyn exams b. Perineal surgery 3. Increases risk of venous stasis and deep vein thrombophlebitis






44. A decrease in total blood volume such as hemorrhage - transfusions






45. Lasts more than 6 months B. Appears to serve no useful purpose C. May persist after injury heals D. No autonomic nervous system symptoms






46. Decision maker b. Can do complex procedures c. Can give medications via all routes that nurses can give meds d. Is best person for teaching e. Coordinates care f. Performs admission assessments






47. Movement of fluid from lower to higher concentration. Across semipermeable membrane; high concentration of glucose






48. Patient on side 2. Prevents aspiration when patient is not fully alert






49. Can do sterile procedures b. Can give medications except IV meds






50. Assess for signs of circulatory overload 2. Assess urinary output to determine renal function 3. Assess needle site 4. Assess infusion site for signs of infiltration 5. Assess flow rate 6. Assess IV container 7. Assess IV tubing