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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Where protein synthesis occurs






2. Nucleic acids are deleted or inserted into the genome sequence (lethal)






3. An organism with a dominant phenotype of unknown genotype (Ax) is crossed with a phenotypically recessive organism






4. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness






5. Either the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis II -zygote might either have 3 copies of that chromosome (trisomy) or just a single copy (monos






6. Regulation of gene expression and enables prokaryotes to control their metabolism






7. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands






8. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells






9. The sequence of nontranscribable DNA that is the repressor binding site






10. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance






11. Phage DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures numerous progeny - causing the cell to lyse - releasing new virions - each capable of infecting other bacteria -if initial infection takes place on a bacterial lawn - then






12. New codon may code for the same amino acid






13. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)






14. The process by which a foreign plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination - creating new inheritable genetic combinations






15. Nitrogen bases are added - deleted - or substituted - thus crating different genes; inappropriate amino acids may be inserted into polypeptide chains - and a mutated protein may be produced






16. Carries the complement of a DNA sequence and transports it from the nucleus to the ribosomes -assembled from ribonucleotides that are complementary to the 'sense' strand of the DNA -monocistronic






17. Binds to the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex (Arriving site)






18. Induce mutations -include cosmic rays - X rays - UV rays - and radioactivity






19. Begins at a unique origin of and proceeds in both directions simultaneously






20. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype






21. Small RNA found in the ctyoplasm that aids in the translation of mRNA's nucleotide code into a sequence of amino acids -brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis






22. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model






23. Consists of structural genes






24. Base sequence of mRNA is translated as a series of triplets






25. Fruit fly -produces often (short life cycle) -reproduces in large numbers (large sample size) -chromosomes (especially in the salivary gland) are large and easily recognizable in size and shape -its chromosomes are few (4 pairs - 2n=8) -Mutations occ






26. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site






27. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny






28. 1) Genes exist in alternative forms. A gene controls a specific trait in an organism. 2) An organism has two alleles for each inherited trait - one inherited from each parent 3) The two alleles segregate during meiosis - resulting in gametes that car






29. Deoxyribonucleic acid -contains information coded in the sequence of its base pairs - provding the cell with a blueprint for protein synthesis -regulate all life functions -has the ability to self replicate -basis of heredity -mutable






30. Organisms that carry two different alleles






31. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor






32. Ribonucleic acid -polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA except that its sugar is ribose -contains uracil instead of thymine -usually single stranded -found in both nucleus and cytoplasm -several types are involved with mRNA - tRNA - and rRNA






33. Small circular rings of DNA which contain accessory genes






34. Nucleic acid is replaced by another nucleic acid






35. Occurs when linked genes are separated






36. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons






37. Individuals being crossed






38. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes






39. Developed the basic principles of genetics through his experiments with the garden pea






40. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating






41. (UAA - UAG - or UGA) terminates polypeptide synthesis






42. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species






43. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle






44. Chromosome fragment






45. Structure formed when many ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNA molecule






46. One mRNA strand codes for one polypeptide






47. Occurs while multiple alleles exist for a given gene and more than one of them is dominant -expression of both dominant alleles are simultaneous -ex: ABO blood group






48. Diagnostic tool to determine the genotype of an organism -Only with a recessive phenotype can genotype be predicted with 100% accuracy -if dominant phenotype is expressed - the genotype can be either homozygous dominant or heterozygous -used to deter






49. (AUG) ribosome scans the mRNA until it bonds to this (methionine) and UAC on anticodon of tRNA






50. New codon may be a stop codon