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Design Principles

Subject : engineering
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Elements that are similar are perceived to be more related than elements that are dissimilar.

2. The usability of a system is improved when similar parts are expressed in similar ways.

3. 1) Physiological 2) Safety 3) Love 4) Self-Esteem 5) Self-Actualization

4. The tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied

5. Tendency to form an overall positive impression of a person on the basis of one positive characteristic

6. The tendency for people to perform better or worse based on the expectations of another.

7. A phenomenon in which perception and behavior changes as a result of personal expectations or the expectations of others. (Halo effect - Hawthorne effect - Pygmalion effect - Placebo effect - Rosenthal effect - Demand characteristics.)

8. A technique for bringing attention to an area of text or image.

9. Tendency to perceive a set of individual elements as a single - recogniable pattern - rather than multiple - individual elements.

10. A process in which similar characteristics evolve independently in multiple systems.

11. Memory for recognizing things is better than memory for recalling things.

12. A Gestalt law of organization; elements arrange in a straight line or a smooth curve are perceived as a group - and are interpreted as being more related than elements not on the line or curve.

13. Elements that are close together are percieved to be more related than elements that are farther apart.

14. The relative ease with which a destination - idea - or concept may be reached.

15. Patients experience treatment effects based on their belief that a treatment will work.

16. A phenomenon of memory in which items presented at the beginning and end of a list are more likely to be recalled than items in the middle of a list.

17. As the flexiblity of a system increases - its usability decreases.

18. A property of visual equivalence among elements in a form.

19. A phenomenon in which mental processing is made slower and less accurate by competing mental processes.

20. Hierarchical organization is the simplest structure for visualizing and understanding complexity.

21. The distressing state of thought caused by recognizing an inconsistency between behavior/thought and value/belief.

22. A technique used to modify behavior by reinforcing desired behaviors - and ignoring or punishing undesired behaviors.

23. Using more elements than is necessary to offset the effects of unknown variables which may cause a system failure.

24. The use of pictorial images to improve the recognition and recall of signs and controls.

25. The ratio of relevant to irrelevant information in a display. The highest possible signal- to- noise ratio is desirable in design.

26. A point of physical or attentional entry into a design. (Minimal Barriers - Points of Prospect - Progressive Lures)

27. A strategy for managing information complexity in which only necessary or requested information is displayed at any given time.

28. Repeated exposure to stimuli for which people have neutral feelings will increase the likeability of the stimuli.

29. A diagram that describes the general pattern followed by the eyes when looking at evenly distributed - homogeneous information.

30. The use of simplified and incomplete models of a design to explore ideas - elaborate requirements - refine specifications - and test functionality.

31. A phenomenon of memory in which noticeably different things are more likely to be recalled that common things. (AKA Isolation/Novelty Effect)

32. Elements perceived as either figures (objects of focus) or ground (the rest of the perceptual field)

33. A technique of composition in which a medium is divided into thirds - creating aesthetic positions for the primary elements of a design.

34. The tendency to perceive objects as unchanging - despite changes in sensory input. (such as perspective - lighting - color or size)

35. A method of limiting the actions that can be performed on a system.

36. The tendency to see attractive people as more intelligent - competent - moral and sociable than unattractive people.

37. The usability of a system is improved when its status and methods of use are clearly visible.

38. A tendency to prefer faces in which the eyes - nose - lips and other features are close to the average of a population.

39. The use of more elements than necessary to maintain the performance of a system in the event of failure of one or more of the elements.

40. A technique used to teach a desired behavior by reinforcing increasingly accurate approximations of the behavior.

41. Given a choice between functionally equivalent designs - the simplest design should be selected.

42. Teachers treat students differently based on their expectations of how students will perform.

43. A tendency to see objects and patterns as 3D when certain visual cues are present.

44. A technique used to asociate a stimulus with an unconscious physical or emotional response.

45. The greater the effort to accomplish a task - the less likely the task will be accomplished successfully.

46. A tendency to prefer environments with unobstructed views (prospects) and areas of concealment and retreat (refuges).

47. A ratio within the elements of a form - such as height to width - approximating 0.618.

48. Elements that are connected by uniform visual properties - such as color - are perceived to be more related than elements that are not connected.

49. A method of presentation in which information is presented in descending order of importance. (Critical information presented first).

50. A property in which a form is made up of parts similar to the whole or to one another.