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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. One way of predicting the genotypes expected form a cross -genotypes are determined by looking at the intersections of the grid -indicates all potential progeny genotypes and the relative frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes can be e

2. Expressed allele -usually assigned capital letters

3. 1) Genes exist in alternative forms. A gene controls a specific trait in an organism. 2) An organism has two alleles for each inherited trait - one inherited from each parent 3) The two alleles segregate during meiosis - resulting in gametes that car

4. The process by which a foreign plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination - creating new inheritable genetic combinations

5. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site

6. New codon may be a stop codon

7. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations

8. Nucleic acid is replaced by another nucleic acid

9. Progeny generations

10. An organism with a dominant phenotype of unknown genotype (Ax) is crossed with a phenotypically recessive organism

11. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase

12. Consists of structural genes

13. Each strand of DNA that is a template in the synthesis of two new daughter helices

14. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands

15. Location of genes on DNA

16. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup

17. Where protein synthesis occurs

18. (AUG) ribosome scans the mRNA until it bonds to this (methionine) and UAC on anticodon of tRNA

19. Adenine and guanine

20. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)

21. Each new daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand

22. The study of how traits are inherited from one generation to the next

23. TRNA binding site for ribosomes to attach to the growing polypeptide chain (peace out site)

24. Phage DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures numerous progeny - causing the cell to lyse - releasing new virions - each capable of infecting other bacteria -if initial infection takes place on a bacterial lawn - then

25. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle

26. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors

27. May be found on the plasmids and transferred into recipient cells along with these factors

28. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance

29. Fruit fly -produces often (short life cycle) -reproduces in large numbers (large sample size) -chromosomes (especially in the salivary gland) are large and easily recognizable in size and shape -its chromosomes are few (4 pairs - 2n=8) -Mutations occ

30. New codon may code for a different amino acid

31. Carries the complement of a DNA sequence and transports it from the nucleus to the ribosomes -assembled from ribonucleotides that are complementary to the 'sense' strand of the DNA -monocistronic

32. Nucleic acids are deleted or inserted into the genome sequence (lethal)

33. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor

34. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness

35. Basic unit of heredity

36. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny

37. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons

38. Occurs when linked genes are separated

39. (UAA - UAG - or UGA) terminates polypeptide synthesis

40. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X

41. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype

42. Complex that can't bind to the operator - thus permitting transcription

43. The sequence of nontranscribable DNA that is the repressor binding site

44. Cell burst

45. Transfer of genetic material between two bacteria that re temporarily joined

46. New codon may code for the same amino acid

47. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes

48. Deoxyribonucleic acid -contains information coded in the sequence of its base pairs - provding the cell with a blueprint for protein synthesis -regulate all life functions -has the ability to self replicate -basis of heredity -mutable

49. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)

50. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model