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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Either the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis II -zygote might either have 3 copies of that chromosome (trisomy) or just a single copy (monos






2. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)






3. Nitrogen bases are added - deleted - or substituted - thus crating different genes; inappropriate amino acids may be inserted into polypeptide chains - and a mutated protein may be produced






4. Complex that can't bind to the operator - thus permitting transcription






5. Cell burst






6. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon






7. Nucleic acid is replaced by another nucleic acid






8. Can be altered under certain conditions - altering the corresponding characteristics in the organism






9. Occurs while multiple alleles exist for a given gene and more than one of them is dominant -expression of both dominant alleles are simultaneous -ex: ABO blood group






10. Diagnostic tool to determine the genotype of an organism -Only with a recessive phenotype can genotype be predicted with 100% accuracy -if dominant phenotype is expressed - the genotype can be either homozygous dominant or heterozygous -used to deter






11. Ribonucleic acid -polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA except that its sugar is ribose -contains uracil instead of thymine -usually single stranded -found in both nucleus and cytoplasm -several types are involved with mRNA - tRNA - and rRNA






12. Daughter strand that is continuously synthesized by DNA polymerase in the 5'->3' direction






13. Structure formed when many ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNA molecule






14. The process by which a foreign plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination - creating new inheritable genetic combinations






15. Adenine and guanine






16. An organism with a dominant phenotype of unknown genotype (Ax) is crossed with a phenotypically recessive organism






17. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup






18. The study of how traits are inherited from one generation to the next






19. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle






20. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes






21. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating






22. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments






23. Occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection






24. Carries the complement of a DNA sequence and transports it from the nucleus to the ribosomes -assembled from ribonucleotides that are complementary to the 'sense' strand of the DNA -monocistronic






25. If the bacterioophage does not lyse its host cell - it becomes integrated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form - lying dorant for one or more generations. the virus mays tay integrated indefinitely - replicating along with the bacterial gneom






26. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny






27. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis






28. Cytosine and thymine






29. New codon may code for the same amino acid






30. Progeny generations






31. New codon may code for a different amino acid






32. Consists of structural genes






33. Chromosome fragment






34. Regulation of gene expression and enables prokaryotes to control their metabolism






35. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species






36. Binds to the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex (Arriving site)






37. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons






38. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes






39. Transfer of genetic material between two bacteria that re temporarily joined






40. Changes in the genetic information of a cell coded in the DNA -if occured in the somatic cells - it can lead to tumors in an individual






41. May infect other bacteria and introduce new genetic arrangements through recombination with the new host cell's DNA






42. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells






43. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site






44. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex






45. TRNA binding site for ribosomes to attach to the growing polypeptide chain (peace out site)






46. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors






47. Small RNA found in the ctyoplasm that aids in the translation of mRNA's nucleotide code into a sequence of amino acids -brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis






48. Each strand of DNA that is a template in the synthesis of two new daughter helices






49. Fruit fly -produces often (short life cycle) -reproduces in large numbers (large sample size) -chromosomes (especially in the salivary gland) are large and easily recognizable in size and shape -its chromosomes are few (4 pairs - 2n=8) -Mutations occ






50. Dominant allele is expressed in the phenotype