Test your basic knowledge |

PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. An organism with a dominant phenotype of unknown genotype (Ax) is crossed with a phenotypically recessive organism






2. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle






3. Induce mutations -include cosmic rays - X rays - UV rays - and radioactivity






4. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype






5. Organisms that contain two copies of the same allele






6. Adenine and guanine






7. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle






8. Individuals being crossed






9. Binds to the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex (Arriving site)






10. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands






11. Where protein synthesis occurs






12. Regulation of gene expression and enables prokaryotes to control their metabolism






13. New codon may code for the same amino acid






14. Base sequence of mRNA is translated as a series of triplets






15. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells






16. System where the repressor binds to the operator - forming a barrier that prevents RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes






17. Consists of a single circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region of the cell






18. Developed the basic principles of genetics through his experiments with the garden pea






19. Cytosine and thymine






20. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness






21. Chromosome fragment






22. The sequence of nontranscribable DNA that is the repressor binding site






23. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor






24. Structural component of ribsomes and is the most abundant of all RNA types -synthesized in the nucleolus






25. Small RNA found in the ctyoplasm that aids in the translation of mRNA's nucleotide code into a sequence of amino acids -brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis






26. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)






27. Occurs when linked genes are separated






28. Daughter strand that is continuously synthesized by DNA polymerase in the 5'->3' direction






29. Transfer of genetic material between two bacteria that re temporarily joined






30. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon






31. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins






32. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase






33. Genes on the same chromosome will stay together unless crossing over occurs -crossing over exchanges information between chromosomes and may break the linkage of certain patterns






34. If the bacterioophage does not lyse its host cell - it becomes integrated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form - lying dorant for one or more generations. the virus mays tay integrated indefinitely - replicating along with the bacterial gneom






35. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors






36. One mRNA strand codes for one polypeptide






37. Complex that can't bind to the operator - thus permitting transcription






38. Nitrogen bases are added - deleted - or substituted - thus crating different genes; inappropriate amino acids may be inserted into polypeptide chains - and a mutated protein may be produced






39. Each strand of DNA that is a template in the synthesis of two new daughter helices






40. Genetic makeup of an individual






41. Basic unit of DNA - which is composed of deoxyribose (a sugar) bonded to both a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base -bases: purines and pyrimidines






42. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site






43. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance






44. The process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA that leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores. the remaining events of protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm






45. Alternative forms of genes when it exists in more than one form






46. Basic unit of heredity






47. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis






48. Each new daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand






49. Cell burst






50. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons