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GRE Psychology: History

Subjects : gre, psychology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Minds were active - not passive

2. Human and animals are machines - sense-perception was all that could be known - can use science to learn people (like physics vs. machines)

3. One of America'S most influential philosophers; synthesize philosophy and psychology; reflex arc; denied structuralism - that animals respond to disjointed stimulus and response chains; instead functionalism - constantly adapting to environment rathe

4. Behaviourist - valued both behaviour and cognition; purposive behaviour and sign learning; rats in mazes formed cognitive maps rather than blindly attempting various routes like stimulus-response suggests; also expectancy-value theory of motivation:

5. Existential psychology; Man'S Search for Meaning - people innately seek meaningfulness in their lives - perceived meaninglessness is root of emotional difficulty; logotherapy

6. Movement for better care for mentally ill through hospitalization

7. Founder of structuralism - focused on the analysis of human consciousness; Through introspection - lab assistants objectively describe discrete sensations and contents of their minds; method soon dissolved

8. Gestalt ('whole') psychology - asserts perception is greater than the sum of its parts

9. Father of the psychology of adaptation - .also founder of sociology; used principles from Lamarckian evolution - physiology and associationism to understand people - idfferent species or races were elevated because of the greater number of associatio

10. Most important question of the time: understanding the mind (supplanted understanding existence)

11. Founding experimental psychology from Elements of Psychophysics; first systematic experiment to result in mathematical conclusions; previously thought the mind could not be studied empirically

12. Descartes - mind is a nonphysical substance that is separate from the body

13. Individual psychology; people motivated by inferiority; 4-type theory of personality: choleric (dominant) - phlegmatic (Dependent) - melancholic (withdrawn) - and sanguine (healthy)

14. 8 stages of psychosocial development; noted for completeness from infancy through old age; coined 'identity crisis' of adolescence

15. Rene Descartes - John Locke - Thomas Hobbes

16. Understanding the mysterious world temporarily because a question for church - then philosophy was reclaimed by scholars

17. Evolutionary psychology vs. social constructionism - whether psychological phenomena are the result of inborn - genetic factors or the result of cultural and society influences

18. Anton Mesmer - Franz Joseph Gall - J. Spurzheim - Charles Darwin - Sir Francis Galton - Gustav Fechner - Johannes Muller - Wilhelm Wundt - Herbert Spencer - William James - Hermann von Helmholtz - Stanley Hall - John Dewey - Edward Titchener - James

19. Cognitive development in children; The Language and Thought of the Child - Moral Judgment of the Child - Origins of Intelligence in Children

20. Man mind is tabula rasa (blank slate) at first; knowledge not innate - from experience

21. America'S first Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard; coined the term 'adolescence' - started American Journal of Psychology - founded American Psychological Association

22. Felt Freud over-emphasized sexual instinct; analytic psychology (metaphysical and mythological components - collective unconscious and unconscious archetypes; autobiography (Memories - Dreams - Reflections)

23. The idea that the nature of a person could be known by examining the shape and contours of the skull - Brain - seat of the soul

24. The original philosophic mentor who pondered the abstract ideas of truth - beauty and justice

25. Socrates - Plato - Aristotle

26. Client-centered therapy; client directs course of therapy - receives unconditional positive regard; humanistic; also first to record sessions for later study and reference

27. Mechanistic behavioural ideas; motivation: performance = drive x habit; we do what we need and what worked best in the past; Kenneth Spence modified theory

28. Modified Hull'S Performance = drive x habit theory

29. Carried Franz Joseph Gall on his work - even when others proved theory wrong

30. Founder of ethology; imprinting in ducklings; On Aggression

31. Digestion - classical conditioning

32. I think therefore I am - figure out truth through reason and deduction; dualism/ mind-body problem

33. Founded behaviouralism; studied conditioning - stimulus-response chains - objective - observable behaviours; humans ready to be trained by environment

34. Studied Thorndike and Watson; Skinner box - operant conditioning; Walden Two and beyond freedom and dignity - control of human behaviour

35. The idea that characteristics acquired during lifetime passed to future generations

36. Ancient Greeks - middle ages (500-1600) - scientific revolution (1600-1700) - Enlightenment (1700-1800) The brink of psychology (1800-1900) - The saga continues (1900s)

37. Law of effect; precursor to operant conditioning

38. Created phrenology

39. Opened more psychology labs - thought psychology should be more scientific than Wundt

40. World'S first professor - studied based on order and logic - disagreed with Plato - believed that truth can be found in physical world

41. Leader of humanistic psychology; examined normal or optimal functioning rather than abnormal; hierarchy of needs; people inherently strive for self-improvement

42. Believed healing of physical ailments came from manipulation of bodily fluids; animal magnetism (mind control of one person over another) responsible for patient recoveries; used technique of mesmerism (hypnotism)

43. Founder of psychology - first official lab at U of Leipzig - also began first psychology journal; wrote principles of physiological psychology - attempted to study and analyze consciousness; ideas forerunners of Edward Titchener

44. A plan for selective human breeding to strengthen species

45. Father of experimental psychology - in America doing what Wundt was in Germany - combining physiology and philosophy; informally investigating psychological principles but did not have an official lab until later; wrote principle of psychology - wrot

46. Tolman; learning is acquired through meaningful behaviour towards a goal; sign learning

47. Emerged after WWII - psychology research to a practical field

48. Physical world not all that could be known - presence of universal forms and innate knowledge - abstract and unsystematic

49. Tolman; pursuing signs towards a goal; purposive behaviour

50. Frankl; focuses on person'S will to meaning