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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)






2. Location of genes on DNA






3. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands






4. Developed the basic principles of genetics through his experiments with the garden pea






5. An organism with a dominant phenotype of unknown genotype (Ax) is crossed with a phenotypically recessive organism






6. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments






7. Either the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis II -zygote might either have 3 copies of that chromosome (trisomy) or just a single copy (monos






8. Short segments from lagging strand






9. Daughter strand that is continuously synthesized by DNA polymerase in the 5'->3' direction






10. Small circular rings of DNA which contain accessory genes






11. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X






12. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle






13. Changes in the genetic information of a cell coded in the DNA -if occured in the somatic cells - it can lead to tumors in an individual






14. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis






15. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny






16. Language of DNA consists of four letters: A -T -C -G -language of proteins consists of 20 'words': 20 amino acids -universal for almost all organism






17. Cell burst






18. Cytosine and thymine






19. On amino acid which has an active site that binds to both the amino acid and its corresponding tRNA - ctalyzing their attachment to form an aminoacyl-tRNA complex






20. Dominant allele is expressed in the phenotype


21. The sequence of nontranscribable DNA that is the repressor binding site






22. Ribonucleic acid -polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA except that its sugar is ribose -contains uracil instead of thymine -usually single stranded -found in both nucleus and cytoplasm -several types are involved with mRNA - tRNA - and rRNA






23. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)






24. Nucleic acids are deleted or inserted into the genome sequence (lethal)






25. Progeny generations






26. Individuals being crossed






27. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells






28. Nitrogen bases are added - deleted - or substituted - thus crating different genes; inappropriate amino acids may be inserted into polypeptide chains - and a mutated protein may be produced






29. Binds to the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex (Arriving site)






30. Can be altered under certain conditions - altering the corresponding characteristics in the organism






31. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor






32. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome






33. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating






34. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species






35. Consists of a single circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region of the cell






36. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness






37. Silent allele -usually assigned capital letters






38. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup






39. Transfer of genetic material between two bacteria that re temporarily joined






40. New codon may code for the same amino acid






41. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex






42. Begins at a unique origin of and proceeds in both directions simultaneously






43. Degeneracy/redundancy of the genetic code since there are 64 different codons and only 20 amino acids






44. One way of predicting the genotypes expected form a cross -genotypes are determined by looking at the intersections of the grid -indicates all potential progeny genotypes and the relative frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes can be e






45. Each new daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand






46. 1) Genes exist in alternative forms. A gene controls a specific trait in an organism. 2) An organism has two alleles for each inherited trait - one inherited from each parent 3) The two alleles segregate during meiosis - resulting in gametes that car


47. DNA language must be translated by mRNA in such a way as to produce the 20 words in the amino acid language






48. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle






49. (AUG) ribosome scans the mRNA until it bonds to this (methionine) and UAC on anticodon of tRNA






50. Diagnostic tool to determine the genotype of an organism -Only with a recessive phenotype can genotype be predicted with 100% accuracy -if dominant phenotype is expressed - the genotype can be either homozygous dominant or heterozygous -used to deter