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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. On amino acid which has an active site that binds to both the amino acid and its corresponding tRNA - ctalyzing their attachment to form an aminoacyl-tRNA complex

2. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site

3. The process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA that leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores. the remaining events of protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm

4. Deoxyribonucleic acid -contains information coded in the sequence of its base pairs - provding the cell with a blueprint for protein synthesis -regulate all life functions -has the ability to self replicate -basis of heredity -mutable

5. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X

6. Individuals being crossed

7. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)

8. Initiation - elongation - and termination

9. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations

10. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model

11. Occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection

12. New codon may code for a different amino acid

13. Degeneracy/redundancy of the genetic code since there are 64 different codons and only 20 amino acids

14. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis

15. DNA language must be translated by mRNA in such a way as to produce the 20 words in the amino acid language

16. The sequence of nontranscribable DNA that is the repressor binding site

17. If the bacterioophage does not lyse its host cell - it becomes integrated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form - lying dorant for one or more generations. the virus mays tay integrated indefinitely - replicating along with the bacterial gneom

18. Nitrogen bases are added - deleted - or substituted - thus crating different genes; inappropriate amino acids may be inserted into polypeptide chains - and a mutated protein may be produced

19. Nucleic acids are deleted or inserted into the genome sequence (lethal)

20. Organisms that carry two different alleles

21. The process by which a foreign plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination - creating new inheritable genetic combinations

22. Structural component of ribsomes and is the most abundant of all RNA types -synthesized in the nucleolus

23. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes

24. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon

25. Can be altered under certain conditions - altering the corresponding characteristics in the organism

26. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species

27. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase

28. Induce mutations -include cosmic rays - X rays - UV rays - and radioactivity

29. New codon may be a stop codon

30. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor

31. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands

32. Each strand of DNA that is a template in the synthesis of two new daughter helices

33. Silent allele -usually assigned capital letters

34. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle

35. May be found on the plasmids and transferred into recipient cells along with these factors

36. Genes on the same chromosome will stay together unless crossing over occurs -crossing over exchanges information between chromosomes and may break the linkage of certain patterns

37. Occurs while multiple alleles exist for a given gene and more than one of them is dominant -expression of both dominant alleles are simultaneous -ex: ABO blood group

38. Begins at a unique origin of and proceeds in both directions simultaneously

39. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)

40. Genetic makeup of an individual

41. Changes in the genetic information of a cell coded in the DNA -if occured in the somatic cells - it can lead to tumors in an individual

42. Cytosine and thymine

43. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype

44. Progeny generations

45. New codon may code for the same amino acid

46. May infect other bacteria and introduce new genetic arrangements through recombination with the new host cell's DNA

47. Daughter strand that is continuously synthesized by DNA polymerase in the 5'->3' direction

48. Location of genes on DNA

49. Binds to the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex (Arriving site)

50. Structure formed when many ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNA molecule