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GRE Psychology: Learning

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Teach to performance a desired behaviour to get away from a negative stimulus

2. Drive to reduce cognitive dissonance - holding conflicting ideas simultaneously whether beliefs - attitudes - or actions

3. Learning by watching

4. How to avoid something undesirable

5. Need for achievement (nAch); need to pursue success or to avoid failure - goal is to feel successful

6. The failure to generalize a stimulus

7. Medium amount of arousal best for performance

8. Naturally occurring response (e.g. salivation to food)

9. Disassociate car from vet by taking dog on frequent car trip to the park

10. Natural reinforcement - without requirement of learning; food and water

11. Punishment to decrease likelihood of a behaviour - ex: drug Antabuse to treat alcoholism

12. Learn 3-20 - constant 20-50 - drops 50+

13. Approach-avoidance conflict; state felt when a goal has both pros and cons - typically focus on pros when far from goal - cons when close to goal

14. Differential reinforcement of successive approximations; Skinner rewarded rats first for being near lever then for touching it - reward for behaviours that brought them closer to the desired one (e.g. pressing lever)

15. Pavlovian conditioning; teaching a response (relationship) to neutral stimulus by pairing with not-so-neutral stimulus

16. Performance = Expectation x Value; expectancy-value theory; goals they expect they can meet and how important goal is

17. Reinforcement delivered after a consistent number of responses; vulnerable to extinction

18. Previous CS now a UCS (e.g.*bell > [ light > food > ] salivation)

19. Learning about something in general (history) for knowledge rather than learning-specific stimulus-response chains (e.g. Tolman'S experiments with animals forming cognitive maps of mazes rather than simple escape routes)

20. Experiment shows that there is electrical stimulation of pleasure centers in the brain used as positive reinforcement - this is evidence against drive-reduction theory

21. Reversal of conditioning - dissociating behaviour from a cue - Repeatedly withholding reinforcement or disassociating the behavior from a cue

22. Individuals are motivated by what brings most pleasure and least pain

23. Opposite of stimulus discrimination; make same response to a group of similar stimuli (e.g. fire alarms may sound different but same response)

24. By having an apparatus (e.g. lever) - an animal controls its reinforcements (e.g. food) through behaviours (e.g. pressing) - shaping its own behaviour

25. Theory of association

26. In classical conditioning - the inability to infer a relationship between a stimulus and response due to the presence of a more prominent stimulus

27. Decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus due to increasing familiarity

28. Response that CS elicits after conditioning; UCR and CR will be the same (e.g. salivation)

29. Ability to discriminate between different but similar stimuli (door bell is different from phone ringing)

30. Credited with writing first educational textbook in 1903 to assess students and teaching

31. Fritz Heider'S balance theory - Charles Osgood and Percy Tannenbaum'S congruity theory - Leon Festinger'S cognitive dissonance theory; what about individuals who often seek stimulation - novel experience - or self-destruction?

32. Most time to learn but least likely to be extinguished; reinforcements are delivered after different numbers of correct responses - ratio cannot be predicted

33. Continuous motions easier to learn - once started continues naturally - bike; discrete divided into parts and do not facilitate recall of each other - setting up chessboard

34. Shaping; Skinner rewarded rats first for being near lever then for touching it - reward for behaviours that brought them closer to the desired one (e.g. pressing lever)

35. Applied expectancy-value theory to individual behaviour in large organizations (e.g. those lowest on totem pole have least motivation since little incentives)

36. Learning and behaving by imitation; Albert Bandura'S Bobo doll (children watching adults with blow up dolls)

37. People learn through their culture. They learn acceptable and unacceptable behaviours through culture

38. Relatively permanent or stable change in behaviour as the result of experience

39. Preparedness - that certain associations are learned more easily than others; animals programmed to make certain connections; Garcia effect - nausea associated with food

40. later proved experimentally - Classical conditioning

41. CS presented after UCS (e.g. food - then light); proven ineffective; accomplishes only inhibitory conditioning - harder time pairing CS with UCS later even with forward conditioning

42. Neutral stimulus once paired with UCS; no naturally occurring response - only with UCS pairing (e.g. light (CS) eventually produces salivation)

43. Empty box (with a rat and a lever) - later proved the influence of reinforcement

44. Takes place without reinforcement - knowledge not immediately expressed - e.g. learning while watching chess

45. Removal of a negative event that increases likelihood of a particular response; while punishment introduces a negative event to decrease likelihood of a response

46. Performance = Drive x Habit; will do what has worked in the past to satisfy drive

47. Attitude change - based on balance of 'Sentiment' or liking relationships - if the net affect valence multiplies out to a positive result

48. Type of forward conditioning; CS presented and terminated before UCS presentation

49. Pairing of the CS and the UCS in which the CS is presented before the UCS - delayed conditioning and trace conditioning

50. Does not produce a specific response on its own (e.g. light or bell)