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Timeline Of The Middle Ages
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1. Through the Compromise of 1107 - suggested by Adela - the sister of King Henry - theInvestiture Struggle in England is ended.This compromise removed one of the points of friction between the English monarchy and the Catholic Church.
2. Battle of VarnaFinal battle of the Crusade of Varna; Ottomans are victorious over the Hungarian-Polish armies - and Wladyslaw III of Poland dies.
1444 November 10th
3. Battle of Roncevaux Pass.
4. The Aztecs find the city of Tenochtitlan.This would be the epicenter and capital of the Aztec kingdom for nearly 200 years until the Siege of Tenochtitlan led by Hernan Cortes.
5. Second Muslim attack on Constantinople - ending in failure. The combined Byzantine
6. Battle of VarnaFinal battle of the Crusade of Varna; Ottomans are victorious over the Hungarian-Polish armies - and Wladyslaw III of Poland dies.
1444 November 10th
7. Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to a victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo.
8. Honen Shonin (Genku) founds the Jodo shu (Pure Land) sect of Buddhism.This event marks the beginning of the Buddhist sectarian movement in Japan.
9. Succession of Hugh Capet to the French Throne.Beginning of Capetian Dynasty.
10. Battle of Heavenfield.Northumbrian army under Oswald defeat Welsh army.
11. June 15The Magna Carta is sealed by John of England.This marks one of the first times a medieval ruler is forced to accept limits on his power.
12. University of Bologna is formed.It is the oldest university in Europe.
13. The first cornerstone is laid for the construction of Notre Dame de Paris.
14. The Concordat of Worms was drawn up between Emperor Henry V and Pope Calixtus II.This concordat ended the investiture struggle - but bitter rivalry between emperor and pope remained.
15. First Arab siege of Constantinople.First time Islamic armies defeated - preventing Europe from Islamic conquest.
16. Death of Muhammed.By this point - all of Arabia is Muslim.
1307 Friday - October 13th
17. At the Battle of Legnano - the cavalry of Frederick Barbarossa is defeated by the infantry of the Lombard League.This is the first major defeat of cavalry by infantry - signaling the new role of the bourgeosie.
18. The Seljuks under Alp Arslan defeat the Byzantine army at Manzikert. The Normans capture Bari - the last Byzantine possession in southern Italy.Beginning of the end of Byzantine rule in Asia Minor.
19. The Empire of Trebizond falls to the Ottoman Turks.Last Roman outpost to be conquered by the Ottomans.
20. Tamerlane establishes the Timurid Dynasty.During this 35 year period - Tamerlane would ravage his fellow Islamic states such as the Golden Horde and the Delhi Sultanate in order to accomplish his goal of a restored Mongol Empire.
21. Hussite Wars begins after 4 years after the death of Jan Hus in central Europe - dealing with the followers of Jan Hus and those against them.Although the war was a stalemate (ended around 1434) - it was a another factor that between the Catholics an
22. First Arab siege of Constantinople.First time Islamic armies defeated - preventing Europe from Islamic conquest.
23. The Hundred Years' War ends.England's once vast territories in France is now reduced to only Calais - which they eventually lose control of as well.
24. Edward the Elder - son of Alfred - defeats the Northumbrian Vikings at the Battle of Tettenhall; they never raid south of the River Humber again.
25. AprilThe Second Lateran Council declared clerical marriages invalid - regulated clerical dress - and punished attacks on clerics by excommunication.Enforces the major reforms that Gregory VII began to heavily campaign for several decades earlier.
527 August 1
26. The first King of Croatia (rex Croatorum) - Tomislav (910
27. Joint Persian-Avar-Slav Siege of Constantinople Constantinople saved - Avar power broken and Persians henceforth on the defensive
1415 October 25th
28. Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas and agree to divide the World outside of Europe between themselves. The Italian Wars begin.Italian Wars will eventually lead to the downfall of the Italian city-states. Pope's ruling will lead to the
29. Reconquista ends.Marks end of Moorish/Muslim rule within Iberian Peninsula; Unification of Spain and Portugal - respectively.
30. The Taira clan are driven out of Kyoto by Minamoto Yoshinaka.The two-year conflict which follows ends at the Battle of Dan no Ura (1185).
31. Beginning of the Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy during which the Popes moved to Avignon.Begins a period of over seven decades of the Papacy outside of Rome that would be one of the major factors of the Western Schism.
32. The Empire of Trebizond falls to the Ottoman Turks.Last Roman outpost to be conquered by the Ottomans.
33. June 16Battle of Stoke.Marks end of the War of the Roses.
34. Mieszko I of Poland and his court embrace Christianity - which becomes national religion.
35. Edward the Elder - son of Alfred - defeats the Northumbrian Vikings at the Battle of Tettenhall; they never raid south of the River Humber again.
36. The Byzantine conquest of Italy completes.
37. University of Bologna is formed.It is the oldest university in Europe.
38. Kievan Rus' is established.Would be sustained until the Mongol invasion of Rus' over four and a half centuries - despite peaking during the middle 11th century during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise.
39. The Black Death ravages Europe for the first of many times. An estimated 20% - 40% of the population is thought to have perished within the first year.The first of many concurrences of this plague - This was believed to have wiped out as many as 50%
40. Iconoclast movement begun in the Byzantine Empire under Leo III. This was opposed by Pope Gregory II - and an important difference between the Roman and Byzantine churches.
41. August 26thBattle of Cr
42. Viking state in Russia founded under Rurik - first at Novgorod - then Kiev.
43. Grand Canal of China constructed.
44. The Cistercian Order is founded.Was a return to the original observance of the Rule of St. Benedict.
45. Smederevo falls under the Turks.Marks the end of the Medieval Serbian Empire.
46. Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press.Literature - News - etc. becomes more accessible throughout Europe.
47. Battle of Kosovo in Serbia.This was in many respects the decisive battle between the Turks - led by Sultan Murat - and Christian army - led by the Serbs and their duke Lazar. The battle took place in Kosovo - the southern province of the Medieval Ser
1389 June 28th
48. Spanish Christians succeed in defeating the Moors in the long Reconquista campaigns - after the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.By 1248 - only the small southern kingdom of Granada remained under Muslim control.
1455 May 22
49. Heian periodin Japan.Considered to be the last classical period of History of Japan. Chinese influence was at its strongest during this era in Japan.
50. Pope Leo IX ascends to the papal throne.Leo IX was the pope that excommunicated Patriarch of Constantinople - Michael Cerularius (who also excommunitated Leo) - which caused the Great Schism.
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