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GRE Psychology: Learning

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Experiment shows that there is electrical stimulation of pleasure centers in the brain used as positive reinforcement - this is evidence against drive-reduction theory

2. In classical conditioning - the inability to infer a relationship between a stimulus and response due to the presence of a more prominent stimulus

3. Born with certain physiological needs - will be tension if not satisfied; when it is - return to state of homeostasis and relaxation

4. Natural reinforcement - without requirement of learning; food and water

5. Disassociate car from vet by taking dog on frequent car trip to the park

6. Drive to reduce cognitive dissonance - holding conflicting ideas simultaneously whether beliefs - attitudes - or actions

7. Increased sensitivity to environment after exposure to a strong stimulus - Rubbing arm after pain?

8. Shaping; Skinner rewarded rats first for being near lever then for touching it - reward for behaviours that brought them closer to the desired one (e.g. pressing lever)

9. Thorndike - precursor of operant conditioning - Cause-and-effect chain of behaviour; continue what rewards - stop what doesn'T

10. Learn 3-20 - constant 20-50 - drops 50+

11. Credited with writing first educational textbook in 1903 to assess students and teaching

12. Applied expectancy-value theory to individual behaviour in large organizations (e.g. those lowest on totem pole have least motivation since little incentives)

13. Differential reinforcement of successive approximations; Skinner rewarded rats first for being near lever then for touching it - reward for behaviours that brought them closer to the desired one (e.g. pressing lever)

14. UCS and CS presented at the same time

15. Not all correct responses met with reinforcement; slower but more resistant; fixed ratio - variable ratio - fixed interval - variable interval; variable is best because it is unexpected - ratio gives better response since based on # of correct behavi

16. Law of effect

17. Removal of a negative event that increases likelihood of a particular response; while punishment introduces a negative event to decrease likelihood of a response

18. Naturally occurring response (e.g. salivation to food)

19. Previous CS now a UCS (e.g.*bell > [ light > food > ] salivation)

20. Most time to learn but least likely to be extinguished; reinforcements are delivered after different numbers of correct responses - ratio cannot be predicted

21. Individuals in the environment are motivated by secondary reinforcers; e.g. tokens in prisons - rehab - etc. - cashed in for more primary reinforcers (e.g. candy - books - privileges)

22. Individuals are motivated by what brings most pleasure and least pain

23. Performance = Expectation x Value; expectancy-value theory; goals they expect they can meet and how important goal is

24. Rewards after a certain period of time rather than number of behaviours; can be argued that it does little to motivate an animal'S behaviour

25. Type of forward conditioning; CS presented and terminated before UCS presentation

26. Does not produce a specific response on its own (e.g. light or bell)

27. Previous learning makes learning a new task more difficult

28. Learning and behaving by imitation; Albert Bandura'S Bobo doll (children watching adults with blow up dolls)

29. Relatively permanent or stable change in behaviour as the result of experience

30. Those who set realistic goals with intermediate risk feel pride with accomplishment - and want to succeed more than they fear failure - however less likely to set unrealistic or risky goals or to persist when success is unlikely

31. Reinforcement delivered after a consistent number of responses; vulnerable to extinction

32. Linking a series of behaviours that result in reinforcement - one behaviour triggers the next (e.g. learning the alphabet)

33. How to avoid something undesirable

34. Learning by watching

35. Decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus due to increasing familiarity

36. The failure to generalize a stimulus

37. Pairing of the CS and the UCS in which the CS is presented before the UCS - delayed conditioning and trace conditioning

38. Motivated to do what they do not want to do by rewarding themselves afterwards with something they like to do - Eat dessert after eating unwanted vegetable

39. Evoking responses of autonomic nervous system through training

40. Watson - everything can be explained by stimulus-response chains - chains are developed by conditioning; only objective and observable elements important

41. Preparedness - that certain associations are learned more easily than others; animals programmed to make certain connections; Garcia effect - nausea associated with food

42. 'learning' that a specific action causes an event - when in reality the two are unrelated

43. Motivation to reduce internal tension - once satisfied - back to homeostasis/ relaxation; against M.E. Olds electrical stimulation of pleasure centres

44. Opposite of stimulus discrimination; make same response to a group of similar stimuli (e.g. fire alarms may sound different but same response)

45. Teacher encourages independent learning - only provides assistance when needed

46. Previous learning helps learning of another task later

47. Teach to performance a desired behaviour to get away from a negative stimulus

48. CS presented after UCS (e.g. food - then light); proven ineffective; accomplishes only inhibitory conditioning - harder time pairing CS with UCS later even with forward conditioning

49. Empty box (with a rat and a lever) - later proved the influence of reinforcement

50. Every correct response is met with reinforcement; quickest but most fragile learning - as soon as rewards stop coming - the animal stops performing