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GRE Psychology: Language

Subjects : gre, psychology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Processed in same brain regions as producing and understanding speech - but slight differences suggested by alexia and agraphia while having no speech problems - In other word - people who are unable to read (alexia) or write (agraphia) have no probl

2. Russian psychologists - - development of word meanings are complex and altered by interpersonal experience (communicating with significant people in their lives to learn cultural habits); - also - language is a tool in developing abstract thinking (n

3. Discrete sounds that make up words but have no meaning (e.g. ee - p - sh); phonics is learning to read by sounding out phonemes

4. (Researcher) Charles Osgood - Allow people to plot meanings of words on graphs - people with similar backgrounds and interests plotted words similarly - indicating words have similar connotations for cultures/subcultures

5. Young children using one word (holophrases) to convey a whole sentence (e.g. 'me' for 'give that to me')

6. Generalizing names for things - often done through chaining characteristics rather than logic (e.g. any furry thing is a 'doggie')

7. Arrangement of words into sentences as prescribed by a particular language

8. Grammar rules' how to group morphemes

9. Chomsky - differentiates between surface structure (way words are organized; 3 different sentences) and deep structure (what it means; could mean the same thing) - Surface structure: the way that words are organized - Deep structure: underlying meani

10. Children use nouns first then verbs - usually one noun and one verb (e.g. 'me want') or two nouns (e.g. 'mommy shirt')

11. Tone inflections - accents - and other aspects of pronunciation that carry meaning

12. Group of words when put together function as a syntactic part of a sentence (e.g. 'walking the dog')

13. Whorfian hypothesis; from studying Hopi - language or how a culture says things influences perspective - used for argument for non-sexist language; however cultures that don'T have certain colors can still recognize them - so unclear the extent langu

14. Semantics (word meanings) - semantic differential charts

15. 1 year speaks first word(s) - 2 years > 50 spoken words - usually 2 then 3-word phrases - 3 years 1000-word vocabulary but has grammatical errors 4 years grammar errors are random exceptions

16. Language development begins with onset of active speech rather than during the first year of only listening

17. Made of phonemes - smallest units of meaning in language - words or parts of words (e.g. boy - -ing)

18. Social - developmental - linguistic psychology found children'S understanding of grammar rules develops as they make hypotheses about how syntax works and then self-correct with experience

19. Overapplication of grammar rules (e.g. 'I founded my toy' or plural vs. non plural)

20. Gender that learns faster and more accurately in language

21. Psycholinguistics; transformational grammar; language acquisition device (LAD)

22. Chomsky - Human have innate ability to learn language (to adopt generative grammar rules of the language they hear); - children made small errors based on grammar rules rather than large structural errors; - seems they only need exposure to a langua

23. Speech without articles or extras like a telegram (e.g. 'Me go')

24. 'Black' English - Ebonics - has its own complex internal structure - not simply bad English

25. These children learn language slower

26. Overall rules of relationship between morphemes and syntax for a certain language