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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Structural component of ribsomes and is the most abundant of all RNA types -synthesized in the nucleolus

2. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations

3. The study of how traits are inherited from one generation to the next

4. Consists of a single circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region of the cell

5. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species

6. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)

7. 1) Genes exist in alternative forms. A gene controls a specific trait in an organism. 2) An organism has two alleles for each inherited trait - one inherited from each parent 3) The two alleles segregate during meiosis - resulting in gametes that car

8. Alternative forms of genes when it exists in more than one form

9. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup

10. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex

11. Induce mutations -include cosmic rays - X rays - UV rays - and radioactivity

12. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes

13. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness

14. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site

15. System where the repressor binds to the operator - forming a barrier that prevents RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes

16. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins

17. (UAA - UAG - or UGA) terminates polypeptide synthesis

18. Where protein synthesis occurs

19. Degeneracy/redundancy of the genetic code since there are 64 different codons and only 20 amino acids

20. Individuals being crossed

21. The process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA that leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores. the remaining events of protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm

22. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X

23. Complex that can't bind to the operator - thus permitting transcription

24. Deoxyribonucleic acid -contains information coded in the sequence of its base pairs - provding the cell with a blueprint for protein synthesis -regulate all life functions -has the ability to self replicate -basis of heredity -mutable

25. Silent allele -usually assigned capital letters

26. Small RNA found in the ctyoplasm that aids in the translation of mRNA's nucleotide code into a sequence of amino acids -brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis

27. On amino acid which has an active site that binds to both the amino acid and its corresponding tRNA - ctalyzing their attachment to form an aminoacyl-tRNA complex

28. Small circular rings of DNA which contain accessory genes

29. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle

30. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments

31. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome

32. Can be altered under certain conditions - altering the corresponding characteristics in the organism

33. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands

34. Phage DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures numerous progeny - causing the cell to lyse - releasing new virions - each capable of infecting other bacteria -if initial infection takes place on a bacterial lawn - then

35. TRNA binding site for ribosomes to attach to the growing polypeptide chain (peace out site)

36. Daughter strand that is continuously synthesized by DNA polymerase in the 5'->3' direction

37. Dominant allele is expressed in the phenotype

38. The process by which a foreign plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination - creating new inheritable genetic combinations

39. Language of DNA consists of four letters: A -T -C -G -language of proteins consists of 20 'words': 20 amino acids -universal for almost all organism

40. The sequence of nontranscribable DNA that is the repressor binding site

41. Carries the complement of a DNA sequence and transports it from the nucleus to the ribosomes -assembled from ribonucleotides that are complementary to the 'sense' strand of the DNA -monocistronic

42. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells

43. If the bacterioophage does not lyse its host cell - it becomes integrated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form - lying dorant for one or more generations. the virus mays tay integrated indefinitely - replicating along with the bacterial gneom

44. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons

45. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors

46. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny

47. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase

48. Organisms that carry two different alleles

49. Short segments from lagging strand

50. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating