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GRE Psychology: Memory

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Recollections that seem burned into memory - especially traumatic ones

2. Memory involves changes in synpases and neural pathways to make a memory tree

3. Sensory memory for auditory sensations

4. Knowing something and being consciously aware of knowing it - such as knowing a fact

5. Anything one might recall is easily recognized - multiple-choice test is easier than essay test

6. Tendency to recall pursued but incomplete tasks better than completed ones - Students who suspend their study - during which they do unrelated activities (such as studying unrelated subjects or playing games) - will remember material better than stud

7. Learning and recall depend on depth of processing; from most superficial phonological (pronunciation) to deep semantic level - the deeper the easier to learn and recall

8. Memory cues that aid learning and recall (e.g. OCEAN for the Big Five factors of personality...)

9. Knowing something without being aware of knowing it 'HM' --> cannot remember anything he did

10. Serial learning Serial-anticipation learning Paired-associate learning Free-recall learning

11. Patient 'HM' lesion of hippocampus - remembered things before surgery - STM intact - but could not store new LTMs (anterograde amnesia)

12. By studying sea slug Aplysia - similar ideas to Donald Hebb involving synaptic and neural pathway changes in memory; young chicks brains are altered with learning and memory

13. Learned and recalled in order; primacy and recency effects; serial-position U-curve demonstrates savings

14. Knowing how to do something

15. Repeating material to hold in STM

16. Decay (or trace) and interference theory

17. Temporary - seconds or minutes - largely auditory - items coded phonologically - 7+/- 2 capacity - chunking - subjective to interference and inhibition

18. Requires subjects to recognize things learned in the past - Multiple choice test

19. Details - events - discrete knowledge

20. Knowing a fact

21. Memory of traumatic events altered by event and by the phrasing of questions (e.g. 'how fast were the cars going when they crashed' vs 'what was the rate of the cars upon impact'); relevant in law-psychology such as witness testimony

22. Acoustic dissimilarity - semantic dissimilarity - brevity - familiarity - concreteness - meaning - importance to subject

23. Tendency to group similar items in memory whether learned together or not - often into conceptual or semantic hierarchies

24. Iconic memory people could see more than they can remember

25. Recall without any cue

26. Proactive interference causes proactive inhibition - retroactive interference causes retroactive inhibition

27. Similar to serial learning but asked to recall one item at a time

28. Measured through presenting subjects with items they are not supposed to try to memorize - then test for learning

29. Photographic memory - more common in children and rural

30. Grouping items can increase STM capacity

31. Forgetting theory - memories fade with time

32. Recall begins with task Ex: fill-in-the-blank' test

33. Temporary memory needed to perform the task that someone is working on at that moment

34. Forgetting theory - competing information blocks retrieval (study: memorize list - one group sleeps while other group solves riddles for same amount of time - slept is likelier to remember more)

35. Disrupting information that was learned after new items were presented

36. Key to transferring items to LTM; primary (maintenance) rehearsal - secondary (elaborative) rehearsal

37. Termed icon for brief visual memory

38. Disrupting information that was learned prior to new items were presented

39. Measures how much info remains in LTM (information retention) by assessing how long it takes to learn something the second time

40. STM capacity of 7±2

41. Instrument used to present visual material (words/images) to subjects for a fraction of a second - in cognitive or memory experiments

42. Memories are stored diffusely in the brain

43. Used when studying foreign languages - we pair that language word with English word

44. Forgetting curve; lists of nonsense syllables to study STM

45. It takes longer to make association between pictures than between words --> Pictures must be mentally put into words before associations can be made

46. General knowledge of the world

47. Retrieval is better if in the same emotional or physical state as encoding - depressed individuals cannot easily recall happy memories - alcoholics often remember details of their last drinking session only when under the influence of alcohol

48. Primary and recency effects

49. LTM is subject to...material is easier to be remembered if retrieved in same context as learning/storage

50. Sensory - short term - long term