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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance






2. Nucleic acid is replaced by another nucleic acid






3. Occurs while multiple alleles exist for a given gene and more than one of them is dominant -expression of both dominant alleles are simultaneous -ex: ABO blood group






4. Individuals being crossed






5. Ribonucleic acid -polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA except that its sugar is ribose -contains uracil instead of thymine -usually single stranded -found in both nucleus and cytoplasm -several types are involved with mRNA - tRNA - and rRNA






6. Fruit fly -produces often (short life cycle) -reproduces in large numbers (large sample size) -chromosomes (especially in the salivary gland) are large and easily recognizable in size and shape -its chromosomes are few (4 pairs - 2n=8) -Mutations occ






7. Where protein synthesis occurs






8. Basic unit of DNA - which is composed of deoxyribose (a sugar) bonded to both a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base -bases: purines and pyrimidines






9. Complex that can't bind to the operator - thus permitting transcription






10. New codon may be a stop codon






11. Location of genes on DNA






12. Occurs when linked genes are separated






13. Short segments from lagging strand






14. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations






15. Small circular rings of DNA which contain accessory genes






16. Alternative forms of genes when it exists in more than one form






17. Structural component of ribsomes and is the most abundant of all RNA types -synthesized in the nucleolus






18. DNA language must be translated by mRNA in such a way as to produce the 20 words in the amino acid language






19. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes






20. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model






21. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site






22. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes






23. Expressed allele -usually assigned capital letters






24. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon






25. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex






26. Occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection






27. Chromosome fragment






28. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons






29. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands






30. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X






31. Begins at a unique origin of and proceeds in both directions simultaneously






32. Daughter strand that is continuously synthesized by DNA polymerase in the 5'->3' direction






33. Structure formed when many ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNA molecule






34. (UAA - UAG - or UGA) terminates polypeptide synthesis






35. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins






36. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype






37. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)






38. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor






39. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)






40. The study of how traits are inherited from one generation to the next






41. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome






42. System where the repressor binds to the operator - forming a barrier that prevents RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes






43. Initiation - elongation - and termination






44. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle






45. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle






46. Genetic makeup of an individual






47. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments






48. Base sequence of mRNA is translated as a series of triplets






49. Deoxyribonucleic acid -contains information coded in the sequence of its base pairs - provding the cell with a blueprint for protein synthesis -regulate all life functions -has the ability to self replicate -basis of heredity -mutable






50. Developed the basic principles of genetics through his experiments with the garden pea