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GRE Psychology: Learning

Subjects : gre, psychology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Preparedness - that certain associations are learned more easily than others; animals programmed to make certain connections; Garcia effect - nausea associated with food






2. Rewards delivered after differing time periods; second most effective strategy in maintaining behaviour






3. Type of forward conditioning; CS begins before UCS - lasts until the UCS is presented






4. Operant conditioning






5. Promotes extinction of undesirable behaviour - negative stimulus presented after behaviour to decrease likelihood of reoccurrence - Skinner thinks it is not effective in long run






6. Not-so-neutral stimulus - elicits response without conditioning (e.g. salivation)






7. Teach to performance a desired behaviour to get away from a negative stimulus






8. Reward or positive event that increases likelihood of a particular response






9. Evoking responses of autonomic nervous system through training






10. Born with certain physiological needs - will be tension if not satisfied; when it is - return to state of homeostasis and relaxation






11. Law of effect






12. Fritz Heider'S balance theory - Charles Osgood and Percy Tannenbaum'S congruity theory - Leon Festinger'S cognitive dissonance theory; what about individuals who often seek stimulation - novel experience - or self-destruction?






13. Reinforcement delivered after a consistent number of responses; vulnerable to extinction






14. Individuals are motivated by what brings most pleasure and least pain






15. Attitude change - based on balance of 'Sentiment' or liking relationships - if the net affect valence multiplies out to a positive result






16. Motivated to do what they do not want to do by rewarding themselves afterwards with something they like to do - Eat dessert after eating unwanted vegetable






17. Performance = Drive x Habit; will do what has worked in the past to satisfy drive






18. School of behaviourism






19. Learning and behaving by imitation; Albert Bandura'S Bobo doll (children watching adults with blow up dolls)






20. Simultaneous - higher-order/second-order - delayed forward - trace forward - backward






21. Learning about something in general (history) for knowledge rather than learning-specific stimulus-response chains (e.g. Tolman'S experiments with animals forming cognitive maps of mazes rather than simple escape routes)






22. Empty box (with a rat and a lever) - later proved the influence of reinforcement






23. Differential reinforcement of successive approximations; Skinner rewarded rats first for being near lever then for touching it - reward for behaviours that brought them closer to the desired one (e.g. pressing lever)






24. Students working on a project in small groups






25. The failure to generalize a stimulus






26. Pavlovian conditioning; teaching a response (relationship) to neutral stimulus by pairing with not-so-neutral stimulus






27. Applied expectancy-value theory to individual behaviour in large organizations (e.g. those lowest on totem pole have least motivation since little incentives)






28. Learned reinforce - often through society; money - prestige - rewards






29. Skinner - instrumental conditioning; behaviour primarily influenced by reinforcement strategies - do what rewards - not what doesn'T






30. Response that CS elicits after conditioning; UCR and CR will be the same (e.g. salivation)






31. Accidental learning - unrelated items grouped together; opposite of intentional learning (e.g. dog associates car with vet)






32. Learning by watching






33. Watson - everything can be explained by stimulus-response chains - chains are developed by conditioning; only objective and observable elements important






34. Relatively permanent or stable change in behaviour as the result of experience






35. What a person learns in one state is best recalled in that state






36. Reversal of conditioning - dissociating behaviour from a cue - Repeatedly withholding reinforcement or disassociating the behavior from a cue






37. Those who set realistic goals with intermediate risk feel pride with accomplishment - and want to succeed more than they fear failure - however less likely to set unrealistic or risky goals or to persist when success is unlikely






38. Learn 3-20 - constant 20-50 - drops 50+






39. Rewards after a certain period of time rather than number of behaviours; can be argued that it does little to motivate an animal'S behaviour






40. Associative or dissociative attitudes on 7pt scale toward objects






41. Increased sensitivity to environment after exposure to a strong stimulus - Rubbing arm after pain?






42. Previous CS now a UCS (e.g.*bell > [ light > food > ] salivation)






43. Disassociate car from vet by taking dog on frequent car trip to the park






44. Opposite of stimulus discrimination; make same response to a group of similar stimuli (e.g. fire alarms may sound different but same response)






45. How to avoid something undesirable






46. Part of motivation. One must be adequately aroused to learn or perform






47. Pairing of the CS and the UCS in which the CS is presented before the UCS - delayed conditioning and trace conditioning






48. Drive to reduce cognitive dissonance - holding conflicting ideas simultaneously whether beliefs - attitudes - or actions






49. Shaping; Skinner rewarded rats first for being near lever then for touching it - reward for behaviours that brought them closer to the desired one (e.g. pressing lever)






50. 'learning' that a specific action causes an event - when in reality the two are unrelated