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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Chromosome fragment






2. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells






3. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon






4. Degeneracy/redundancy of the genetic code since there are 64 different codons and only 20 amino acids






5. The study of how traits are inherited from one generation to the next






6. Induce mutations -include cosmic rays - X rays - UV rays - and radioactivity






7. Regulation of gene expression and enables prokaryotes to control their metabolism






8. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins






9. Basic unit of heredity






10. Genes on the same chromosome will stay together unless crossing over occurs -crossing over exchanges information between chromosomes and may break the linkage of certain patterns






11. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments






12. Complex that can't bind to the operator - thus permitting transcription






13. New codon may be a stop codon






14. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations






15. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase






16. Small RNA found in the ctyoplasm that aids in the translation of mRNA's nucleotide code into a sequence of amino acids -brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis






17. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes






18. Location of genes on DNA






19. Each strand of DNA that is a template in the synthesis of two new daughter helices






20. Expressed allele -usually assigned capital letters






21. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness






22. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating






23. If the bacterioophage does not lyse its host cell - it becomes integrated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form - lying dorant for one or more generations. the virus mays tay integrated indefinitely - replicating along with the bacterial gneom






24. Genetic makeup of an individual






25. Adenine and guanine






26. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model






27. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species






28. One mRNA strand codes for one polypeptide






29. Progeny generations






30. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny






31. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)






32. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype






33. Occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection






34. One way of predicting the genotypes expected form a cross -genotypes are determined by looking at the intersections of the grid -indicates all potential progeny genotypes and the relative frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes can be e






35. System where the repressor binds to the operator - forming a barrier that prevents RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes






36. Dominant allele is expressed in the phenotype






37. Where protein synthesis occurs






38. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands






39. Phage DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures numerous progeny - causing the cell to lyse - releasing new virions - each capable of infecting other bacteria -if initial infection takes place on a bacterial lawn - then






40. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome






41. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X






42. The process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA that leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores. the remaining events of protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm






43. Transfer of genetic material between two bacteria that re temporarily joined






44. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis






45. Occurs when linked genes are separated






46. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle






47. Structure formed when many ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNA molecule






48. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors






49. Consists of a single circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region of the cell






50. Changes in the genetic information of a cell coded in the DNA -if occured in the somatic cells - it can lead to tumors in an individual