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PCAT Biology Genetics

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Begins at a unique origin of and proceeds in both directions simultaneously

2. Each new daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand

3. May be found on the plasmids and transferred into recipient cells along with these factors

4. Developed the basic principles of genetics through his experiments with the garden pea

5. The parents differ in two traits - as long as the genes are on separate chromosomes and assort independently during meiosis

6. System where the repressor binds to the operator - forming a barrier that prevents RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes

7. Expressed allele -usually assigned capital letters

8. Include incomplete dominance - and codominance

9. Consists of a single circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region of the cell

10. Physical manifestation of the genetic makeup

11. Pairs of homologues in sexually differentiated species

12. Induce mutations -include cosmic rays - X rays - UV rays - and radioactivity

13. Virus that infcts its host bacterium by attaching to it - boring a hole through the bacterial cell wall - and injecting its DNA while its protein coat remains attached to the cell wall and enters the host in either a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle

14. System where the repressor is inactive until it combines with the corepressor

15. Short segments from lagging strand

16. Genetic makeup of an individual

17. New codon may code for a different amino acid

18. Language of DNA consists of four letters: A -T -C -G -language of proteins consists of 20 'words': 20 amino acids -universal for almost all organism

19. May occur spontaneously or be induced by environmental factors

20. Organisms that carry two different alleles

21. Adenine and guanine

22. Nucleic acids are deleted or inserted into the genome sequence (lethal)

23. Structural component of ribsomes and is the most abundant of all RNA types -synthesized in the nucleolus

24. Progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotypes

25. An organism with a dominant phenotype of unknown genotype (Ax) is crossed with a phenotypically recessive organism

26. Initiation - elongation - and termination

27. Base sequence of mRNA is translated as a series of triplets

28. Phage DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery and manufactures numerous progeny - causing the cell to lyse - releasing new virions - each capable of infecting other bacteria -if initial infection takes place on a bacterial lawn - then

29. The process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA that leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores. the remaining events of protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm

30. Degeneracy/redundancy of the genetic code since there are 64 different codons and only 20 amino acids

31. Occurs when linked genes are separated

32. New codon may be a stop codon

33. Can often affect the expression of a gene -interaction betwen the enironment and the genotype produces the phenotype

34. DNA language must be translated by mRNA in such a way as to produce the 20 words in the amino acid language

35. Genes on the same chromosome will stay together unless crossing over occurs -crossing over exchanges information between chromosomes and may break the linkage of certain patterns

36. Transfer of genetic material between two bacteria that re temporarily joined

37. The study of how traits are inherited from one generation to the next

38. The noncoding sequence of DNA that serves as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase

39. Cytosine and thymine

40. Codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase form transcribing the structural genes

41. (AUG) ribosome scans the mRNA until it bonds to this (methionine) and UAC on anticodon of tRNA

42. One mRNA strand codes for one polypeptide

43. Self replication ensures that its coded sequence will be passed on to successive generations

44. Only one trait is being studied in this particular mating

45. Daughter strand that is continuously synthesized by DNA polymerase in the 5'->3' direction

46. Formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the fmet attached to the tRNA in the P site

47. Basic unit of DNA - which is composed of deoxyribose (a sugar) bonded to both a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base -bases: purines and pyrimidines

48. The sequence of nontranscribable DNA that is the repressor binding site

49. Synthesized discontinuously in the 5'->3' direction (since DNA polymerase synthesizes only in that direction) as a series Okazaki fragments

50. One way of predicting the genotypes expected form a cross -genotypes are determined by looking at the intersections of the grid -indicates all potential progeny genotypes and the relative frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes can be e