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GRE Psychology: Learning

Subjects : gre, psychology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Those who set realistic goals with intermediate risk feel pride with accomplishment - and want to succeed more than they fear failure - however less likely to set unrealistic or risky goals or to persist when success is unlikely






2. Evoking responses of autonomic nervous system through training






3. Not-so-neutral stimulus - elicits response without conditioning (e.g. salivation)






4. Pavlovian conditioning; teaching a response (relationship) to neutral stimulus by pairing with not-so-neutral stimulus






5. Decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus due to increasing familiarity






6. Most time to learn but least likely to be extinguished; reinforcements are delivered after different numbers of correct responses - ratio cannot be predicted






7. Learning and behaving by imitation; Albert Bandura'S Bobo doll (children watching adults with blow up dolls)






8. Born with certain physiological needs - will be tension if not satisfied; when it is - return to state of homeostasis and relaxation






9. Natural reinforcement - without requirement of learning; food and water






10. Disassociate car from vet by taking dog on frequent car trip to the park






11. Skinner - instrumental conditioning; behaviour primarily influenced by reinforcement strategies - do what rewards - not what doesn'T






12. Part of motivation. One must be adequately aroused to learn or perform






13. How people learn in educational settings such as student and teacher attributes






14. School of behaviourism






15. Parents reduce temper in child by not giving into - reinforcing behavior






16. Thorndike - precursor of operant conditioning - Cause-and-effect chain of behaviour; continue what rewards - stop what doesn'T






17. Reappearance of an extinguished response - even without further conditioning - after the child'S tantrum behaviour has been extinguished - the child may suddenly throw a tantrum again






18. Punishment to decrease likelihood of a behaviour - ex: drug Antabuse to treat alcoholism






19. Reversal of conditioning - dissociating behaviour from a cue - Repeatedly withholding reinforcement or disassociating the behavior from a cue






20. Learning about something in general (history) for knowledge rather than learning-specific stimulus-response chains (e.g. Tolman'S experiments with animals forming cognitive maps of mazes rather than simple escape routes)






21. Motivation to reduce internal tension - once satisfied - back to homeostasis/ relaxation; against M.E. Olds electrical stimulation of pleasure centres






22. Motivated to do what they do not want to do by rewarding themselves afterwards with something they like to do - Eat dessert after eating unwanted vegetable






23. Approach-avoidance conflict; state felt when a goal has both pros and cons - typically focus on pros when far from goal - cons when close to goal






24. Every correct response is met with reinforcement; quickest but most fragile learning - as soon as rewards stop coming - the animal stops performing






25. Learned reinforce - often through society; money - prestige - rewards






26. Links together chains of stimuli and responses - learns what to do in response to particular triggers (leaving a building in response to fire alarm)






27. What a person learns in one state is best recalled in that state






28. How to avoid something undesirable






29. Watson - everything can be explained by stimulus-response chains - chains are developed by conditioning; only objective and observable elements important






30. Performance = Expectation x Value; expectancy-value theory; goals they expect they can meet and how important goal is






31. Reinforcement delivered after a consistent number of responses; vulnerable to extinction






32. Promotes extinction of undesirable behaviour - negative stimulus presented after behaviour to decrease likelihood of reoccurrence - Skinner thinks it is not effective in long run






33. Neutral stimulus once paired with UCS; no naturally occurring response - only with UCS pairing (e.g. light (CS) eventually produces salivation)






34. John Garcia - Certain associations are learned more easily than others - Nausea & food can be paired easily - but light and nausea cannot be paired






35. Relatively permanent or stable change in behaviour as the result of experience






36. Associative or dissociative attitudes on 7pt scale toward objects


37. CS presented after UCS (e.g. food - then light); proven ineffective; accomplishes only inhibitory conditioning - harder time pairing CS with UCS later even with forward conditioning






38. Theory of association






39. Shaping; Skinner rewarded rats first for being near lever then for touching it - reward for behaviours that brought them closer to the desired one (e.g. pressing lever)






40. Set of characteristics indicative of one'S ability to learn






41. Primary/instinctual (hunger or thirst) - secondary/ acquired (money or other learned reinforcers) - exploratory (seek novelty or explore) - We are primarily motivated to maintain physiological or psychological homeostasis.






42. Rewards after a certain period of time rather than number of behaviours; can be argued that it does little to motivate an animal'S behaviour






43. Law of effect






44. Simultaneous - higher-order/second-order - delayed forward - trace forward - backward






45. Takes place without reinforcement - knowledge not immediately expressed - e.g. learning while watching chess






46. Response that CS elicits after conditioning; UCR and CR will be the same (e.g. salivation)






47. Naturally occurring response (e.g. salivation to food)






48. Higher arousal for simple tasks (motivation) - lower arousal for complex tasks (concentration); optimal arousal is an inverted U on a graph - Y-axis: performance - X-axis: arousal - Difficult task --> upside-down U shape - Simple task --> reaches pea






49. Learning by watching






50. later proved experimentally - Classical conditioning