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GRE Psychology: History

Subjects : gre, psychology
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1. Mechanistic behavioural ideas; motivation: performance = drive x habit; we do what we need and what worked best in the past; Kenneth Spence modified theory

2. Created phrenology

3. Leader of humanistic psychology; examined normal or optimal functioning rather than abnormal; hierarchy of needs; people inherently strive for self-improvement

4. Felt Freud over-emphasized sexual instinct; analytic psychology (metaphysical and mythological components - collective unconscious and unconscious archetypes; autobiography (Memories - Dreams - Reflections)

5. Sensation; hearing and color vision - foundation for modern perception research

6. Evolutionary psychology vs. social constructionism - whether psychological phenomena are the result of inborn - genetic factors or the result of cultural and society influences

7. Studied Thorndike and Watson; Skinner box - operant conditioning; Walden Two and beyond freedom and dignity - control of human behaviour

8. Existential psychology; Man'S Search for Meaning - people innately seek meaningfulness in their lives - perceived meaninglessness is root of emotional difficulty; logotherapy

9. Cognitive development in children; The Language and Thought of the Child - Moral Judgment of the Child - Origins of Intelligence in Children

10. Gestalt ('whole') psychology - asserts perception is greater than the sum of its parts

11. Cognitive therapy; problems arise from maladaptive ways of thinking; therapy to reformulating illogical cognition rather than searching for a life-stress cause; Beck Depression Inventory

12. Modified Hull'S Performance = drive x habit theory

13. Minds were active - not passive

14. Physical world not all that could be known - presence of universal forms and innate knowledge - abstract and unsystematic

15. Behaviourist - valued both behaviour and cognition; purposive behaviour and sign learning; rats in mazes formed cognitive maps rather than blindly attempting various routes like stimulus-response suggests; also expectancy-value theory of motivation:

16. Human and animals are machines - sense-perception was all that could be known - can use science to learn people (like physics vs. machines)

17. Rene Descartes - John Locke - Thomas Hobbes

18. Digestion - classical conditioning

19. wrote Origin of Species and the Descent of Man - did not create the concept of evolution - but made it a scientifically sound principle by positing that natural selection was its driving force

20. Individual psychology; people motivated by inferiority; 4-type theory of personality: choleric (dominant) - phlegmatic (Dependent) - melancholic (withdrawn) - and sanguine (healthy)

21. Emerged after WWII - psychology research to a practical field

22. Anton Mesmer - Franz Joseph Gall - J. Spurzheim - Charles Darwin - Sir Francis Galton - Gustav Fechner - Johannes Muller - Wilhelm Wundt - Herbert Spencer - William James - Hermann von Helmholtz - Stanley Hall - John Dewey - Edward Titchener - James

23. Client-centered therapy; client directs course of therapy - receives unconditional positive regard; humanistic; also first to record sessions for later study and reference

24. Descartes - mind is a nonphysical substance that is separate from the body

25. I think therefore I am - figure out truth through reason and deduction; dualism/ mind-body problem

26. Believed healing of physical ailments came from manipulation of bodily fluids; animal magnetism (mind control of one person over another) responsible for patient recoveries; used technique of mesmerism (hypnotism)

27. A plan for selective human breeding to strengthen species

28. Tolman; pursuing signs towards a goal; purposive behaviour

29. Founder of structuralism - focused on the analysis of human consciousness; Through introspection - lab assistants objectively describe discrete sensations and contents of their minds; method soon dissolved

30. First to use statistics and created correlation coefficient; wrote Hereditary Genius - used Darwinian principles to promote eugenics

31. Father of the psychology of adaptation - .also founder of sociology; used principles from Lamarckian evolution - physiology and associationism to understand people - idfferent species or races were elevated because of the greater number of associatio

32. America'S first Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard; coined the term 'adolescence' - started American Journal of Psychology - founded American Psychological Association

33. Frankl; focuses on person'S will to meaning

34. Founder of psychology - first official lab at U of Leipzig - also began first psychology journal; wrote principles of physiological psychology - attempted to study and analyze consciousness; ideas forerunners of Edward Titchener

35. Founded behaviouralism; studied conditioning - stimulus-response chains - objective - observable behaviours; humans ready to be trained by environment

36. Most important question of the time: understanding the mind (supplanted understanding existence)

37. One of most important in clinical - abnormal - personality - id - ego - superego; unconscious motivations; psychoanalysis; famous writings Interpretation of Dreams - Theory of Sexuality - Beyond the Pleasure Principle - Civilization and its Disconten

38. Opened more psychology labs - thought psychology should be more scientific than Wundt

39. Movement for better care for mentally ill through hospitalization

40. One of America'S most influential philosophers; synthesize philosophy and psychology; reflex arc; denied structuralism - that animals respond to disjointed stimulus and response chains; instead functionalism - constantly adapting to environment rathe

41. Tolman; learning is acquired through meaningful behaviour towards a goal; sign learning

42. Understanding the mysterious world temporarily because a question for church - then philosophy was reclaimed by scholars

43. The idea that the nature of a person could be known by examining the shape and contours of the skull - Brain - seat of the soul

44. World'S first professor - studied based on order and logic - disagreed with Plato - believed that truth can be found in physical world

45. Carried Franz Joseph Gall on his work - even when others proved theory wrong

46. Socrates - Plato - Aristotle

47. Founder of ethology; imprinting in ducklings; On Aggression

48. Physiologist - existence of 'Specific nerve energies' - taught Wilhelm Wundt

49. Founding experimental psychology from Elements of Psychophysics; first systematic experiment to result in mathematical conclusions; previously thought the mind could not be studied empirically

50. 8 stages of psychosocial development; noted for completeness from infancy through old age; coined 'identity crisis' of adolescence