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1. Behavior pattern exhibited by people who are calmer - more patient - and less hurried than Type A individuals
Type B behavior
2. Neo-Freudian - humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting 'Who am I?'
3. Inability to understand or use language
functional MRI (fMRI)
Type A behavior
4. A descriptive research method in which researchers study behavior in its natural context.
5. Theorist who both aided in the development of the trichromatic theory of color perception and Place theory of pitch perception.
Herman von Helmholtz
6. Top of the brain which includes the thalamus - hypothalamus - and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation - complex thought - memory aspect of personality
Gazzaniga or Sperry
7. Part of the brain that coordinates balance - movement - reflexes
8. Freud's level of mental life that consists of mental activities beyond people's normal awareness.
9. Neuroscience/biopsychology; studied split brain patients
Gazzaniga or Sperry
10. Neurotransmitter that causes contraction of skeletal muscles; lack of Ach linked with Alzheimer's disease;
Extinction (classical conditioning)
efferent neuron nerve
11. Two or more individuals who are working with a common purpose or have some common goals - characteristics - or interests.
12. Terminal button - synaptic knob; the structure at the end of an excellent terminal branch; houses the synaptic vesicles and neurotransmitters
13. In psychoanalysis - the repetitive cycle of interpretation - resistance to interpretation - and transference.
Law of Effect
14. Inability to remember information (typically - all events within a specific period) - usually due to physiological trauma
15. The expression of genes
16. Shift in electrical charge in a tiny area of the neuron (temporary); transmits a long cell membranes leaving neuron and polarized state; needs higher than normal threshold of excitation to fire
17. Primary motor cortex; areas of the three boat cortex for response messages from the brain to the muscles and glands
motor projection areas
18. Temporary decrease in sensitivity to a stimulus that occurs when stimulation is unchanging
19. The evaluation of the significance of a situation or event as it relates to a person's well-being
Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome
20. A white - fatty covering of the axon which speeds transmission of message
21. Process by which several genes interact to produce a certain trait; responsible for most important traits
somatic nervous system
22. Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
23. Developmental psychology;: social development & processing - effects of appearance on behavior - origin of social stereotypes - sex/love/intimacy - facial expression
24. Motivation that leads to behaviors engaged in for no apparent reward except the pleasure and satisfaction of the activity itself
25. Piaget's thrid stage of cognitive development (lasting from approximately age 6 or 7 to age 11 or 12) - during which the child develops the ability to understand constant factors in the environment - rules - and higher-order symbolic systems
Concrete operational stage
26. Ability of the brain to change their experience - both structurally and chemically
27. Reflex in which a newborn fans out the toes when the sole of the foot is touched
Gibson & Walk
28. The biochemical processes that make it easier for the neuron to respond again when it has been stimulated
29. Study of hereditary influences and how it influences behavior and thinking
30. Learning; Positive Psychology; learned helplessness theory of depression; Studies: Dogs demonstrating learned helplessness
31. A fertilized egg
terminal buttons (axon terminals)
32. Areas of the retina that - when stimulated - produce a change in the firing of cells in the visual system.
33. Creates a computerized image using a magnetic field and pulses of radio waves
Elaboration Likelihood Model
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
34. The human need to fulfill one's potential
35. People who can distinguish only two of the three basic colors.
36. A chronic and progressive disorder of the brain that is the most common cause of degeneration dementia
37. A collection of interrelated ideas and facts put forward to describe - explain - and predict behavior and mental processes
James-Lange theory of emotion
38. Studies psychological development across the lifespan
39. Social Psychology; Helping behavior - personal responsibility; studied the effects of enhanced personal responsibility and helping behavior
Langer & Rodin
40. Process of repeatedly verbalizing - thinking about - or otherwise acting on or transforming information in order to keep that information active in memory
41. Any of a class of drugs that relax and calm a user and - in higher doses - induce sleep; also known as a depressant
Major depressive disorder
Depressants (AKA sedative-hypnotics)
42. Any neutral stimulus that initially has no intrinsic value for an organism but that becomes rewarding when linked with a primary reinforcer
43. A condition or characteristic of a situation or a person that is subject to change (it varies) within or across situations or individuals
44. Motor sensory relay center for four of the five senses; and with a brain stem and composed of two egg-shaped structures; integrates in shades incoming sensory signals; Mnemonic-'don't smell the llamas because the llamas smell bad'
45. Learning that occurs in the absence of direct reinforcement and that is not necessarily demonstrated through observable behavior
reticular formation (RF) (RES)
46. Sets of strategies - rather than strict rules - that act as guidelines for discovery-oriented problem solving.
47. The tendency to attribute other people's behavior to dispositional (internal) causes rather than situational (external) causes.
Fundamental Attribution Error
48. Subjects and not exposed to a changing variable in an experiment
49. Deals with the extent to which heredity and the environment each influence behavior
50. Social cognition - cognitive dissonance; Study Basics: Studied and demonstrated cognitive dissonance
Zajonc & Markus