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GRE Psychology: Learning

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Those who set realistic goals with intermediate risk feel pride with accomplishment - and want to succeed more than they fear failure - however less likely to set unrealistic or risky goals or to persist when success is unlikely

2. Evoking responses of autonomic nervous system through training

3. Not-so-neutral stimulus - elicits response without conditioning (e.g. salivation)

4. Pavlovian conditioning; teaching a response (relationship) to neutral stimulus by pairing with not-so-neutral stimulus

5. Decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus due to increasing familiarity

6. Most time to learn but least likely to be extinguished; reinforcements are delivered after different numbers of correct responses - ratio cannot be predicted

7. Learning and behaving by imitation; Albert Bandura'S Bobo doll (children watching adults with blow up dolls)

8. Born with certain physiological needs - will be tension if not satisfied; when it is - return to state of homeostasis and relaxation

9. Natural reinforcement - without requirement of learning; food and water

10. Disassociate car from vet by taking dog on frequent car trip to the park

11. Skinner - instrumental conditioning; behaviour primarily influenced by reinforcement strategies - do what rewards - not what doesn'T

12. Part of motivation. One must be adequately aroused to learn or perform

13. How people learn in educational settings such as student and teacher attributes

14. School of behaviourism

15. Parents reduce temper in child by not giving into - reinforcing behavior

16. Thorndike - precursor of operant conditioning - Cause-and-effect chain of behaviour; continue what rewards - stop what doesn'T

17. Reappearance of an extinguished response - even without further conditioning - after the child'S tantrum behaviour has been extinguished - the child may suddenly throw a tantrum again

18. Punishment to decrease likelihood of a behaviour - ex: drug Antabuse to treat alcoholism

19. Reversal of conditioning - dissociating behaviour from a cue - Repeatedly withholding reinforcement or disassociating the behavior from a cue

20. Learning about something in general (history) for knowledge rather than learning-specific stimulus-response chains (e.g. Tolman'S experiments with animals forming cognitive maps of mazes rather than simple escape routes)

21. Motivation to reduce internal tension - once satisfied - back to homeostasis/ relaxation; against M.E. Olds electrical stimulation of pleasure centres

22. Motivated to do what they do not want to do by rewarding themselves afterwards with something they like to do - Eat dessert after eating unwanted vegetable

23. Approach-avoidance conflict; state felt when a goal has both pros and cons - typically focus on pros when far from goal - cons when close to goal

24. Every correct response is met with reinforcement; quickest but most fragile learning - as soon as rewards stop coming - the animal stops performing

25. Learned reinforce - often through society; money - prestige - rewards

26. Links together chains of stimuli and responses - learns what to do in response to particular triggers (leaving a building in response to fire alarm)

27. What a person learns in one state is best recalled in that state

28. How to avoid something undesirable

29. Watson - everything can be explained by stimulus-response chains - chains are developed by conditioning; only objective and observable elements important

30. Performance = Expectation x Value; expectancy-value theory; goals they expect they can meet and how important goal is

31. Reinforcement delivered after a consistent number of responses; vulnerable to extinction

32. Promotes extinction of undesirable behaviour - negative stimulus presented after behaviour to decrease likelihood of reoccurrence - Skinner thinks it is not effective in long run

33. Neutral stimulus once paired with UCS; no naturally occurring response - only with UCS pairing (e.g. light (CS) eventually produces salivation)

34. John Garcia - Certain associations are learned more easily than others - Nausea & food can be paired easily - but light and nausea cannot be paired

35. Relatively permanent or stable change in behaviour as the result of experience

36. Associative or dissociative attitudes on 7pt scale toward objects

37. CS presented after UCS (e.g. food - then light); proven ineffective; accomplishes only inhibitory conditioning - harder time pairing CS with UCS later even with forward conditioning

38. Theory of association

39. Shaping; Skinner rewarded rats first for being near lever then for touching it - reward for behaviours that brought them closer to the desired one (e.g. pressing lever)

40. Set of characteristics indicative of one'S ability to learn

41. Primary/instinctual (hunger or thirst) - secondary/ acquired (money or other learned reinforcers) - exploratory (seek novelty or explore) - We are primarily motivated to maintain physiological or psychological homeostasis.

42. Rewards after a certain period of time rather than number of behaviours; can be argued that it does little to motivate an animal'S behaviour

43. Law of effect

44. Simultaneous - higher-order/second-order - delayed forward - trace forward - backward

45. Takes place without reinforcement - knowledge not immediately expressed - e.g. learning while watching chess

46. Response that CS elicits after conditioning; UCR and CR will be the same (e.g. salivation)

47. Naturally occurring response (e.g. salivation to food)

48. Higher arousal for simple tasks (motivation) - lower arousal for complex tasks (concentration); optimal arousal is an inverted U on a graph - Y-axis: performance - X-axis: arousal - Difficult task --> upside-down U shape - Simple task --> reaches pea

49. Learning by watching

50. later proved experimentally - Classical conditioning