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Common Logical Flaws

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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. The author improperly equates a percentage with a definite quantity or uses quantity information to make a judgment about the percentage represented by that quantity.

2. Using a term in different ways is inherently confusing and undermines the integrity of the argument

3. This type of flawed argument attacks the person (or source) instead of the argument advanced

4. The author attempts to attack an opponent's position by ignoring the actual statements made by the opposing speaker and instead distorts the argument - making it weaker in the process

5. 1. Lack of evidence for a position is take to prove that position is false. 2. Lack of evidence against a position is taken to prove that position is true.

6. Uses the opinion of an authority in an attempt to persuade the reader

7. This error states that a position is true because the majority believes it to be true

8. 1. Assuming a causal relationship on the basis of the sequence of events 2. Assuming a causal relationship when only a correlation exists 3. Failure to consider an alternative cause for the effect 4. Failure to consider that the events may be reverse

9. The author assumes as true What is supposed to be proved

10. Takes a small number of instances and treats those instances as if they support a broad - sweeping conclusion (often appears as an incorrect answer)

11. Assumes that only two courses of action are available when there may be others

12. 1. The survey uses a biased sample. 2. The survey questions are improperly constructed. 3. Respondents to the survey give inaccurate responses.

13. The author mistakes a necessary condition for a sufficient condition - or vise-versa

14. The author uses an analogy too dissimilar to the original situation to be applicable

15. Occurs when the author attributes a characteristic of part of the group to the group as a whole or to each member of the group

16. Occurs when emotions or emotionally-charged language is used in an attempt to persuade the reader

17. Occurs when the author attributes a characteristic of the whole to a part of the group

18. The author misuses information to such a degree that they fail to provide any information to support their conclusion or present information irrelevant to the conclusion

19. Assumes that conditions will remain constant over time - and that what was the case in the past will be case in the future.

20. Occurs when an author makes conflicting statements