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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Individuals being crossed

2. Structural component of ribsomes and is the most abundant of all RNA types -synthesized in the nucleolus

3. Genes on the same chromosome will stay together unless crossing over occurs -crossing over exchanges information between chromosomes and may break the linkage of certain patterns

4. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X

5. The process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA that leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores. the remaining events of protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm

6. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor

7. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes

8. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis

9. Adenine and guanine

10. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands

11. Developed the basic principles of genetics through his experiments with the garden pea

12. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon

13. Can be altered under certain conditions - altering the corresponding characteristics in the organism

14. Carries the complement of a DNA sequence and transports it from the nucleus to the ribosomes -assembled from ribonucleotides that are complementary to the 'sense' strand of the DNA -monocistronic

15. Occurs when linked genes are separated

16. Fruit fly -produces often (short life cycle) -reproduces in large numbers (large sample size) -chromosomes (especially in the salivary gland) are large and easily recognizable in size and shape -its chromosomes are few (4 pairs - 2n=8) -Mutations occ

17. Nucleic acid is replaced by another nucleic acid

18. New codon may be a stop codon

19. Where protein synthesis occurs

20. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase

21. Occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection

22. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments

23. Alternative forms of genes when it exists in more than one form

24. Consists of a single circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region of the cell

25. (AUG) ribosome scans the mRNA until it bonds to this (methionine) and UAC on anticodon of tRNA

26. Diagnostic tool to determine the genotype of an organism -Only with a recessive phenotype can genotype be predicted with 100% accuracy -if dominant phenotype is expressed - the genotype can be either homozygous dominant or heterozygous -used to deter

27. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins

28. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex

29. The sequence of nontranscribable DNA that is the repressor binding site

30. Induce mutations -include cosmic rays - X rays - UV rays - and radioactivity

31. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance

32. Structure formed when many ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNA molecule

33. Progeny generations

34. Either the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis II -zygote might either have 3 copies of that chromosome (trisomy) or just a single copy (monos

35. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes

36. Small RNA found in the ctyoplasm that aids in the translation of mRNA's nucleotide code into a sequence of amino acids -brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis

37. An organism with a dominant phenotype of unknown genotype (Ax) is crossed with a phenotypically recessive organism

38. Chromosome fragment

39. TRNA binding site for ribosomes to attach to the growing polypeptide chain (peace out site)

40. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny

41. New codon may code for a different amino acid

42. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup

43. Nitrogen bases are added - deleted - or substituted - thus crating different genes; inappropriate amino acids may be inserted into polypeptide chains - and a mutated protein may be produced

44. Basic unit of heredity

45. Each strand of DNA that is a template in the synthesis of two new daughter helices

46. (UAA - UAG - or UGA) terminates polypeptide synthesis

47. Consists of structural genes

48. Begins at a unique origin of and proceeds in both directions simultaneously

49. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)

50. Ribonucleic acid -polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA except that its sugar is ribose -contains uracil instead of thymine -usually single stranded -found in both nucleus and cytoplasm -several types are involved with mRNA - tRNA - and rRNA