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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands

2. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex

3. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype

4. Each new daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand

5. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes

6. Consists of a single circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region of the cell

7. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site

8. Degeneracy/redundancy of the genetic code since there are 64 different codons and only 20 amino acids

9. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells

10. Occurs when linked genes are separated

11. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle

12. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes

13. Alternative forms of genes when it exists in more than one form

14. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness

15. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species

16. Structural component of ribsomes and is the most abundant of all RNA types -synthesized in the nucleolus

17. Where protein synthesis occurs

18. Language of DNA consists of four letters: A -T -C -G -language of proteins consists of 20 'words': 20 amino acids -universal for almost all organism

19. The process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA that leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores. the remaining events of protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm

20. DNA language must be translated by mRNA in such a way as to produce the 20 words in the amino acid language

21. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)

22. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle

23. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance

24. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)

25. Transfer of genetic material between two bacteria that re temporarily joined

26. Nucleic acids are deleted or inserted into the genome sequence (lethal)

27. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors

28. Changes in the genetic information of a cell coded in the DNA -if occured in the somatic cells - it can lead to tumors in an individual

29. New codon may code for a different amino acid

30. Consists of structural genes

31. TRNA binding site for ribosomes to attach to the growing polypeptide chain (peace out site)

32. Expressed allele -usually assigned capital letters

33. Diagnostic tool to determine the genotype of an organism -Only with a recessive phenotype can genotype be predicted with 100% accuracy -if dominant phenotype is expressed - the genotype can be either homozygous dominant or heterozygous -used to deter

34. Base sequence of mRNA is translated as a series of triplets

35. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon

36. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor

37. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations

38. (AUG) ribosome scans the mRNA until it bonds to this (methionine) and UAC on anticodon of tRNA

39. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins

40. Ribonucleic acid -polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA except that its sugar is ribose -contains uracil instead of thymine -usually single stranded -found in both nucleus and cytoplasm -several types are involved with mRNA - tRNA - and rRNA

41. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments

42. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model

43. Basic unit of DNA - which is composed of deoxyribose (a sugar) bonded to both a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base -bases: purines and pyrimidines

44. Phage DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures numerous progeny - causing the cell to lyse - releasing new virions - each capable of infecting other bacteria -if initial infection takes place on a bacterial lawn - then

45. Progeny generations

46. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny

47. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup

48. The process by which a foreign plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination - creating new inheritable genetic combinations

49. Induce mutations -include cosmic rays - X rays - UV rays - and radioactivity

50. Fruit fly -produces often (short life cycle) -reproduces in large numbers (large sample size) -chromosomes (especially in the salivary gland) are large and easily recognizable in size and shape -its chromosomes are few (4 pairs - 2n=8) -Mutations occ