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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection

2. Degeneracy/redundancy of the genetic code since there are 64 different codons and only 20 amino acids

3. If the bacterioophage does not lyse its host cell - it becomes integrated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form - lying dorant for one or more generations. the virus mays tay integrated indefinitely - replicating along with the bacterial gneom

4. Silent allele -usually assigned capital letters

5. DNA language must be translated by mRNA in such a way as to produce the 20 words in the amino acid language

6. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome

7. The process by which a foreign plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination - creating new inheritable genetic combinations

8. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations

9. Complex that can't bind to the operator - thus permitting transcription

10. New codon may be a stop codon

11. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex

12. Structural component of ribsomes and is the most abundant of all RNA types -synthesized in the nucleolus

13. Genetic makeup of an individual

14. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site

15. Deoxyribonucleic acid -contains information coded in the sequence of its base pairs - provding the cell with a blueprint for protein synthesis -regulate all life functions -has the ability to self replicate -basis of heredity -mutable

16. Cell burst

17. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model

18. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins

19. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes

20. Base sequence of mRNA is translated as a series of triplets

21. Adenine and guanine

22. One mRNA strand codes for one polypeptide

23. Expressed allele -usually assigned capital letters

24. Genes on the same chromosome will stay together unless crossing over occurs -crossing over exchanges information between chromosomes and may break the linkage of certain patterns

25. One way of predicting the genotypes expected form a cross -genotypes are determined by looking at the intersections of the grid -indicates all potential progeny genotypes and the relative frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes can be e

26. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)

27. Regulation of gene expression and enables prokaryotes to control their metabolism

28. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny

29. Organisms that contain two copies of the same allele

30. Location of genes on DNA

31. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle

32. Chromosome fragment

33. Small RNA found in the ctyoplasm that aids in the translation of mRNA's nucleotide code into a sequence of amino acids -brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis

34. Cytosine and thymine

35. Basic unit of heredity

36. Ribonucleic acid -polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA except that its sugar is ribose -contains uracil instead of thymine -usually single stranded -found in both nucleus and cytoplasm -several types are involved with mRNA - tRNA - and rRNA

37. (UAA - UAG - or UGA) terminates polypeptide synthesis

38. Phage DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures numerous progeny - causing the cell to lyse - releasing new virions - each capable of infecting other bacteria -if initial infection takes place on a bacterial lawn - then

39. Alternative forms of genes when it exists in more than one form

40. Short segments from lagging strand

41. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup

42. May be found on the plasmids and transferred into recipient cells along with these factors

43. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors

44. Nucleic acids are deleted or inserted into the genome sequence (lethal)

45. 1) Genes exist in alternative forms. A gene controls a specific trait in an organism. 2) An organism has two alleles for each inherited trait - one inherited from each parent 3) The two alleles segregate during meiosis - resulting in gametes that car

46. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness

47. Either the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis II -zygote might either have 3 copies of that chromosome (trisomy) or just a single copy (monos

48. Initiation - elongation - and termination

49. New codon may code for the same amino acid

50. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon