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GRE Psychology: Memory

Subjects : gre, psychology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. General knowledge of the world

2. Details - events - discrete knowledge

3. Memory involves changes in synpases and neural pathways to make a memory tree

4. The way behaviourists explain memory; one item learned with - then cues the recall of - another

5. Dual code hypothesis

6. Memory of traumatic events altered by event and by the phrasing of questions (e.g. 'how fast were the cars going when they crashed' vs 'what was the rate of the cars upon impact'); relevant in law-psychology such as witness testimony

7. Knowing something and being consciously aware of knowing it - such as knowing a fact

8. Tendency to group similar items in memory whether learned together or not - often into conceptual or semantic hierarchies

9. It takes longer to make association between pictures than between words --> Pictures must be mentally put into words before associations can be made

10. Recall begins with task Ex: fill-in-the-blank' test

11. Forgetting theory - memories fade with time

12. A list of items is learned - and then must be recalled in any order with no cue.

13. Recollections that seem burned into memory - especially traumatic ones

14. Repeating material to hold in STM

15. Learned and recalled in order; primacy and recency effects; serial-position U-curve demonstrates savings

16. Patient 'HM' lesion of hippocampus - remembered things before surgery - STM intact - but could not store new LTMs (anterograde amnesia)

17. Memories are stored diffusely in the brain

18. Allan Paivio - items better remembered if encoded both visually and semantically (icons/images+understanding)

19. Measured through presenting subjects with items they are not supposed to try to memorize - then test for learning

20. Memory cues that aid learning and recall (e.g. OCEAN for the Big Five factors of personality...)

21. Proactive interference causes proactive inhibition - retroactive interference causes retroactive inhibition

22. Memory is reconstructive rather than rote - People are more likely to remember ideas/semantics more than details/grammar

23. Sensory memory for auditory sensations

24. Organizing and understanding material to transfer to LTM

25. Instrument used to present visual material (words/images) to subjects for a fraction of a second - in cognitive or memory experiments

26. Learning and recall depend on depth of processing; from most superficial phonological (pronunciation) to deep semantic level - the deeper the easier to learn and recall

27. Sensory - short term - long term

28. Tendency to recall pursued but incomplete tasks better than completed ones - Students who suspend their study - during which they do unrelated activities (such as studying unrelated subjects or playing games) - will remember material better than stud

29. By studying sea slug Aplysia - similar ideas to Donald Hebb involving synaptic and neural pathway changes in memory; young chicks brains are altered with learning and memory

30. When subjects are exposed to bright flash or new pattern before the iconic image fades - the 1st image will be erased

31. Disrupting information that was learned prior to new items were presented

32. Key to transferring items to LTM; primary (maintenance) rehearsal - secondary (elaborative) rehearsal

33. Temporary - seconds or minutes - largely auditory - items coded phonologically - 7+/- 2 capacity - chunking - subjective to interference and inhibition

34. STM capacity of 72

35. Ebbinghaus - sharp drop in savings immediately after learning then levels off downwards; but some psychologists doubt generalization from nonsense syllables

36. Forgetting theory - competing information blocks retrieval (study: memorize list - one group sleeps while other group solves riddles for same amount of time - slept is likelier to remember more)

37. LTM is subject to...material is easier to be remembered if retrieved in same context as learning/storage

38. Retrieval is better if in the same emotional or physical state as encoding - depressed individuals cannot easily recall happy memories - alcoholics often remember details of their last drinking session only when under the influence of alcohol

39. Knowing a fact

40. Recall without any cue

41. Temporary memory needed to perform the task that someone is working on at that moment

42. The first and last few items learned are easiest to remember. first items are due to the benefit of most rehearsal and exposure. last item is easy to remember because there has been less time for decay

43. Disrupting information that was learned after new items were presented

44. Used when studying foreign languages - we pair that language word with English word

45. Iconic memory people could see more than they can remember

46. Measures how much info remains in LTM (information retention) by assessing how long it takes to learn something the second time

47. Generate information on their own; cued and free

48. Similar to serial learning but asked to recall one item at a time

49. Decay (or trace) and interference theory

50. Primary and recency effects