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USMLE Step 1 Immunology

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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. What is a factor that is a predictor for a bad transplantation?

2. What is the autoantibody for SLE that is nonspecific? Specific?

3. What can cause a lymph node enlargement?

4. Name the three opsonins

5. Which cytokines do Th2 release and For what?

6. What are four results of a splenectomy?

7. What are the main symptoms of B cell immunodeficiencies?

8. The pathogenesis of contact dermatitis is ________ hypersensitivity

9. other than mediating shock - what else does TNF alpha do? who releases it mainly?

10. What are the main symptoms of T cell immunodeficiencies?

11. From where do cytokines come from?

12. What type of cells do NK cells attack? with What tools? by necrosis or apoptosis?

13. What is recomb gamma interferon used for?

14. is IgM an opsonizer?

15. What does granzyme do? who secretes it?

16. What are some catalase positive organisms?

17. Give three examples of bacteria that use antigenic variation and how.

18. What cytokines do macrophages release? who else can secrete IL 6? IL 12?

19. give an example of a virus that uses antigenic variation. What does a major variation result in? minor?

20. IgM can fix complement but...

21. what characterizes an arthus reaction?

22. What are C1 - C2 - C3 - C4 important for?

23. are Th cells involved in trapping of antigens of endotoxin/LPS?

24. What is recomb alpha interferon used for?

25. What does interferon gamma do? What two type of cells does it attack mostly?

26. What are the autoantibodies for polymyositis and dermatomyositis?

27. What lymph node drains the breast?

28. Describe the Mannose Lectin pathway

29. What are the sinusoids of the spleen? What is the difference between a spleen and a lymph node?

30. What is the cause of thymic aplasia? What is its presentation? What are the labs?

31. In general What are T cells good for?

32. ________ regulate the cell mediated response.

33. What are the function of B cells?

34. How do we use thymus dependent antigens to prevent infection from organisms that lack a peptide component?

35. What happens in a secondary follicle?

36. The idiotype; the Fc portion determines the...

37. what mediates the type II hypersensitivity? What are the two different methods?

38. which cytokine inhibits TH2 cells? secreted by who?

39. What is the main cytokine that activates eosinophils?

40. What is colostrum?

41. How do you test for type III hypersensitivity?

42. What are the labs in brutons agammaglobulinemia?

43. What is an example of a parasite showing antigenic variation?

44. What is the clinical use of Muromonab?

45. what cell surface marker is used for NK cells as it is unique to them?

46. What is ataxia telangectasia? What is it caused by? What is the triad of presentation? and its labs?

47. What lymph node drains the upper limb?

48. What is the pathogenesis of a candida skin test?

49. Describe the interstitial tissue of a spleen including the sinuses. What type of cells are found in the four structures (cortex - paracortex - medulla and sinuses)?

50. What are the two signals required for B cell class switching? Which is the second signal?