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CLEP Intro To Psychology

Subjects : clep, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Stages of development - Stage 1 Hope - Basic Trust vs. Mistrust - Infant stage / 0-1 year. Does the child believe its caregivers to be reliable?

2. The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body - mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. Also called a fight or flight response.

3. A systematic method of deriving conclusions that cannot be false when the premises are true - esp one amenable to formalization and study by the science of logic

4. Describes a schedule of reinforcement wherein a worker is paid for a certain sum for each product produced

5. Findings that provide a multilayered - comprehensive understanding of human behavior. Ex. study of stress and human response has to be done from a biological - social and cognitive perspective.

6. Goals framed in terms of performing well in front of others - being judged favorably - and avoiding criticism

7. Originating in or based on observation or experience

8. Sensorimotor - birth to language - Preoperational - 2-7 - Concrete Operational - 7 - 11 - Formal Operational 11 - Adult Abstract Thoughts

9. Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

10. The lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect

11. (psychiatry) a defense mechanism that transfers affect or reaction from the original object to some more acceptable one

12. It is a collection of research designs which use manipulation and controlled testing to understand causal processes. Generally - one or more variables are manipulated to determine their effect on a dependent variable

13. Conflict that results from having to choose between two distasteful alternatives

14. A psychologist who studies sensation - perception - learning - motivation - and emotion in carefully controlled laboratory conditions

15. Natural - opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

16. Classical conditioning. trained a dog to respond to the sound of a bell by pairing it up with food.

17. The study of the relationships among psychology - the nervous and endocrine systems - and the immune system.

18. Study of the brain interested in the biological bases of human disorders such as Parkinson's and Huntington's. Neuroscience is a branch of research that is concerned with the underlying physical changes that accompany brain disorders

19. A 'SNAPSHOT' of a phenomenon such as cancer rate. a number of variables affect one another in a single point in time.

20. Simultaneous color contrast: an effect that occurs when surrounding an area with a color changes the appearence of the surrounded area. - the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green - yellow-blue - white-black) enable color vision. For exam

21. The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

22. A hormone released by the pituitary gland of the brain during childbirth - breastfeeding - and intercourse - causing emotional bonding between persons in whom it is released

23. Considered the Father of modern psychology; study of mental processes - introspection - and self-exam; established the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig - Germany

24. Level 1 (Pre-Conventional) 1. Obedience and punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?) 2. Self-interest orientation (What's in it for me? Paying for a benefit.) - Level 2 (Conventional) 3. Interpersonal accord and conformity (Social norms -

25. Focused on child psychoanalysis - fully developed defense mechanisms - emphasized importance of the ego and its constant struggle

26. Portion behind to the frontal lobe - responsible for sensations such as pain - temperature - and touch

27. The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system

28. The portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord that perceives - gathers - interprets - and records incoming sensory information and also sends out communication destined for muscles - glands and internal organs s

29. Images are flashed to the left visual fields (therefore the right hemisphere) and individual cannot name object - but can locate it. Images are flashed to the right visual fields (therefore the left hemisphere) and individual can name object.

30. The 'little brain' attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance

31. The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye - containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

32. A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus - amygdala - and hypothala

33. Founded by Hermann Ebbinghaus. displays retention of information and forgetting over time. conclusions to this were that most forgetting happens right after learning something. this was modified to that forgetting doesn't occur that quickly if the su

34. Pioneer in observational learning (AKA social learning) - stated that people profit from the mistakes/successes of others; Studies: Bobo Dolls-adults demonstrated 'appropriate' play with dolls - children mimicked play

35. The scientific study of how we think about - influence - and relate to one another

36. One of the earliest psychologists in America who undertook a rigorous and structures approach to studying personality. He identified the idiographic and nomothetic views to personality.

37. Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual - aggressive - and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (

38. English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)

39. A microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron

40. How the memory processes information - long term memory - short term memory - sensory information

41. The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

42. A therapist who deals with mental and emotional disorders

43. Present evidence to support your claims

44. Part of the cerebral cortex; coordinates messages from other cerebral lobes; involved in complex problem-solving tasks - thinking - self-control - judgment - emotion regulation - personality affects - concentration - goal directed behavior; restructu

45. Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

46. Adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster - stopping digestion - enlarging pupils - sending sugar into the bloodstream - preparing a blood clot faster

47. Mental categories that help our brains group objects that have common properties.

48. (psychology) a stimulus that strengthens or weakens the behavior that produced it

49. Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function.

50. A negative condition is introduced to reduce a behavior.