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Clinical Surgery

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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. What are the main aetiologies in diffuse enlargement of the thryoid?

2. What are the late side-effects of radiotherapy?

3. What is the surgical treatment of benign parotid tumours?

4. What is a secondary hydrocoele?

5. What are the signs in the mouth of acanthosis nigricans?

6. What does minimally invasive surgery involve in the surgical treatment of a pharyngeal pouch?

7. What conditions increase the risk of developing pressure sores?

8. What do you know about the epidemiology of hypertrophic scars?

9. What are the stages of restorative proctocolectomy?

10. What is the pathophysiology of coarctation?

11. What is venous gangrene?

12. What is the risk of rupture for an aneurysm more than 5.5cm?

13. What are the features of nodular melanoma?

14. How would you treat solar keratoses?

15. What do you know about thyroid cysts?

16. Why do these neuropathic ulcers form?

17. What is the treatment of choice in differentiated thyroid cancer?

18. How may pleural effusions be classified?

19. What is the differential diagnosis of a ganglion?

20. How would you rehabilitate a patient following the placement of a stoma?

21. What elements are ascertained in a thyroid history with regards to symptoms arising from the swelling?

22. How would you treat hidradenitis suppurativa?

23. Where are pressure sores most commonly found?

24. What are the causes of gynaecomastia?

25. Why are 98% of varicocoeles left-side?

26. What is the order of skin changes seen in Raynaud's?

27. Which normal tissues are particularly affected by radiotherapy?

28. What other investigations can be done for Sjogren's syndrome?

29. What will the Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology show you in the investigation of Cervical Lymphadenopathy?

30. What is the differential diagnosis of a midline neck swelling?

31. What is the non-surgical treatment of a multinodular goitre?

32. What are the non-surgical treatment options for coarctation of aorta?

33. What are the arterial symptoms in thoracic outlet obstruction more commonly due to?

34. What is the aim of the tourniquet test?

35. What is the aetiology of enterocutaneous fistulae?

36. In patients with gynaecomastia - what would make you concerned the patient may have a breast cancer?

37. What investigations would you perform in a suspected case of Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

38. What surgical treatments are available for ptosis?

39. What is the aetiology of varicocoeles?

40. What is the pathogenesis of umbilical herniae?

41. What important questions should you ask in a patient with jaundice?

42. What side effect would you warn this patient about if considering cervical sympathectomy?

43. How would you treat a patient with a single neurofibroma?

44. How would you prepare a patient who is going for surgery which will involve forming a stoma?

45. What is the pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon?

46. What are the surgical options for managing ulcerative colitis?

47. Which are the respiratory causes of digital clubbing?

48. What are the indications for preoperative Duplex ultrasound scanning

49. What are the extratemporal causes of facial nerve palsy?

50. How do you treat these scars?