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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. May infect other bacteria and introduce new genetic arrangements through recombination with the new host cell's DNA






2. Base sequence of mRNA is translated as a series of triplets






3. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors






4. Fruit fly -produces often (short life cycle) -reproduces in large numbers (large sample size) -chromosomes (especially in the salivary gland) are large and easily recognizable in size and shape -its chromosomes are few (4 pairs - 2n=8) -Mutations occ






5. Silent allele -usually assigned capital letters






6. Sugar-phosphate chains on the outside of the helix and the bases on the inside -C-G - T-A -AKA Watson Crick DNA model






7. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands






8. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)






9. Developed the basic principles of genetics through his experiments with the garden pea






10. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase






11. Alternative forms of genes when it exists in more than one form






12. Genetic makeup of an individual






13. Where protein synthesis occurs






14. Each strand of DNA that is a template in the synthesis of two new daughter helices






15. Process whereby mRNA codons are translated intoa sequence of amino acids -occurs in cytoplasm and involves tRNA - ribosomes - mRNA - amino acids - enzymes - and other proteins






16. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)






17. Expressed allele -usually assigned capital letters






18. Cell burst






19. Brings amino acids to the ribosomes in the correct sequence for polypeptide synthesis -recognizes both the amino acid and the mRNA codon






20. Location of genes on DNA






21. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations






22. The process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA that leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores. the remaining events of protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm






23. DNA language must be translated by mRNA in such a way as to produce the 20 words in the amino acid language






24. Progeny generations






25. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome






26. New codon may code for the same amino acid






27. Structural component of ribsomes and is the most abundant of all RNA types -synthesized in the nucleolus






28. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis






29. May be found on the plasmids and transferred into recipient cells along with these factors






30. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site






31. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup






32. Language of DNA consists of four letters: A -T -C -G -language of proteins consists of 20 'words': 20 amino acids -universal for almost all organism






33. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex






34. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments






35. Transfer of genetic material between two bacteria that re temporarily joined






36. Deoxyribonucleic acid -contains information coded in the sequence of its base pairs - provding the cell with a blueprint for protein synthesis -regulate all life functions -has the ability to self replicate -basis of heredity -mutable






37. Occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny produced during a viral infection






38. Cytosine and thymine






39. Carries the complement of a DNA sequence and transports it from the nucleus to the ribosomes -assembled from ribonucleotides that are complementary to the 'sense' strand of the DNA -monocistronic






40. Complementary to one of the mRNA codons






41. The process by which a foreign plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination - creating new inheritable genetic combinations






42. Small RNA found in the ctyoplasm that aids in the translation of mRNA's nucleotide code into a sequence of amino acids -brings amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis






43. Daughter strand that is continuously synthesized by DNA polymerase in the 5'->3' direction






44. (UAA - UAG - or UGA) terminates polypeptide synthesis






45. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes






46. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness






47. On amino acid which has an active site that binds to both the amino acid and its corresponding tRNA - ctalyzing their attachment to form an aminoacyl-tRNA complex






48. If the bacterioophage does not lyse its host cell - it becomes integrated into the bacterial genome in a harmless form - lying dorant for one or more generations. the virus mays tay integrated indefinitely - replicating along with the bacterial gneom






49. Either the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis II -zygote might either have 3 copies of that chromosome (trisomy) or just a single copy (monos






50. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle