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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor






2. Diagnostic tool to determine the genotype of an organism -Only with a recessive phenotype can genotype be predicted with 100% accuracy -if dominant phenotype is expressed - the genotype can be either homozygous dominant or heterozygous -used to deter






3. Location of genes on DNA






4. Phage DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures numerous progeny - causing the cell to lyse - releasing new virions - each capable of infecting other bacteria -if initial infection takes place on a bacterial lawn - then






5. Occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection






6. Base sequence of mRNA is translated as a series of triplets






7. (AUG) ribosome scans the mRNA until it bonds to this (methionine) and UAC on anticodon of tRNA






8. Basic unit of heredity






9. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex






10. Occurs while multiple alleles exist for a given gene and more than one of them is dominant -expression of both dominant alleles are simultaneous -ex: ABO blood group






11. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance






12. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model






13. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands






14. The process by which a foreign plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination - creating new inheritable genetic combinations






15. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup






16. May be found on the plasmids and transferred into recipient cells along with these factors






17. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype






18. Organisms that carry two different alleles






19. Binds to the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex (Arriving site)






20. Small circular rings of DNA which contain accessory genes






21. Regulation of gene expression and enables prokaryotes to control their metabolism






22. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells






23. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons






24. New codon may be a stop codon






25. Genes on the same chromosome will stay together unless crossing over occurs -crossing over exchanges information between chromosomes and may break the linkage of certain patterns






26. Nucleic acid is replaced by another nucleic acid






27. Transfer of genetic material between two bacteria that re temporarily joined






28. Either the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis II -zygote might either have 3 copies of that chromosome (trisomy) or just a single copy (monos






29. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes






30. Consists of a single circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region of the cell






31. New codon may code for a different amino acid






32. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome






33. Initiation - elongation - and termination






34. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)






35. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase






36. Each new daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand






37. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site






38. Each strand of DNA that is a template in the synthesis of two new daughter helices






39. The study of how traits are inherited from one generation to the next






40. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments






41. DNA language must be translated by mRNA in such a way as to produce the 20 words in the amino acid language






42. One way of predicting the genotypes expected form a cross -genotypes are determined by looking at the intersections of the grid -indicates all potential progeny genotypes and the relative frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes can be e






43. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle






44. Developed the basic principles of genetics through his experiments with the garden pea






45. Nucleic acids are deleted or inserted into the genome sequence (lethal)






46. New codon may code for the same amino acid






47. On amino acid which has an active site that binds to both the amino acid and its corresponding tRNA - ctalyzing their attachment to form an aminoacyl-tRNA complex






48. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins






49. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors






50. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating