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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
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1. Cell burst

2. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome

3. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model

4. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny

5. Initiation - elongation - and termination

6. Basic unit of DNA - which is composed of deoxyribose (a sugar) bonded to both a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base -bases: purines and pyrimidines

7. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes

8. New codon may code for the same amino acid

9. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating

10. Nucleic acid is replaced by another nucleic acid

11. Occurs when linked genes are separated

12. New codon may code for a different amino acid

13. May be found on the plasmids and transferred into recipient cells along with these factors

14. Basic unit of heredity

15. Adenine and guanine

16. Organisms that carry two different alleles

17. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance

18. An organism with a dominant phenotype of unknown genotype (Ax) is crossed with a phenotypically recessive organism

19. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis

20. Location of genes on DNA

21. Carries the complement of a DNA sequence and transports it from the nucleus to the ribosomes -assembled from ribonucleotides that are complementary to the 'sense' strand of the DNA -monocistronic

22. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness

23. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments

24. Occurs while multiple alleles exist for a given gene and more than one of them is dominant -expression of both dominant alleles are simultaneous -ex: ABO blood group

25. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins

26. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup

27. (AUG) ribosome scans the mRNA until it bonds to this (methionine) and UAC on anticodon of tRNA

28. Dominant allele is expressed in the phenotype

29. Each strand of DNA that is a template in the synthesis of two new daughter helices

30. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species

31. The process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA that leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores. the remaining events of protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm

32. Deoxyribonucleic acid -contains information coded in the sequence of its base pairs - provding the cell with a blueprint for protein synthesis -regulate all life functions -has the ability to self replicate -basis of heredity -mutable

33. The process by which a foreign plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination - creating new inheritable genetic combinations

34. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons

35. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex

36. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype

37. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors

38. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes

39. Small RNA found in the ctyoplasm that aids in the translation of mRNA's nucleotide code into a sequence of amino acids -brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis

40. If the bacterioophage does not lyse its host cell - it becomes integrated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form - lying dorant for one or more generations. the virus mays tay integrated indefinitely - replicating along with the bacterial gneom

41. May infect other bacteria and introduce new genetic arrangements through recombination with the new host cell's DNA

42. New codon may be a stop codon

43. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle

44. Can be altered under certain conditions - altering the corresponding characteristics in the organism

45. Either the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis II -zygote might either have 3 copies of that chromosome (trisomy) or just a single copy (monos

46. (UAA - UAG - or UGA) terminates polypeptide synthesis

47. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon

48. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)

49. Regulation of gene expression and enables prokaryotes to control their metabolism

50. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells