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Timeline Of The Middle Ages
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1. Fourth Lateran Council. Dealt with transubstantiation - papal primacy and conduct of clergy. Proclaimed that Jews and Muslims should wear identification marks to distinguish them from Christians.
2. Beginning of Abbasid Caliphate.Would become the longest lasting caliphate - until 1519 when conquered and annexed into the Ottoman Empire.
3. Through the Compromise of 1107 - suggested by Adela - the sister of King Henry - theInvestiture Struggle in England is ended.This compromise removed one of the points of friction between the English monarchy and the Catholic Church.
4. Basil II (called 'Bulgar Slayer') begins final conquest of Bulgaria by Eastern Empire.Conquest finished by 1018.
5. Battle of Nineveh.The Byzantines - under Heraclius - crush the Persians.
6. The University of Oxford is founded.It is the oldest university in the United Kingdom.
7. Mieszko I of Poland and his court embrace Christianity - which becomes national religion.
8. Arpad and the Magyars are present in Pannonia.
9. Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose - duke of Normandy - at the Battle of Tinchebrai - and imprisons him in Devizes castle; EdgarAtheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner.This victory made a later struggle between En
10. Accession of Abu Bakr as first Caliph.
11. Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV walks to Canossa where he stands barefoot in the snow to beg forgiveness of the Pope for his offences - and admitting defeat in theInvestiture Controversy.This helps establish Papal rule over European heads of state for an
12. Ottoman fleet defeats Venetians at the Battle of Zonchio.The first naval battle that used cannons in ships.
13. Joseon Dynasty founded in Korea.Becomes longest reigning Korean dynasty.
14. Pope Urban issues the Crusades to capture the Holy Land - and to repel the Seljuk Turks from the Byzantine Empire from Alexios I Komnenos.This would be the first of 9 Major Crusades - and a number of other crusades that would spread into the late 13t
15. Battle of Anchialus. Simeon I the Great defeats the Byzantines.Recognition of the Imperial Title of the Bulgarian rulers.
16. Henry the Fowler - Duke of Saxony elected German King.First king of the Ottonian Dynasty.Henry I considered the founder and first king of the medieval German state.
1415 October 25th
17. The Seljuks under Alp Arslan defeat the Byzantine army at Manzikert. The Normans capture Bari - the last Byzantine possession in southern Italy.Beginning of the end of Byzantine rule in Asia Minor.
18. Harold Fairhair becomes King of Norway.
1307 Friday - October 13th
19. Ladislaus of Naples sells his 'rights' on Dalmatia to the Venetian Republic for 100000 ducats.Dalmatia would with some interruptions remain under Venetian rule for nearly four centuries - until 1797.
20. Battle of Yamen.Marks the end of the Song Dynasty in China - and all of China is under the rule of Kublai Khan as the emperor.
21. The Medici family rises to prominence in Florence.This ushers in a period of significance of the Medici's - such as bankers - popes - queens (regents) and dukes - throughout Europe (mainly Italy - especially the Florentine Republic) - over the next t
22. Battle of Tours. Charles Martel halts Muslim advance.Significant moment that led to the forming of the Carolingian Empire for the Franks - and halted the advancement of the Moors in Western Europe.
1402 July 20th
23. Minamoto Yoritomo is appointed Sei-i Taishogun - or shogun for short.He is the first of a long line of military dictators to bear this title. The institution would last until 1913.
24. Ramon Berenguer IV - Count of Barcelona - married Queen Petronilla of Aragon. They had been betrothed in 1137.This marriage gave the Kingdom of Aragon access to the Mediterranean Sea - creating a powerful kingdom which expanded to control many of the
25. Minamoto Yoritomo is appointed Sei-i Taishogun - or shogun for short.He is the first of a long line of military dictators to bear this title. The institution would last until 1913.
26. The first known merchant guild.
27. Dionysius Exiguus publishes the Dionysius Exiguus' Easter table.This initiated the Anno Domini era - used for the Gregorian and Julian calendars.
28. The Byzantine conquest of Italy completes.
1299 July 27th
29. The Black Death ravages Europe for the first of many times. An estimated 20% - 40% of the population is thought to have perished within the first year.The first of many concurrences of this plague - This was believed to have wiped out as many as 50%
30. Edward the Elder - son of Alfred - defeats the Northumbrian Vikings at the Battle of Tettenhall; they never raid south of the River Humber again.
31. Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to a victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo.
32. Ottoman fleet defeats Venetians at the Battle of Zonchio.The first naval battle that used cannons in ships.
33. Alfred the Great assumes the throne - the first king of a united England.He defended England from Viking invaders - formed new laws and fostered a rebirth of religious and scholarly activities.
34. Sicilian Vespers. Sicilians massacres Angevins over a six-week period - after a Frenchman harassed a woman.Would mark a two decade period of war - and peace treaties between mainly between Aragon - Sicily - and the Angevin.
35. Mieszko I becomes duke of Polans.First historical ruler of Poland and de facto founder of the Polish State.
1415 October 25th
36. Lothair of Supplinburg - duke of Saxony - is elected Holy Roman Emperor instead of the nearest heir - Frederick of Swabia.This election marks the beginning of the great struggle between the Guelfs and the Ghibellines.
37. The Kingdom of the Lombards is founded in Italy.
38. Battle of Ellandun. Egbert defeats Mercians.Wessex becomes the leading kingdom of England.
39. Vasco da Gama begins his first voyage from Europe toIndia and back.Vasco da Gama was the first European to sail directly to Eastern Asia directly from Europe.
40. Edward the Elder - son of Alfred - defeats the Northumbrian Vikings at the Battle of Tettenhall; they never raid south of the River Humber again.
41. Pepin founds the Carolingian dynasty.
42. Papal recognition of the Dominican Order.
43. Death of Charlemagne.Would be a factor towards the splitting of his empire almost 30 years later.
44. Fujiwara period in Japan.Would become the most powerful clan during the Heian period in Japan for around three centuries.
45. Slav occupation of Balkans complete.
46. Death of Offa.Marks the end of Mercian dominance in England.
47. Accession of Harun al-Rashid in Baghdad.
48. Emperor Go-Daigo returns to the throne from exile - and begins the Kenmu restoration.The Kamakura Shogunate comes to an end - and the Kenmu Restoration only lasts a few years before the Ashikaga Shogunate begins.
49. AprilThe Second Lateran Council declared clerical marriages invalid - regulated clerical dress - and punished attacks on clerics by excommunication.Enforces the major reforms that Gregory VII began to heavily campaign for several decades earlier.
50. Beginning of the Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy during which the Popes moved to Avignon.Begins a period of over seven decades of the Papacy outside of Rome that would be one of the major factors of the Western Schism.
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