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NCLEX Essential Concepts

Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Causative agent --> reservoir -->portal of exit --> Mode of transmission -->portal of entry-->susceptible host






2. Cold vasoconstricts and controls bleeding and swelling 2. Local anesthetic effect 3. Intermittently applied 4. Sterile technique for open wound






3. Movement of fluid from lower to higher concentration. Across semipermeable membrane; high concentration of glucose






4. Full thickness skin loss involving subcutaneous damage or necrosis






5. Can do sterile procedures b. Can give medications except IV meds






6. Dispose of sharps in puncture - resistant containers B. Do not recap used needles C. Wear protective barriers (gloves - gowns - masks - eyewear) when at risk for exposure to body fluids D. Clean blood spills with soap and water or household bleach 1:






7. Same osmotic pressure as in the cell Normal saline (0.9% NaCl) b. Dextrose 5% in water c. Lactated Ringer's






8. Decision maker b. Can do complex procedures c. Can give medications via all routes that nurses can give meds d. Is best person for teaching e. Coordinates care f. Performs admission assessments






9. Patient on side 2. Prevents aspiration when patient is not fully alert






10. Analgesic - antipyretic - anticoagulant - anti - inflammatory






11. Needle punctures dura and cerebral spinal fluid lost. 2. Patient at risk for spinal headache.






12. On left side with lower arm behind the back 2. Good position for administering enema






13. 85 - 115 mEq/l






14. When opening a sterile package open the first flap away from you B. Never turn your back on a sterile field C. Avoid talking D. Keep all objects within vies; below the waist is not a sterile field. E. Moisture carries organisms through a barrier F. O






15. Acts by blocking opiate receptors in the brain 2. Used to treat: a. Opiate induced respiratory depression b. Opiate overdose 3. Side effects: a. Withdrawal symptoms in addicted persons b. Return of pain 4. Drug is rapid acting; narcotic may last long






16. Analgesics - antipyretic - anticoagulant - anti - inflammatory






17. Causes 1) Decreased water intake 2) Increased sodium intake 3) Impaired renal function b. Manifestations 1) Edema 2) Dry - sticky mucous membranes 3) Thirst 4) Elevated temp. 5) Flushed skin c. Management: Give water






18. Manifestations 1) Tenderness and pain in vein 2) Edema and redness at site 3) Warmth b. Management 1) Cold compresses immediately to relieve pain and inflammation 2) Follow with moist warm compresses to stimulate circulation and promote absorption






19. Obesity B. Aging - plus recovery C. Concomitant diseases 1. Cardiovascular a. Danger of congestive failure - avoid fluid overload b. Avoid prolonged immobilization as it may cause venous stasis c. Encourage change of position; avoid sudden exertion 2






20. Manifestations 1) Muscle weakness 2) Weak pulse and ECG changes b. Causes 1) Potassium depleting diuretics 2) Burns 3) Diarrhea - colitis 4) Vomiting c. Management: Potassium replacement -- DO Not give Digoxin






21. PH 7.52 2. pCO2 52 3. HCO3 34 4. Cause: Vomiting; excessive diuresis






22. Apply cold to prevent swelling - bleeding and relive pain






23. Extracellular fluid volume deficit 1. Causes: Loosing more fluid than is taken in a. Vomiting b. Diarrhea c. Diuretics d. Increased respirations e. Insufficient I.V. fluid replacement or PO 2. Manifestations a. Weight loss b. Poor skin turgor c. Dry






24. Less osmotic pressure than blood serum - hydrates cells a. Tap water b. Sodium chloride less than 0.9%






25. Lukewarm or tepid water b. Compresses on wrists - ankles - armpits - or groin to speed cooling c. Prevent shivering






26. 3.5 - 5.5 mEq/l






27. Flush daily with saline or heparin to prevent clots from forming B. Change dressing three times per week C. Check for infection D. Discard 5-10 ml when drawing blood E. In multilumen catheters use ports for designated purpose F. Valsalva's maneuver w






28. Patient is moved all at once so there is no twisting of spine B. One person moves the head and shoulders C. Second person moves the feet and legs at the same time D. Turning sheet may be helpful E. Place the bed in a high position to promote good bod






29. Head and trunk flat with legs elevated 2. Preferred for shock 3. Increases venous return without putting pressure on the diaphragm






30. PH 7.32 2. pCO2 58 3. HCO3 32 4. pO2 60 5. Respiratory Acidosis - hypoxia 5. Causes: COPD - lung cancer






31. Manifestations 1) Hypotension - cyanosis - tachycardia 2) Increased venous pressure - loss of consciousness b. Prevention 1) Run fluid through tubing and needle or catheter to force air out before starting infusion 2) When using glass bottle - change






32. Physiologic needs b. Safety and security c. Love and belonging d. Self esteem e. Self actualization 2. Keep them breathing; keep them safe






33. Adjust to retirement C. Adjust to loss of friends - family D. View own death as appropriate outcome of life






34. Movement of particles from higher to lower concentration






35. Inadequate blood supply to the vital organs: the brain - heart and kidneys; inadequate circulating volume. Manifestations A. Pulse pressure decreases B. Blood pressure deceases C. Urine output decreases (ADH and Aldosterone) D. Pulse increases E. Res






36. Assess for signs of circulatory overload 2. Assess urinary output to determine renal function 3. Assess needle site 4. Assess infusion site for signs of infiltration 5. Assess flow rate 6. Assess IV container 7. Assess IV tubing






37. Changes in color:( red - blue - purple) - temperature changes - and skin stiffness






38. VS - LOC - Skin color - IV infusions - Drainage Tubes - Dressings - DB & C-h






39. Made in the hypothalamus and stored and secreted by the posterior pituitary b. Causes kidney to retain sodium and water






40. Head up 20 to 30 degrees 2. Reduces intracranial pressure; good for head injuries and craniotomies 3. Good for cervical neck surgery






41. On the person's back 2. Maintains alignment






42. Anticoagulants predispose to hemorrhage; discontinue 1-2 weeks before surgery 2. Aminoglycosides (streptomycin - gentamicin) can cause neuromuscular blockade. Anesthesiologist must know. 3. Diuretics may cause electrolyte imbalances and respiratory d






43. Follow physician's orders B. Do not apply without order except in emergency C. Use least restraint possible D. Each unit should have a written protocol E. Check patient frequently for safety F. Loosen restraints every 2 hours G. Do not use as punishm






44. Fluid balance - acid - base - nerve conduction a. Causes 1) Increased perspiration 2) Drinking only tap water 3) GI losses: diarrhea - vomiting - suction 4) Diuretics b - Manifestations 1) Confusion 2) Hypotension 3) Oliguria 4) Muscle weakness 5) Co






45. 135 - 145 mEq/l






46. Made in the adrenal cortex b. Causes kidney to retain sodium and water and get rid of potassium






47. The pressure demonstrated when a solvent moves through the semipermeable membrane from weaker to stronger concentrations






48. A generalized reaction to contaminated equipment or solutions a. Manifestations 1) Chills and fever 30-60 minutes after start of infusion 2) Flushing - sudden pulse increase 3) Backache - headache 4) Nausea - vomiting 5) Hypotension - vascular collap






49. Manifestations 1) Headache - flushed skin - tachycardia 2) Venous distention 3) Increased venous pressure 4) Coughing - dyspnea - cyanosis 5) Pulmonary edema b. Prevention 1) Check for preexisting heart condition 2) Monitor flow rate of solution 3) P






50. Sheet between patient and cooling blanket b. Prevent skin damage c. Change position frequently d. No shivering: Muscle relaxant may be given if patient shivering