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GRE Psychology: Learning

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Pairing of the CS and the UCS in which the CS is presented before the UCS - delayed conditioning and trace conditioning

2. Previous CS now a UCS (e.g.*bell > [ light > food > ] salivation)

3. Previous CS now a UCS (e.g.*bell > [ light > food > ] salivation)

4. Most time to learn but least likely to be extinguished; reinforcements are delivered after different numbers of correct responses - ratio cannot be predicted

5. Type of forward conditioning; CS begins before UCS - lasts until the UCS is presented

6. Law of effect

7. Type of forward conditioning; CS presented and terminated before UCS presentation

8. Increased sensitivity to environment after exposure to a strong stimulus - Rubbing arm after pain?

9. Empty box (with a rat and a lever) - later proved the influence of reinforcement

10. Applied expectancy-value theory to individual behaviour in large organizations (e.g. those lowest on totem pole have least motivation since little incentives)

11. 'learning' that a specific action causes an event - when in reality the two are unrelated

12. Response that CS elicits after conditioning; UCR and CR will be the same (e.g. salivation)

13. Credited with writing first educational textbook in 1903 to assess students and teaching

14. Primary/instinctual (hunger or thirst) - secondary/ acquired (money or other learned reinforcers) - exploratory (seek novelty or explore) - We are primarily motivated to maintain physiological or psychological homeostasis.

15. Teach to performance a desired behaviour to get away from a negative stimulus

16. Set of characteristics indicative of one'S ability to learn

17. Neutral stimulus once paired with UCS; no naturally occurring response - only with UCS pairing (e.g. light (CS) eventually produces salivation)

18. Reinforcement delivered after a consistent number of responses; vulnerable to extinction

19. Not-so-neutral stimulus - elicits response without conditioning (e.g. salivation)

20. CS presented after UCS (e.g. food - then light); proven ineffective; accomplishes only inhibitory conditioning - harder time pairing CS with UCS later even with forward conditioning

21. Performance = Expectation x Value; expectancy-value theory; goals they expect they can meet and how important goal is

22. Learning curve

23. Those who set realistic goals with intermediate risk feel pride with accomplishment - and want to succeed more than they fear failure - however less likely to set unrealistic or risky goals or to persist when success is unlikely

24. Reappearance of an extinguished response - even without further conditioning - after the child'S tantrum behaviour has been extinguished - the child may suddenly throw a tantrum again

25. Differential reinforcement of successive approximations; Skinner rewarded rats first for being near lever then for touching it - reward for behaviours that brought them closer to the desired one (e.g. pressing lever)

26. Part of motivation. One must be adequately aroused to learn or perform

27. Watson - everything can be explained by stimulus-response chains - chains are developed by conditioning; only objective and observable elements important

28. Does not produce a specific response on its own (e.g. light or bell)

29. Continuous motions easier to learn - once started continues naturally - bike; discrete divided into parts and do not facilitate recall of each other - setting up chessboard

30. By having an apparatus (e.g. lever) - an animal controls its reinforcements (e.g. food) through behaviours (e.g. pressing) - shaping its own behaviour

31. Previous learning helps learning of another task later

32. Links together chains of stimuli and responses - learns what to do in response to particular triggers (leaving a building in response to fire alarm)

33. Promotes extinction of undesirable behaviour - negative stimulus presented after behaviour to decrease likelihood of reoccurrence - Skinner thinks it is not effective in long run

34. Born with certain physiological needs - will be tension if not satisfied; when it is - return to state of homeostasis and relaxation

35. Individuals are motivated by what brings most pleasure and least pain

36. Naturally occurring response (e.g. salivation to food)

37. Motivation to reduce internal tension - once satisfied - back to homeostasis/ relaxation; against M.E. Olds electrical stimulation of pleasure centres

38. Punishment to decrease likelihood of a behaviour - ex: drug Antabuse to treat alcoholism

39. Skinner - instrumental conditioning; behaviour primarily influenced by reinforcement strategies - do what rewards - not what doesn'T

40. Approach-avoidance conflict; state felt when a goal has both pros and cons - typically focus on pros when far from goal - cons when close to goal

41. Learned reinforce - often through society; money - prestige - rewards

42. later proved experimentally - Classical conditioning

43. Learn 3-20 - constant 20-50 - drops 50+

44. Motivated to do what they do not want to do by rewarding themselves afterwards with something they like to do - Eat dessert after eating unwanted vegetable

45. Ability to discriminate between different but similar stimuli (door bell is different from phone ringing)

46. Opposite of stimulus discrimination; make same response to a group of similar stimuli (e.g. fire alarms may sound different but same response)

47. Decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus due to increasing familiarity

48. Students working on a project in small groups

49. Rewards delivered after differing time periods; second most effective strategy in maintaining behaviour

50. Parents reduce temper in child by not giving into - reinforcing behavior