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Global Warming

Subjects : literacy, science
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. 23 -45 degrees. The Larger the tilt the larger the variability of the seasons.

2. Taliks are found under lakes because of the ability of water to store and vertically transfer heat energy - Vertical extent of the taliks found under lakes is related to the depth and volume of the overlying water body.

3. Over the Northern Hemisphere than the tropics.

4. 1. Land usage changes 2. Seasonal timing 3. Rising CO2 levels may be a factor

5. Forms in a mosaic of favoured locations.

6. They saw a massive thinning of the ice where it enters into the ocean - This is due to the pronounced melting of the ice once it is in contact with the ocean. Melt rates of 25 m/year near the grounding lines and more than 10 m/year on average.

7. Rain is getting harder and the rain is lasting longer since the past couple of decades and will continue for that amount.

8. Melting Point decreases

9. Frozen +2 years - Few centimeters to 1500 m

10. Water vapor - 36-70% - carbon dioxide - 9-26% - methane - 4-9% - ozone - 3-7%

11. Nitrogen (N2 78%) and Oxygen (O2 21%) - Their linear 2 atom molecular structure

12. Number of days when temperatures climb above average by a fixed amount.

13. High clouds are a ____ feedback; larger greenhouse warming - Clouds reflect shortwave radiation but also absorb longwave radiation

14. An area of unfrozen ground that is open to the ground surface but otherwise enclosed in permafrost.

15. Closed talik can develop when lakes fill in with sediment and become deposits of dead plant material (bog).

16. CO2 ____ in winter in the NH and ____ decreases during the 'greening season'

17. Laser radar - H V - Long time series - high accuracy - Density

18. Is defined usually on the basis of the degree of dryness (in comparison to some 'normal' or average amount

19. 240 w/m squared

20. x7 smaller - 7m total sea level equivalent.

21. Amount of light absorbed by surface

22. O Unfrozen soil that stays within the permafrost.

23. The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions - the Protocol commits them to do so.

24. Massive cooldown has allowed colder conditions to persist leading to cfcs stabilizing leading to ozone depletion. Later - more warming will lead to more moisture in the air which will lead to more snowfall!

25. Refers to a body of freshwater - usually shallow - formed in a depression by melt water from thawing permafrost.

26. O The amount of energy moving in the form of photons or other elementary particles at a certain distance from the source per unit of area per second. Area/second

27. Ice sheets have a very ____ Albedo

28. Is not an externally imposed perturbation to the climate system.

29. In average: +1% in respect to 100 years ago.

30. Peru and Ecuador to the equatorial central pacific - Causes irregular warming in sea surface

31. O Climate change in the Arctic is occurring now - Changes have been huge already

32. If the Earth is warmer - are we going to have the Hadley cell stronger or weaker? Hotter = heat rises which increases the circulation.

33. US is responsible for ___ of the total CO2

34. The heat input is either driven by the 1- thermohaline circulation associated with sea ice formation. The direct influx of intermediate warmth water.

35. Over the past century what has happened to the Earth's temperature?

36. More common

37. Measures input and output.

38. By contrast reflects only about 7% of solar radiation (Albedo~7%) - absorbing 93%.

39. Temperature needed to melt at depth is much lower than that needed to melt at the surface.

40. Radiation absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases?

41. A process whereby slabs of ice at the glacier margin mechanically fracture and detach from the main ice mass -

42. ~15% of incident solar energy (albedo 85)

43. SMB- mass balance due to processes that affect the surface of the ice sheet. Precipitation- evapotranspiration-runoff-blowing snow etc.

44. Soil at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years - Can be: Terrestrial - Subsea - Can be: Continuous: exists across a landscape as an unbroken layer. More than 90% is frozen - Discontinuous

45. Poor resolution (200-400 km) does not allow us to distinguish glaciers and basins.

46. 342 W/m squared - DWEC - These things reflect sunlight (30%): water vapor - clouds - dust particles - earth's surface

47. Total absorbed solar radiation

48. The warmer the temperature - the deeper the active layer - thaws and refreezes every year - Permafrost below freezing for two or more years.

49. Positive Albedo Feedback - increase in temperature melts ice and snow reduces albedo increases temperature melts ice and snow reduces albedo... ETC

50. The land-surface configuration that results from the melting of ground ice in a region where permafrost degrades is called Thermokarst.