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DSST Introduction To Law Enforcement
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1. This is widely recognized as a police role - though they do share the burden with other institutions such as schools and _____________.
2. These experts contend that officers do not have the authority to subvert the criminal law. Some states have criminalized the failure of criminal justice officials who turn a ______ eye to enforcement.
3. The local police cover a wide range of law enforcement agencies such as the municipal police - sheriff's departments - campus and _______ police.
4. The nature of police work also promotes deviant activities because officers are often offered ______ - they are regularly unsupervised and so think they can get away with it and fed on a diet of illegality may succumb to criminality too.
5. The courts of general jurisdiction utilize a fact-finding foundation known as the ___________ process which pits the State's interest - as represented by the prosecution against the Defendant's - as represented by defense counsel.
6. This is the term coined to describe this diagrammatic representation. It differentiates between ________ crimes such as murder and rape and property crime such as burglary and arson.
7. A concurrent sentence is one that is served at the __________ as another sentence.
8. Law enforcement in the US is extremely large and ___________ and hence this many agencies currently exist.
9. The NCVS Survey is a yearly study by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) of specific households to determine the level of criminal _____________ - particularly unreported victimization - in the US.
10. In serious cases - this may be the outcome. However - hospital care for the mentally ill is very disjointed and it may be difficult to hospitalize a person without their ________. Also - these hospitals or shelters may refuse to admit these patients.
11. The CIA has operations officers and recruits ________ agents as part of their intelligence activities and this may involve covert operations.
12. Police subculture is determined by the potential of ______ and because of this they stereotype certain categories of persons - such as low-income males - as possible threats.
13. Wilson and Kelling believed that the broken window symbolized a deteriorating neighborhood and not repaired led to the eventual decline of an area - thereby encouraging criminal _________.
14. The first ___ amendments of the Constitution are commonly called the Bill of Rights and offer the individual considerable protection in the criminal justice system.
15. Domestic disturbances are a common order maintenance issue handled by the police but officers generally find them frustrating to handle because there is little that they can do about the _____ of the problem.
16. Parens patriae is Latin for 'the ______ as parent'.
17. This is because patrol consists of the majority of police work and this is ________ through the police communications network - which is triggered by 911 calls.
18. Where offenders are not captured red-handed - an arrest _______ issued by an officer of the court is required to supply the legal foundation for the act of detention.
19. ____ did not become regulated officer equipment until the late 19th Century.
20. There was no __________ form of criminal justice law in those days. Guilt was assumed; the execution carried out and accepted by all as an act of retribution.
21. This is one of the main functions of the police academy and ensures that unsuitable recruits do not make it as officers. About 10% of recruits do not _________ from the academy.
22. This was the ruling of the court. Many commentators were surprised but the court decided that although arrest for trivial offences (in this case a seat belt violation) may be embarrassing - it was not so extraordinary as to breach the ____ amendment
23. The police ___________ of secrecy - public hostility and solidarity meant they were very isolated from the community - especially the black community.
24. Since the 1980s - there have been some very public crackdowns on _____ driving but rates of this offence which creep down during the crackdown soon return to the original levels because the publicity forces a temporary change in behavior which is not
25. This is the right granted under the Constitution but the Supreme Court has held that it can be exercised only for offences carrying a term of ______________ exceeding 6 months or where the extra penalties such as fines and community service are suffi
26. Officers must file written _______ in certain circumstances when they exercise their discretion - for example when they fire their weapon and these reports must be reviewed by their superiors.
27. Research has revealed that in about 80% of such situations - no formal action - such as _______ was necessary.
28. Officers at the academy undergo _________ training and most academies also offer field training.
29. Another word for uphold is _________. This is the result for most appellate court decisions whereby they confirm the decision of the lower court.
30. A limited amount of streetwalking is tolerated if it is restricted to a particular part of town - usually a business district and it is not too ________.
31. The rise of police professionalism and reform was spearheaded by August _______ who served as the chief of police in Berkeley - California from 1905 to 1932.
32. This was the step taken in 1965 to remedy _________ discrimination.
33. This describes the Pendleton Act. This was a big step in the government becoming the huge _____________ it is today.
34. This was the only way they could ________ themselves and their property from the bandits. They did try to apply the accepted standards of decency of the day to their actions.
35. This is training in relation to _____________ rules and was spurred by the decisions of the US Supreme Court in the 1960s.
36. Officers are allocated to specific shifts and patrol areas based on _________ or using a rotation system.
37. In 1837 - the slave patrol consisted of about 100 officers and they were responsible for finding ________ slaves and ensuring that they were well-behaved.
38. There is usually a degree of competition between detectives and _______ officers. The latter sometimes withhold information in the hope of beating detectives to solving a case.
39. This is the venue for police training and the value of training has experienced a dramatic _________ in status since its inception.
40. The first landmark case that forms the foundation of the exclusionary rule is the US Supreme court decision of _____ v US (1914).
41. Research into police work and activities conducted between the 1950s and 1970s concluded that police-community relations were very ____ and officers regularly breached legal rules
42. When called to attend to a non-crime incident - the police have to exercise discretion and can usually handle the situation _______ taking formal police action.
43. In dealing with federal criminal law enforcement - the duty of the FBI upon investigation is to gather evidence and perform personnel investigations - especially in major programs such as _________ crime and white-collar crime.
44. When the offender was apprehended by the posse - trials were rarely held and public __________ were held to dispense justice.
45. In US v. Irizarry (1982) - the US Supreme Court held that evidence found above a ceiling panel that was out of place was _______ the scope of the plain-view doctrine
46. Public concern led to the start of the crackdown and this is viewed as an important police role but it is very difficult to spot the minority of drunk drivers amongst those who are ______.
47. This has resulted in an under ________________ of blacks - women and ethnic minorities in the police force.
48. Able-bodied men who could hear the commotion caused by the victim were obliged to form a posse and join the shire reeve (term from which ________ is derived) or mounted officer in pursuit of the offender.
49. The spoils system is greatly reduced in modern politics - though not entirely eliminated. Most ________ workers do not have to be concerned about losing their jobs when a new party takes office.
50. The controversial 'broken window' theory made the connection between disorder - neighborhood decay and _____.
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