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Criminal Law 101: Court Cases

Subject : law
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Suspects must be informed of their basic rights at the point of arrest - particularly the right to remain silent and the right to have counsel present during any interrogations; confessions must meet the tests of voluntariness and awareness






2. Requests for counsel during the police interrogation stage are offense specific (see also Minnick v Mississippi)






3. (good faith exemption) evidence seized by reasonably well- trained officers acting in good faith - is admissible - even if the seizure technically violated the law






4. An investigatory search may be conducted if the totality of the circumstances establishes reasonable suspicion to believe that a person matches the drug courier profile






5. Once suspects invoke their right to an attorney - officials must cease questioning the suspect until counsel is present






6. Exclusionary Rule applied to the states - evidence unlawfully seized is inadmissible in court






7. A stop and frisk search may be conducted when there is reasonable suspicion to believe that an individual is now or is about to engage in criminal behavior






8. Defendants are entitled to a limited number of habeas appeals in capital cases






9. Police may stop and search a vehicle without a warrant if there is probable cause to believe that the vehicle is carrying individuals or articles that offend the law - and the vehicle is now or is about to be moved






10. Inevitable discovery exemption - evidence that was illegallyseized may be used in court if it can be shown that it would have inevitably been discovered






11. An illegally obtained confessions can be used to impeach the defendant's testimony at trial






12. Defendants have the right to trial by jury if the potential sentence is more than six months of incarceration (see also Baldwin v New York)






13. Evidence seized by reasonably well- trained officers acting in good faith - is admissible - even if the seizure technically violated the law; known as the good faith exemption






14. Police may conduct brief - scientifically random/systemic - suspicionless searches of motorists at fixed roadside checkpoints






15. Illegally seized evidence can be used to impeach a witness who takes the stand during a trial






16. Indigents have the right to a legal counsel during the trial stage; the state will appoint an attorney to the case if the individual cannot afford one






17. Randomized consent searches of individuals who are on public transportation is acceptable - even though such searches carry some degree of implied coercion and are not truly voluntary; the governing test is whether a reasonable person feels free to d






18. Specific intent to discriminate against an individual must be demonstrated before that individual's death sentence can be set aside; intent over impact






19. Plain view doctrine - if the officer is legally present - the offending objects are in plain view - and the incriminating nature is readily apparent - the items may be seized without a warrant






20. Allows the death penalty to be administered as long as the capital sentence is not mandatory - aggravating and mitigating circumstances are considered - and a bifurcated proceeding (i.e. - different judges determine guilt and sentence)






21. Probationers have the right to an attorney at probation revocation hearings






22. Totality of the circumstances test - taken piecemeal - the evidence may not amount to probable cause - but if taken together as a whole the evidence achieves that level - the legal standard of proof for the search has been met






23. Evidence that is unlawfully seized by any official cannot be used in federal court; the exclusionary rule is applied to the federal courts






24. The erroneous admission of a coerced confession at trial does not constitute grounds for an automatic mistrial; in some cases - an involuntary confession can be taken and legally admitted as evidence; the totality of the circumstances is to be consid






25. The right to counsel begins at the point of focus






26. A vehicle that has been impounded by police officials can be searched in its entirety; all items found in the vehicle - include closed and locked items - may also searched






27. There is no right to a jury trial for juveniles being adjudicated in juvenile court






28. A stop and frisk search may be performed when there isreasonable suspicion to believe that the offender has violated the law - past tense






29. Reasonable suspicion can be used as the basis for investigative searches and seizures in situations involving pre-eminent public interests; specifically - reasonable suspicion is the standard to be used to allow investigatory searches of individuals






30. Even when armed with a warrant - the police generally must 'knock and announce' before entering a home






31. The death penalty is not being administered equitably






32. Civil forfeitures under RICO are not automatic; they require a separate civil proceeding






33. Capital punishment is not a suitable penalty for mentally retarded defendants; such a penalty is excessive - when involving mentally retarded defendants






34. Garbage containers outside of the curtilage of the home are considered abandoned and may be searched without a warrant and without cause






35. Inmates have the right to an institutional disciplinary hearing - written advance notice of the hearing - to present evidence/witnesses/testify in their own behalf at the hearing - and a formal ruling is to be placed in their file






36. No specific cause nor a search warrant is needed to search either open fields or non-habitable buildings (see also Oliver v U.S.)






37. Reasonable suspicion is the standard to be used by public school officials to conduct searches on public school grounds of individuals who may be violating either the law or school rules






38. Parolees have no right to legal counsel at parole revocation hearings






39. Plea bargaining is legal as long as an attorney is present to protect the defendant's rights - the plea is voluntarily made - and the defendant has a full knowledge of the consequences






40. The 2nd Amendment protects the right of individuals to possess a firearm for personal use; specifically - there is a constitutional right to keep a handgun in the home for self defense






41. Made it more difficult for inmates to win unconstitutional conditions of confinement cases; inmates must demonstrate specific unconstitutional conditions of confinement - and specific intent on the part of specific prison officials to maintain those






42. Defendants have no Constitutional right to waive a jury trial






43. If probable cause of another offense arises during a routine vehicle/traffic stop - every occupant and every part of the vehicle and its contents - including closed and locked containers in the vehicle - may be searched; search justification arises o






44. Juvenile court proceedings must possess the elements of basic fundamental fairness; juveniles have the right to a proper hearing - to have an advance notification of that hearing and its purpose - the right to be present at the hearing - the right to






45. Evidence illegally seized by a federal official cannot be used in federal court






46. The standard proof in a juvenile court adjudication is beyond a reasonable doubt






47. Evidence discarded by an individual fleeing from the police is admissible in court - even if the police had no advance cause to focus attention upon the person who discarded the material






48. If the criminal conduct is the product of government agent creativity/if the government induced the individual to commit a crime that they otherwise would not have committed - the government action would be considered entrapment and the individual wo






49. Bail bond agents may use physical force to capture their bondees who have skipped bail - as long as the force used is reasonably related to the custody and/or transportation of the bondees






50. The death penalty cannot be administered to those who were 17 years of age or under when the offense was committed