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Timeline Of The Middle Ages

Subjects : trivia, history
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1. The Seljuks under Alp Arslan defeat the Byzantine army at Manzikert. The Normans capture Bari - the last Byzantine possession in southern Italy.Beginning of the end of Byzantine rule in Asia Minor.

2. Marco Polo publishes his tales of China - along with Rustichello da Pisa.A key step to the bridging of East and West in trade.

3. MarchThe Third Lateran Council limits papal electees to the cardinals alone - condemns simony - and forbids the promotion of anyone to the episcopate before the age of thirty.

4. Ramon Berenguer IV - Count of Barcelona - married Queen Petronilla of Aragon. They had been betrothed in 1137.This marriage gave the Kingdom of Aragon access to the Mediterranean Sea - creating a powerful kingdom which expanded to control many of the

5. The Third Crusade follows upon Saladin's uniting the Muslim world and recapturing Jerusalem.Despite managing to win several major battles - the Crusaders did not recapture Jerusalem.

6. Beginning of the Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy during which the Popes moved to Avignon.Begins a period of over seven decades of the Papacy outside of Rome that would be one of the major factors of the Western Schism.

7. Harold Fairhair becomes King of Norway.

8. The Construction of the Tower of London begins.The tower of London was the ultimate keep of the British Empire.

9. Harold Fairhair becomes King of Norway.

10. Reconquista ends.Marks end of Moorish/Muslim rule within Iberian Peninsula; Unification of Spain and Portugal - respectively.

11. Muhammad Migrates from Mecca to Medina.Event will have designated first year of the Islamic Calendar - as Anno Hegirae.

12. Simeon I becomes ruler of theFirst Bulgarian Empire in the Balkans.

13. Battle of Anchialus. Simeon I the Great defeats the Byzantines.Recognition of the Imperial Title of the Bulgarian rulers.

14. Chinese Naval Expeditions of Southeast Asia and theIndian Ocean (to Eastern Africa) begins - under the leadership of Zheng He.This will be the first of seven of the Ming Dynasty-sponsored expeditions - lasting until 1433.

15. Battle of St. AlbansTraditionally marks the beginning of the War of the Roses.

16. The Franks under Edward defeat the Visigoths in the Battle of Vouill

17. Battle of St. AlbansTraditionally marks the beginning of the War of the Roses.

18. Benedict of Nursia founds monastery at Monte Cassino.The first of twelve monasteries founded by Saint Benedict - beginning the Order of Saint Benedict.

19. Founding of the Franciscan Order.One of the more significant orders in the Roman Catholic church - founded by Saint Francis of Assisi.

20. Battle of Agincourt. Henry V and his army defeat a numerically superior French army - partially because of the newly-introduced English longbow.The turning point in the Hundred Years' War for 15th Century England that lead to the signing of the Treat

21. Accession of Abu Bakr as first Caliph.

22. First Arab siege of Constantinople.First time Islamic armies defeated - preventing Europe from Islamic conquest.

23. Edward I of England invades Scotland - starting theFirst War of ScottishIndependence.

24. Trial and execution of Joan of Arc.Death of the woman who helped turned the Hundred Years' War in favor of the French over the past two years.

25. Slav occupation of Balkans complete.

26. Joan of Arc lifts the siege of Orl

27. The final Peace of Constance between Frederick Barbarossa - the pope - and the Lombard towns is signed.The various articles of the treaty destroyed the unity of the Empire and Germany and Italy underwent separate developments.

28. The compilation of the Domesday Book - a great land and property survey commissioned by William the Conqueror to assess his new possessions.This is the first such undertaking since Roman times.

29. June 15The Magna Carta is sealed by John of England.This marks one of the first times a medieval ruler is forced to accept limits on his power.

30. The first known merchant guild.

31. The Great Seljuk Empire is founded by Tughril Beg.Would be a major force during the first two Crusades - and an antagonist to the Byzantine Empire over the next century.

32. Vikings attack Paris.

33. Simeon I becomes ruler of theFirst Bulgarian Empire in the Balkans.

34. Division of Charlemagne's Empire between his grandsons with the Treaty of Verdun.Sets the stage for the founding of the Holy Roman Empire and France as separate states.

35. The Bible is translated into English by John Wycliffe.First print published in English (Vulgate)

36. Smederevo falls under the Turks.Marks the end of the Medieval Serbian Empire.

37. Battle of Kosovo in Serbia.This was in many respects the decisive battle between the Turks - led by Sultan Murat - and Christian army - led by the Serbs and their duke Lazar. The battle took place in Kosovo - the southern province of the Medieval Ser

38. Kingdom of Portugal conquers Ceuta.Beginning of the Portuguese Empire.

39. Spanish Christians succeed in defeating the Moors in the long Reconquista campaigns - after the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.By 1248 - only the small southern kingdom of Granada remained under Muslim control.

40. Arrival of the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius in BulgariaCreation of the Cyrillic script; in the following decades the country became the cultural and spiritual centre of the whole Eastern Orthodox Slavic World.

41. Heian periodin Japan.Considered to be the last classical period of History of Japan. Chinese influence was at its strongest during this era in Japan.

42. Massive Chinese (Sui and Tang) invasions against Korean Goguryeo.Contributed to the fall of the Sui Dynasty - and Goguryeo fell under the forces of the Tang and Silla.

43. Mieszko I becomes duke of Polans.First historical ruler of Poland and de facto founder of the Polish State.

44. The compilation of the Domesday Book - a great land and property survey commissioned by William the Conqueror to assess his new possessions.This is the first such undertaking since Roman times.

45. Battle of Tertry

46. The Anarchy begins in England.This will mark a 19 year period of Government strife and Civil War between the supporters of Stephen and Matilda - and end with the crowning of Matilda's son - Henry II - and beginning the Plantagenet dynasty.

47. The Second Crusade was in retaliation for the fall of Edessa - one of the first Crusader States founded in theFirst Crusade. It was an overall failure.This was the first Crusade to have been led by European Queens.

48. Stefan Nemanja united Serbian territories - establishing the Medieval Serbian state.This marks the rise of Serbia which will dominate the Balkans for the next three hundred years. Allies of Serbia at this moment become the Hungarian Kingdom and the R

49. Muslims capture Bari and much of southern Italy.

50. The Fourth Crusade sacked Croatian town of Zadar (ItalianZara) - a rival of Venice. Unable to raise enough funds to pay to their Venetian contractors - the crusaders agreed to sack the city despite letters from PopeInnocent III forbidding such an act