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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Reproduction of bacterial cells and proliferate very rapidly under favorable conditions -asexual prcoess -3 kinds (transformation - conjugation and transduction)

2. Location of genes on DNA

3. Double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two single strands

4. Developed the basic principles of genetics through his experiments with the garden pea

5. An organism with a dominant phenotype of unknown genotype (Ax) is crossed with a phenotypically recessive organism

6. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments

7. Either the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis II -zygote might either have 3 copies of that chromosome (trisomy) or just a single copy (monos

8. Short segments from lagging strand

9. Daughter strand that is continuously synthesized by DNA polymerase in the 5'->3' direction

10. Small circular rings of DNA which contain accessory genes

11. Genes that are located on the X or Y chromosome -in humans - most are located on the X

12. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle

13. Changes in the genetic information of a cell coded in the DNA -if occured in the somatic cells - it can lead to tumors in an individual

14. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis

15. True-breeding individuals (which - if self-crossed - produce progeny only with the parental phenotype) with different traits - mated them - and statistically analyzed the inheritance of the traits in the progeny

16. Language of DNA consists of four letters: A -T -C -G -language of proteins consists of 20 'words': 20 amino acids -universal for almost all organism

17. Cell burst

18. Cytosine and thymine

19. On amino acid which has an active site that binds to both the amino acid and its corresponding tRNA - ctalyzing their attachment to form an aminoacyl-tRNA complex

20. Dominant allele is expressed in the phenotype

21. The sequence of nontranscribable DNA that is the repressor binding site

22. Ribonucleic acid -polynucleotide structurally similar to DNA except that its sugar is ribose -contains uracil instead of thymine -usually single stranded -found in both nucleus and cytoplasm -several types are involved with mRNA - tRNA - and rRNA

23. Composed of two subunits (consisting of proteins and rRNA) - one large and one small - that bind together only during protein synthesis -have 3 binding sites (for mRNA and two tRNA)

24. Nucleic acids are deleted or inserted into the genome sequence (lethal)

25. Progeny generations

26. Individuals being crossed

27. Bacteriophages that replicate by the lytic cycle - killing their host cells

28. Nitrogen bases are added - deleted - or substituted - thus crating different genes; inappropriate amino acids may be inserted into polypeptide chains - and a mutated protein may be produced

29. Binds to the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex (Arriving site)

30. Can be altered under certain conditions - altering the corresponding characteristics in the organism

31. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor

32. Plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome

33. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating

34. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species

35. Consists of a single circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region of the cell

36. Recessive genes that are carried on the X chromosome will produce the recessive phenotypes whenever they occur in men because no dominant allele is present to mask them -ex: hemophilia and color blindness

37. Silent allele -usually assigned capital letters

38. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup

39. Transfer of genetic material between two bacteria that re temporarily joined

40. New codon may code for the same amino acid

41. Hydrogen bonds form between the mRNA codon in the A site and its complementary anticodon on the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA complex

42. Begins at a unique origin of and proceeds in both directions simultaneously

43. Degeneracy/redundancy of the genetic code since there are 64 different codons and only 20 amino acids

44. One way of predicting the genotypes expected form a cross -genotypes are determined by looking at the intersections of the grid -indicates all potential progeny genotypes and the relative frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes can be e

45. Each new daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand

46. 1) Genes exist in alternative forms. A gene controls a specific trait in an organism. 2) An organism has two alleles for each inherited trait - one inherited from each parent 3) The two alleles segregate during meiosis - resulting in gametes that car

47. DNA language must be translated by mRNA in such a way as to produce the 20 words in the amino acid language

48. The ribosome advances three nucleotides along the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction and the uncharged tRNA from the P site is expelled - and the peptidyl-tRNA from the A site moves into the P site and completes the cycle

49. (AUG) ribosome scans the mRNA until it bonds to this (methionine) and UAC on anticodon of tRNA

50. Diagnostic tool to determine the genotype of an organism -Only with a recessive phenotype can genotype be predicted with 100% accuracy -if dominant phenotype is expressed - the genotype can be either homozygous dominant or heterozygous -used to deter