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CLEP American Government
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1. The Articles of Confederation established a ________________ legislature.
Fast Track Authority
2. These party members are highly involved in the electoral process. Donate funds to party and candidates - demand a voice in state party agendas and tend to have a strong belief in their party's ideology.
Right to Work Laws
3. Literally - a 'friend of the court' brief - filed by an individual or organization to present arguements in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case
Dual / Layer Cake Federalism
Amicus Curiae Brief
4. Government branch established in Article I of the Constitution.
5. Courts of original jurisdiction in federal crimes - civil suits under federal law - civil suits between citizens of different states where the amount in question exceeds $50 -000 - bankruptcy proceedings - cases involving some federal administrative
legislative and executive
State of the Union
6. The House appropriations committee has ___ subcommittees.
7. In Sweatt v. Painter (1950) - The Supreme Court upheld that ___________________ was inherently not the case as is applied to the University of Texas Law School.
Separate but Equal
8. After a bill has passed both the House and Senate - it goes to _________________ where any differences between the house bill and the senate bill are resolved before sending to the President for signature
9. The fundamental flaw in plural theory contends that pluralism weakens the backbone of democracy with too many common interest groups attempt to wield power - often leading to standstill because of unwillingness to compromise.
Cycle of Decreasing Influence
10. A series of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton - John Jay - and James Madison under the pseudonym Publius advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution.
Articles of Confederation
11. Number of years a Senator must reside in the US prior to taking office
Lyndon B. Johnson
12. This 1972 Supreme Court case struck down all state laws allowing the death penalty stating that they allowed for too much discretion on the part of the judge and jury resulting in lack of consistent administration of the penalty.
Furman v. Georgia
13. Committees created by Congress to conduct special investigations. Although normally temporary - some become - in effect - permanent.
Committee of the Whole
Department of State
14. A vote in the House of Representatives in which the position of each member is noted and published in the Congressional Record.
15. This rule established by US v. Leon (1984) angered civil liberties groups by allowing exception to the Exclusionary Rule in instances where probably cause may not fully exist.
Good Faith Exception
16. The name commonly given to a private group - regardless of size - organized to elect political candidates. An organization becomes one by receiving contributions or making expenditures in excess of $1 -000 for the purpose of influencing a federal ele
Foreign Relations and the Judiciary Committees
Political Action Committee
Good Faith Exception
Take Care Clause
17. Units of government under the president - within the executive branch - that are not part of a cabinet department.
Roth v. US
18. The claim by presidents of an inherent right to withhold information from Congress and the judiciary.
Cruel and Unusual
Roth v. US
19. Number of original cabinet positions under George Washington.
20. Presidential management model in which the Chief of Staff plays a prominent role as the head of a military style chain of command. Used successfully by Reagan and Eisenhower.
21. Special courts assigned to deal with specific legislative issues such as taxes - military appeals - and international trade.
22. In California v. Avecedo (1991) - The Supreme Court established that authorities may search ____________________ without a warrant providing reasonable suspicion.
23. This Supreme Court case infamously decided that a slave was not a citizen but property to be 'used in subservience to the interests - the convenience - or the will of his owner'
24. Germany - Switzerland - and India are examples of countries with a _______________ system of government.
25. A policy that takes something away from one person and gives it to someone else -
Writ of Mandamus
26. An unwritten custom by which individual senators who belong to the same political party as the president exercise an informal veto power over presidential appointments in their states.
Freedom of Speech
27. After the bill reaches the house floor - if opponents have many changes - they may vote to ______________________.
Recommit the Bill to Committee
28. Act of exchanging favors for mutual gain
29. Signed the executive order banning segregation in the armed forces.
30. 1798 Act that criminalized speech that was derisive to the government. Later ruled unconstitutional - Andrew Jackson issued blanket pardon in 1801
Securities and Exchange Commission or Securities Act of 1933
Alien and Sedition Acts
31. A federal tax on imports.
House of Representatives
32. Procedure typically requiring 3/5 vote of the entire Senate to end a filibuster.
33. The Supreme Court has sometimes used a narrow interpretation of the Establishment Clause allowing the government to provide aid to religious groups as long as it remains ______________ and does not promote one religion at the expense of another. This
34. An issue on which voters distinguish rival parties by the degree to which they associate each party or candidate with conditions - goals - or symbols the electorate universally approves or disapproves of. Examples of such issues are economic prosperi
35. The principle of civilian control of the military - based on the clear constitutional power of the president as supreme commander of the armed forces.
Small Business Administration (SBA)
36. Prohibits citizens of one state or foreign country from suing another state.
37. The chair and the heads of the three armed services - and - when Marine Corps matters are under consideration - the commandant of the marines. By law - they advise the president and the secretary of defense and are the chiefs of their respective mili
Civil War Amendments
Joint Chiefs of Staff
38. Held on the Tuesday following the first Monday in November.
39. The number of ______________ a state receives is based on the number Representatives and Senators that the state has in Congress
40. Authority based on an individual's outstanding traits - which attract followers
41. The period of time after the election of FDR until the Vietnam War was dominated by the Democratic Party and know as the __________________ Era.
New Deal Era
42. Elections in which the majority party (according to party identification) is defeated in a temporary reversal.
Major Political Party
43. This contraversial 2001 law allows anti-terrorism authorities to monitor e-mail and Internet traffic in order to prevent terrorist attacks. The government argues that cyberspace is public domain and that no warrants should be needed to access informa
Ad Hoc Structure
44. First Executive Branch
Department of State
45. A law passed by Congress in 1973 in an effort to set a time limit on the use of combat forces abroad by a president.
War Powers Resolution
46. Groups whose views serve as guidelines to an individual's opinion. See also primary groups and secondary groups.
47. A term coined by President Lyndon B. Johnson to describe his own view of the relationship between Washington and the states.
48. Powers of the national government that flow from its enumerated powers and the 'elastic clause' of the Constitution.
The Federal Reserve Board
Majority and Minority Leader
49. In states using primaries - the most common form of primary election is the ___________ primary.
congressional oversight committee
Freedom of Information Act
50. 1946 Act requiring bureaucratic agencies to appeal to the affected parties before adopting new policies. Legislative check on Bureaucracy.
Administrative Procedure Act
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