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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons

2. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X

3. New codon may be a stop codon

4. Each new daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand

5. (UAA - UAG - or UGA) terminates polypeptide synthesis

6. Organisms that carry two different alleles

7. Ribonucleic acid -polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA except that its sugar is ribose -contains uracil instead of thymine -usually single stranded -found in both nucleus and cytoplasm -several types are involved with mRNA - tRNA - and rRNA

8. Where protein synthesis occurs

9. New codon may code for the same amino acid

10. Structure formed when many ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNA molecule

11. Each strand of DNA that is a template in the synthesis of two new daughter helices

12. System where the repressor binds to the operator - forming a barrier that prevents RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes

13. Adenine and guanine

14. If the bacterioophage does not lyse its host cell - it becomes integrated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form - lying dorant for one or more generations. the virus mays tay integrated indefinitely - replicating along with the bacterial gneom

15. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)

16. Location of genes on DNA

17. Changes in the genetic information of a cell coded in the DNA -if occured in the somatic cells - it can lead to tumors in an individual

18. Occurs while multiple alleles exist for a given gene and more than one of them is dominant -expression of both dominant alleles are simultaneous -ex: ABO blood group

19. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness

20. Either the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis II -zygote might either have 3 copies of that chromosome (trisomy) or just a single copy (monos

21. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex

22. Alternative forms of genes when it exists in more than one form

23. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations

24. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome

25. May be found on the plasmids and transferred into recipient cells along with these factors

26. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis

27. Short segments from lagging strand

28. Consists of structural genes

29. The process by which a foreign plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination - creating new inheritable genetic combinations

30. Phage DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures numerous progeny - causing the cell to lyse - releasing new virions - each capable of infecting other bacteria -if initial infection takes place on a bacterial lawn - then

31. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species

32. Dominant allele is expressed in the phenotype

33. One mRNA strand codes for one polypeptide

34. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells

35. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle

36. Initiation - elongation - and termination

37. Individuals being crossed

38. Nitrogen bases are added - deleted - or substituted - thus crating different genes; inappropriate amino acids may be inserted into polypeptide chains - and a mutated protein may be produced

39. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase

40. The sequence of nontranscribable DNA that is the repressor binding site

41. Structural component of ribsomes and is the most abundant of all RNA types -synthesized in the nucleolus

42. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance

43. 1) Genes exist in alternative forms. A gene controls a specific trait in an organism. 2) An organism has two alleles for each inherited trait - one inherited from each parent 3) The two alleles segregate during meiosis - resulting in gametes that car

44. Developed the basic principles of genetics through his experiments with the garden pea

45. Nucleic acid is replaced by another nucleic acid

46. Chromosome fragment

47. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon

48. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating

49. Small RNA found in the ctyoplasm that aids in the translation of mRNA's nucleotide code into a sequence of amino acids -brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis

50. Language of DNA consists of four letters: A -T -C -G -language of proteins consists of 20 'words': 20 amino acids -universal for almost all organism