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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Chromosome fragment

2. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells

3. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon

4. Degeneracy/redundancy of the genetic code since there are 64 different codons and only 20 amino acids

5. The study of how traits are inherited from one generation to the next

6. Induce mutations -include cosmic rays - X rays - UV rays - and radioactivity

7. Regulation of gene expression and enables prokaryotes to control their metabolism

8. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins

9. Basic unit of heredity

10. Genes on the same chromosome will stay together unless crossing over occurs -crossing over exchanges information between chromosomes and may break the linkage of certain patterns

11. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments

12. Complex that can't bind to the operator - thus permitting transcription

13. New codon may be a stop codon

14. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations

15. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase

16. Small RNA found in the ctyoplasm that aids in the translation of mRNA's nucleotide code into a sequence of amino acids -brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis

17. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes

18. Location of genes on DNA

19. Each strand of DNA that is a template in the synthesis of two new daughter helices

20. Expressed allele -usually assigned capital letters

21. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness

22. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating

23. If the bacterioophage does not lyse its host cell - it becomes integrated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form - lying dorant for one or more generations. the virus mays tay integrated indefinitely - replicating along with the bacterial gneom

24. Genetic makeup of an individual

25. Adenine and guanine

26. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model

27. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species

28. One mRNA strand codes for one polypeptide

29. Progeny generations

30. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny

31. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)

32. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype

33. Occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection

34. One way of predicting the genotypes expected form a cross -genotypes are determined by looking at the intersections of the grid -indicates all potential progeny genotypes and the relative frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes can be e

35. System where the repressor binds to the operator - forming a barrier that prevents RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes

36. Dominant allele is expressed in the phenotype

37. Where protein synthesis occurs

38. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands

39. Phage DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures numerous progeny - causing the cell to lyse - releasing new virions - each capable of infecting other bacteria -if initial infection takes place on a bacterial lawn - then

40. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome

41. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X

42. The process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA that leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores. the remaining events of protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm

43. Transfer of genetic material between two bacteria that re temporarily joined

44. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis

45. Occurs when linked genes are separated

46. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle

47. Structure formed when many ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNA molecule

48. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors

49. Consists of a single circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region of the cell

50. Changes in the genetic information of a cell coded in the DNA -if occured in the somatic cells - it can lead to tumors in an individual