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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance

2. Nucleic acid is replaced by another nucleic acid

3. Occurs while multiple alleles exist for a given gene and more than one of them is dominant -expression of both dominant alleles are simultaneous -ex: ABO blood group

4. Individuals being crossed

5. Ribonucleic acid -polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA except that its sugar is ribose -contains uracil instead of thymine -usually single stranded -found in both nucleus and cytoplasm -several types are involved with mRNA - tRNA - and rRNA

6. Fruit fly -produces often (short life cycle) -reproduces in large numbers (large sample size) -chromosomes (especially in the salivary gland) are large and easily recognizable in size and shape -its chromosomes are few (4 pairs - 2n=8) -Mutations occ

7. Where protein synthesis occurs

8. Basic unit of DNA - which is composed of deoxyribose (a sugar) bonded to both a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base -bases: purines and pyrimidines

9. Complex that can't bind to the operator - thus permitting transcription

10. New codon may be a stop codon

11. Location of genes on DNA

12. Occurs when linked genes are separated

13. Short segments from lagging strand

14. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations

15. Small circular rings of DNA which contain accessory genes

16. Alternative forms of genes when it exists in more than one form

17. Structural component of ribsomes and is the most abundant of all RNA types -synthesized in the nucleolus

18. DNA language must be translated by mRNA in such a way as to produce the 20 words in the amino acid language

19. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes

20. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model

21. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site

22. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes

23. Expressed allele -usually assigned capital letters

24. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon

25. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex

26. Occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection

27. Chromosome fragment

28. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons

29. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands

30. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X

31. Begins at a unique origin of and proceeds in both directions simultaneously

32. Daughter strand that is continuously synthesized by DNA polymerase in the 5'->3' direction

33. Structure formed when many ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNA molecule

34. (UAA - UAG - or UGA) terminates polypeptide synthesis

35. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins

36. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype

37. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)

38. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor

39. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)

40. The study of how traits are inherited from one generation to the next

41. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome

42. System where the repressor binds to the operator - forming a barrier that prevents RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes

43. Initiation - elongation - and termination

44. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle

45. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle

46. Genetic makeup of an individual

47. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments

48. Base sequence of mRNA is translated as a series of triplets

49. Deoxyribonucleic acid -contains information coded in the sequence of its base pairs - provding the cell with a blueprint for protein synthesis -regulate all life functions -has the ability to self replicate -basis of heredity -mutable

50. Developed the basic principles of genetics through his experiments with the garden pea