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DSST Introduction To Law Enforcement
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1. The _________ Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)is the term coined for this annual study.
2. When the offender was apprehended by the posse - trials were rarely held and public __________ were held to dispense justice.
3. Officers are allocated to specific shifts and patrol areas based on _________ or using a rotation system.
4. In US v. Irizarry (1982) - the US Supreme Court held that evidence found above a ceiling panel that was out of place was _______ the scope of the plain-view doctrine
5. Domestic disturbances may be fuelled by alcohol and drug abuse - financial difficulties or many other reasons that are beyond the ________ of the officers.
6. The role of the ___ is to investigate breaches of federal criminal law - to protect the country from foreign counterintelligence and terrorist activities and to provide law enforcement assistance to other agencies.
7. Community policing is widely implemented in the US today but critics are concerned that the police role of crime control has been hijacked - the police are increasingly getting involved at a political level and ________________ will lead to the loss
8. In dealing with federal criminal law enforcement - the duty of the FBI upon investigation is to gather evidence and perform personnel investigations - especially in major programs such as _________ crime and white-collar crime.
9. Sheriff departments are usually responsible for _______ court papers - civil summons - and managing security in state courtrooms.
10. The role of the police academy is to provide formal training - root out ___________ recruits and immerse the trainees in the police subculture.
11. The spoils system is greatly reduced in modern politics - though not entirely eliminated. Most ________ workers do not have to be concerned about losing their jobs when a new party takes office.
12. In 1837 - the slave patrol consisted of about 100 officers and they were responsible for finding ________ slaves and ensuring that they were well-behaved.
13. Parens patriae is Latin for 'the ______ as parent'.
14. There are around _____ federal - state and local law enforcement agencies in the US.
15. This was the bright-line rule (one that can ______ be crossed) that emerged from this case.
16. The 3 CIA directorates are the directorate of Intelligence - directorate of Operations and the directorate of Science and ___________.
17. According to the doctrine of ______ patriae - the state has a duty to care for children who are neglected or delinquent - and to assume the role of parent if necessary.
18. Under the ___ system - if last night Jim killed John - then set fire to a car and robbed an old lady - these multiple crimes would be recorded as a single incident.
19. Able-bodied men who could hear the commotion caused by the victim were obliged to form a posse and join the shire reeve (term from which ________ is derived) or mounted officer in pursuit of the offender.
20. This is the term coined to describe this diagrammatic representation. It differentiates between ________ crimes such as murder and rape and property crime such as burglary and arson.
21. The exclusionary rule was modified by the __________ exception in the US Supreme Court decision of US v. Leon (1984).
22. This was the ruling of the court. Many commentators were surprised but the court decided that although arrest for trivial offences (in this case a seat belt violation) may be embarrassing - it was not so extraordinary as to breach the ____ amendment
23. J Edgar ______ - the Director of the FBI in the 1930s had a critical impact on local policing in setting educational and training models for officers - the development of the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the establishment of the FBI crime lab.
24. Law enforcement in the US is extremely large and ___________ and hence this many agencies currently exist.
25. The Defendant was _________ arrested in his office - which consisted of a single room. The search was valid and reasonable given the circumstances of the arrest and small space of the area he was arrested in.
26. The ________ rule was further emphasized in Edwards v. Arizona (1981) - when the court prohibited investigators from continuing questioning once the suspect has requested an attorney.
27. Officers appointed to carry out investigative work are known as __________.
28. This was the only way they could ________ themselves and their property from the bandits. They did try to apply the accepted standards of decency of the day to their actions.
29. The office of coroner is considered a local law enforcement agency because they determine the cause of _____ of victims and perpetrators in criminal cases.
30. Some legal experts believe that police discretion should be abolished because it is _______.
31. Incapacitation refers to the act of confinement so that the offender is restrained from committing the crime again whereas the deterrence has the overall aim of crime __________.
32. In the 1950s training for police officers consisted mainly of firearm skill development but over the years - classroom training has emphasized criminal __________.
33. The most organized and distinctly American officer force was the _____ patrol based in Charleston - South Carolina.
34. The county level of government supplies citizens with police services - for example the county ________.
35. After the arrest - suspects are brought before a __________ for their first appearance so that the charges brought against them can be read out and if appropriate they may be released on their own recognizance.
36. Police subculture is determined by the potential of ______ and because of this they stereotype certain categories of persons - such as low-income males - as possible threats.
37. Apart from reducing crime - the mission of community policing is to _______ the trend of the negative public perception of the police
38. The ATF was previously an organization within the Department of the Treasury but since 24th January 2003 - their agency was transferred to the Department of _______.
39. Racial profiling is the practice of stopping and or __________ a person not because of any suspected criminal activity but because of that person's race.
40. The ________ stage of SARA refers to the creation of strategies based on the analyzed data to deal with the problem whereas the assessment stage requires an evaluation of the effectiveness of the response.
41. This is the venue for police training and the value of training has experienced a dramatic _________ in status since its inception.
42. The CID within the FBI is responsible for organized crime - violent crime - ____________ and money laundering.
43. This is the definition of bail. If the suspect fails to appear for the next court hearing - then the money or property pledged may be __________.
44. Where offenders are not captured red-handed - an arrest _______ issued by an officer of the court is required to supply the legal foundation for the act of detention.
45. The written policies method is called '________________ rule-making' and it is presently the most popular method of controlling discretion.
46. Prospective police officers are trained at police _________ - with the average pre-service training program lasting about 1000 hours.
47. The number of homeless people in the US has spiraled upwards in the last 2 decades so that the function of the police in dealing with them is shifting from one of containment and peacekeeping to the delivery of proactive strategies to deal with the _
48. In 2001 - the US Supreme Court held in Atwater v. Lago Vista that the 4th amendment did not ________ warrantless arrests for minor offenses.
49. Affirmative action is mandated by a Presidential _________ Order in 1965 - so that all private employers and government agencies who receive federal monies have to develop written affirmative action plans.
50. Research has revealed that in about 80% of such situations - no formal action - such as _______ was necessary.
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