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USMLE Step 1 Immunology

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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. So antibodies are the effectors for the humoral response. List some of their functions.

2. If the alternative pathway is constitively active - how come normal cells don't get attacked with MAC?

3. What happens in a secondary follicle?

4. What is three common causes of severe combined immunodef? What is the result of all three?

5. where do somatic hypermutation and class switching occur?

6. What do macrophages secrete that activate Th1 cells to secrete interferon gamma?

7. What does IL 5 do?

8. can igG cross the placenta?

9. What is passive immunity?

10. which immunodeficiency presents with delayed separation of the umbilicus? ataxia? telangiectasia?albinism? anaphylaxis on exposure to blood products with IgA? tetany?retained primary teeth? peripheral neuropathy?

11. Often bacteria are associated with being killed by humoral immunity. Name some bugs that require cell mediated immunity because they evade humoral response

12. What are the three immune privileged sites? why are they called that? what happens after infection in these areas?

13. What type of cells do NK cells attack? with What tools? by necrosis or apoptosis?

14. What are HEV? Where are they found? Where does the vasculature of the lymph node travel to?

15. The secondary follicles have __________; primary follicles are dense

16. How do we use thymus dependent antigens to prevent infection from organisms that lack a peptide component?

17. What lymph node drains the duodenum - jejunum?

18. What is the arthus reaction? What is the difference between arthus and serum sickness? give an example. How do you test for it?

19. Give an example of someone who could get hyperacute transplant rejection.

20. What are target cells?

21. Describe the interstitial tissue of a spleen including the sinuses. What type of cells are found in the four structures (cortex - paracortex - medulla and sinuses)?

22. What is the pathogenesis of HyperIgE syndrome? What are the labs?

23. The MALT/GALT are not...

24. What is the main function of TNF alpha? How does it do this?

25. How do you test for chronic granulomatous disease?

26. Describe complement dependent Type II hypersensitivity. Give an example.

27. How is sirolimus different from tacrolimus?

28. Name three things that IL 1 does as a cytokine. other than the liver - who secretes IL 1

29. What is MHC II made out of? Where is it found? What does it bind to? What type of antigens does it present?

30. What is the toxicity of azathioprine?

31. What is the receptor for EBV? On what cells is that located?

32. What is digoxin immune Fab used for?

33. in which immunodef order do you see a lot of pus? no pus?

34. hat is the presentation of Jobs syndrome or Hyper IgE?

35. Which antibodies can be multimeric?

36. A lymph node is a ________ lymphoid organ.

37. when can graft versus host disease? What is the result?

38. What type of fenestrations are found in the red pulp of the spleen?

39. which antibody is involved in the primary response or immediate response to an antigen?

40. What are the three types of APCs?

41. which cytokine inhibits TH2 cells? secreted by who?

42. What is the monoclonal antibody to IL2 on activated T cells? What is it used for?

43. what happens in a deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor? DAF?

44. The pathogenesis of contact dermatitis is ________ hypersensitivity

45. what cytokine does basophils secrete?

46. which cells have more complete tolerance - B or T cells?

47. Describe the capsular structure of a lymph node; What are the functions of the LN?

48. What is the common variable immunodeficiency ? How is it different from Brutons?

49. Which antibody mediates immunity to worms? how?

50. What are the autoantibodies for autoimmune hepatitis?