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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Deoxyribonucleic acid -contains information coded in the sequence of its base pairs - provding the cell with a blueprint for protein synthesis -regulate all life functions -has the ability to self replicate -basis of heredity -mutable

2. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes

3. Structure formed when many ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNA molecule

4. Alternative forms of genes when it exists in more than one form

5. New codon may code for the same amino acid

6. One way of predicting the genotypes expected form a cross -genotypes are determined by looking at the intersections of the grid -indicates all potential progeny genotypes and the relative frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes can be e

7. Short segments from lagging strand

8. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis

9. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species

10. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X

11. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype

12. Carries the complement of a DNA sequence and transports it from the nucleus to the ribosomes -assembled from ribonucleotides that are complementary to the 'sense' strand of the DNA -monocistronic

13. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)

14. Ribonucleic acid -polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA except that its sugar is ribose -contains uracil instead of thymine -usually single stranded -found in both nucleus and cytoplasm -several types are involved with mRNA - tRNA - and rRNA

15. (AUG) ribosome scans the mRNA until it bonds to this (methionine) and UAC on anticodon of tRNA

16. Consists of a single circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region of the cell

17. Adenine and guanine

18. Basic unit of heredity

19. If the bacterioophage does not lyse its host cell - it becomes integrated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form - lying dorant for one or more generations. the virus mays tay integrated indefinitely - replicating along with the bacterial gneom

20. System where the repressor binds to the operator - forming a barrier that prevents RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes

21. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating

22. Progeny generations

23. New codon may code for a different amino acid

24. Fruit fly -produces often (short life cycle) -reproduces in large numbers (large sample size) -chromosomes (especially in the salivary gland) are large and easily recognizable in size and shape -its chromosomes are few (4 pairs - 2n=8) -Mutations occ

25. DNA language must be translated by mRNA in such a way as to produce the 20 words in the amino acid language

26. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons

27. Phage DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures numerous progeny - causing the cell to lyse - releasing new virions - each capable of infecting other bacteria -if initial infection takes place on a bacterial lawn - then

28. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance

29. Where protein synthesis occurs

30. Can be altered under certain conditions - altering the corresponding characteristics in the organism

31. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle

32. Each new daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand

33. Nucleic acids are deleted or inserted into the genome sequence (lethal)

34. Dominant allele is expressed in the phenotype

35. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness

36. Changes in the genetic information of a cell coded in the DNA -if occured in the somatic cells - it can lead to tumors in an individual

37. Cell burst

38. Binds to the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex (Arriving site)

39. Chromosome fragment

40. Nucleic acid is replaced by another nucleic acid

41. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase

42. TRNA binding site for ribosomes to attach to the growing polypeptide chain (peace out site)

43. Basic unit of DNA - which is composed of deoxyribose (a sugar) bonded to both a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base -bases: purines and pyrimidines

44. Initiation - elongation - and termination

45. May be found on the plasmids and transferred into recipient cells along with these factors

46. The study of how traits are inherited from one generation to the next

47. Occurs while multiple alleles exist for a given gene and more than one of them is dominant -expression of both dominant alleles are simultaneous -ex: ABO blood group

48. On amino acid which has an active site that binds to both the amino acid and its corresponding tRNA - ctalyzing their attachment to form an aminoacyl-tRNA complex

49. Organisms that carry two different alleles

50. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes