Test your basic knowledge |

Global Warming

Subjects : literacy, science
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Rain is getting harder and the rain is lasting longer since the past couple of decades and will continue for that amount.

2. Really measures volume.

3. Pockets of ice in the topmost permafrost caused by thawing which create an underground lake.

4. Where do greenhouse gases warm up the Earth?

5. The last portion of a glacier grounded to bedrock - after this line there are ice shelves.

6. ~15% of incident solar energy (albedo 85)

7. On a clear cold day - the thin layer of air hugging the ground is called inversion. This layer is much cooler than the air a few hundred meters above it.

8. In average: +1% in respect to 100 years ago.

9. What can cause a change in the Earth's climate balance?

10. Atmospheric Cooling - Both negative (stabilizing) feedbacks - It is not happening now - but it has happened in the past - Ice-albedo feedback was the dominant feedback during the ice ages.

11. Some parts of the planet are dry because of their location: most of the deserts are around 30 N and 30 S - where sinking air predominates

12. The Earth emits this.

13. Positive Albedo Feedback - increase in temperature melts ice and snow reduces albedo increases temperature melts ice and snow reduces albedo... ETC

14. Deep tropics between 15O N and 15 O S are quite rainy on yearly average. In these regions - rising air predominates.

15. By contrast reflects only about 7% of solar radiation (Albedo~7%) - absorbing 93%.

16. Ozone layer in high stratosphere (25-40 km altitude) absorbs about 95-99% of ultraviolet radiation.

17. 1. They are the largest contributor to sea level rise 2. Can affect the thermohaline circulation (mainly in Greenland) 3. Are directly connected to climate change

18. Summer increase in cloud cover - Winter decrease in cloud cover.

19. Clouds 40~90% - Vegetation 10~15%

20. Betts et al found that: if CO-2 __________ this has a physiological effect on plant transpiration increased simulated runoff by 6% b. How? i. More CO2 1. Plants pores open less 2. This reduces transpiration 3. More water in the land surface

21. Reduction of Summer Sea- will increase the warming because less energy will be reflected back to the atmosphere by the ice and more will be absorbed by the ocean - Snow and snow covered ice absorb 15% of incident solar energy - Ice absorbs 10% of inc

22. Like weighing oneself on the scale.

23. CO2 ____ in winter in the NH and ____ decreases during the 'greening season'

24. The large-scale ocean circulation that moves water between the deep and surface ocean which effects salinity and temperature change - Supplies heat to the polar-regions.

25. InSAR - +snow/-ice loss - ice dynamics - requires a lot of data.

26. O The amount of energy moving in the form of photons or other elementary particles at a certain distance from the source per unit of area per second. Area/second

27. The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions - the Protocol commits them to do so.

28. he increase of ozone concentration in the atmosphere helps ____ our planet

29. In ________- inversion layer is more common in the Arctic

30. Is best viewed as a combination of...- Natural Variability - Associated with atmospheric circulation patterns - Growing Radiative Forcing - Associated with rising concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases - Strongly suggests a human influence.

31. Just remember the general direction of the circulation - Rising northern pacific. You start in between Greenland and Europe (youngest water) - Oldest water is in the Pacific Ocean - Salty water> fresh water - Cold Water > Warm Water

32. Pollution: heat and sunlight cook the air and the chemical compounds which are in it. This combines with the nitrogen oxide and creates 'smog'. This makes breathing difficult for those with respiratory ailments.

33. Less frequent and weaker

34. Industrial product - 300 ppb (parts per billion)

35. Higher temperature increases atmospheric water vapor @ global scale more water vapor in the air that causes nights to stay warmer.

36. Prolonged period of excessively hot weather - Which may be accompanied by high humidity.

37. Sea ice - Glaciers and Ice sheets - Alaska- ice glaciers - Greenland- ice sheets

38. A thick - floating slab of freshwater ice extending from coast to coast.

39. Same as heating an apartment v home - Thinner atmosphere than tropics; warms faster.

40. Over the past century what has happened to the Earth's temperature?

41. Antarctica - stratosphere - Sep-Oct

42. This is the total mass change - difference between input and outputssnow accumulation-ablation.

43. SALTY WATER = MORE DENSE - Maximum density at 4OC - This is why ice melting is a big deal; if the whole circle slows down - Ice bergs are fresh water higher sea level rise.

44. O Unfrozen soil that stays within the permafrost.

45. Changes over time in the highest and lowest single temperature observed during a given month of the year.

46. Thawing permafrost weakens coastal lands. Risk of flooding in coastal wetlands. Pollution and toxins locked in the snow and ice will be released.

47. Arctic troposphere is thinner (8-10 km) than the tropics...The depth of the atmospheric layer is much shallower in the Arctic - It takes less energy to warm the Arctic rather than the Tropics - Same as heating an apartment vs. a house

48. Longwave radiation - any radiation with a long wave will heat up quickly.

49. Absolute thresholds - Monthly maximums and minimums - Threshold departures - Percentile departure - Atmospheric Water Vapor: More water vapor in the air - warmer nights!

50. Hydrological drought is associated with the effect of low rainfall on water levels in rivers -!reservoirs -!lakes and aquifers.