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Clinical Surgery

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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. What is the non-surgical treatment of venous ulcers?

2. What is the defective gene in type 1 NF?

3. What are the early side-effects of radiotherapy?

4. Do you know of any infectious agents associated with AAA?

5. How do you classify the severity of thyroid eye disease?

6. What are the other types of arteriovenous fistula?

7. What is the embryological origin of a thyroglossal cyst?

8. How do you classify skin flaps?

9. What is a useful mneumonic to remember what you have to present when examining a lump or swelling?

10. How do you stage malignant melanomas?

11. Simple cysts are found in 33% of patients by the age of 60. How should they be managed?

12. How would a patient with carotid aneurysm be investigated?

13. What are the indications for surgery in goitre?

14. How does papillary carcinoma spread?

15. What should you keep in mind when assessing surgical scars?

16. What is the non-surgical treatment of varicocoele?

17. What are the surgical options available for deep venous occlusion/reflux

18. What are the causes of massive splenomegaly?

19. How is hypersplenism brought about?

20. If the patient has noticed pale stools and dark urine - what other questions would you ask?

21. What are the non-surgical treatment options for coarctation of aorta?

22. Which is the most widely accepted repair for umbilical herniae?

23. How are epididymal cysts caused?

24. What do you know about the epidemiology of keloid scars?

25. What are the contents of the spermatic cord?

26. What are the categorical causes of digital clubbing?

27. What level does the serum bilirubin need to rise to before jaundice can be detected on clinical examination?

28. What are the intratemporal causes of facial nerve palsy?

29. What investigations may help confirm the diagnosis of thoracic outlet obstruction?

30. What is the pathogenesis of a congenital dermoid cyst?

31. What is the aim of cardiopulmonary bypass?

32. Which antibodies are present in Sjogren's syndrome?

33. What side effect would you warn this patient about if considering cervical sympathectomy?

34. How would you investigate and treat a solitary thyroid nodule?

35. Pneumonectomy

36. Assuming a patient has obstructive jaundice - how should this patient be investigated?

37. What are the indications for surgery in Crohn's disease?

38. What is the differential diagnosis of intermittent claudication?

39. What is the purpose of limb elevation in the non-surgical treatment of lymphoedema?

40. When should the drains be removed post-surgery?

41. With which conditions would an ascitic exudate be expected?

42. Why do these neuropathic ulcers form?

43. What is the difference in the clinical course of hypertrophic and keloid scars?

44. What other investigations can be done for Sjogren's syndrome?

45. How would you prepare a patient prior to breast surgery?

46. What are the non-surgical options for Raynauds

47. Raynaud's disease

48. What is the differential diagnosis of a dermatofibroma?

49. Radiological investigations for hepatomegaly

50. What do you know about the epidemiology of hypertrophic scars?