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GRE Psychology: Memory

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Knowing a fact

2. Memory is reconstructive rather than rote - People are more likely to remember ideas/semantics more than details/grammar

3. Termed icon for brief visual memory

4. Knowing something without being aware of knowing it 'HM' --> cannot remember anything he did

5. Memory cues that aid learning and recall (e.g. OCEAN for the Big Five factors of personality...)

6. General knowledge of the world

7. Anything one might recall is easily recognized - multiple-choice test is easier than essay test

8. Decay (or trace) and interference theory

9. Temporary - seconds or minutes - largely auditory - items coded phonologically - 7+/- 2 capacity - chunking - subjective to interference and inhibition

10. On the verge of retrieval

11. Recall begins with task Ex: fill-in-the-blank' test

12. Patient 'HM' lesion of hippocampus - remembered things before surgery - STM intact - but could not store new LTMs (anterograde amnesia)

13. Serial learning Serial-anticipation learning Paired-associate learning Free-recall learning

14. Memory of traumatic events altered by event and by the phrasing of questions (e.g. 'how fast were the cars going when they crashed' vs 'what was the rate of the cars upon impact'); relevant in law-psychology such as witness testimony

15. Acoustic dissimilarity - semantic dissimilarity - brevity - familiarity - concreteness - meaning - importance to subject

16. Coined by Neisser - --> brief visual memory that lasts about one second

17. Allan Paivio - items better remembered if encoded both visually and semantically (icons/images+understanding)

18. Measures how much info remains in LTM (information retention) by assessing how long it takes to learn something the second time

19. Disrupting information that was learned after new items were presented

20. By studying sea slug Aplysia - similar ideas to Donald Hebb involving synaptic and neural pathway changes in memory; young chicks brains are altered with learning and memory

21. Primary and recency effects

22. Knowing how to do something

23. Sensory memory for auditory sensations

24. Photographic memory - more common in children and rural

25. Subjects more easily state the order of two items far apart on the list than two items close together - Comparing 7 & 597 vs. comparing 133 vs. 136

26. Dual code hypothesis

27. Used when studying foreign languages - we pair that language word with English word

28. STM capacity of 72

29. Tendency to recall pursued but incomplete tasks better than completed ones - Students who suspend their study - during which they do unrelated activities (such as studying unrelated subjects or playing games) - will remember material better than stud

30. Disrupting information that was learned prior to new items were presented

31. When subjects are exposed to bright flash or new pattern before the iconic image fades - the 1st image will be erased

32. Key to transferring items to LTM; primary (maintenance) rehearsal - secondary (elaborative) rehearsal

33. Ebbinghaus - sharp drop in savings immediately after learning then levels off downwards; but some psychologists doubt generalization from nonsense syllables

34. LTM is subject to...material is easier to be remembered if retrieved in same context as learning/storage

35. Forgetting curve; lists of nonsense syllables to study STM

36. The first and last few items learned are easiest to remember. first items are due to the benefit of most rehearsal and exposure. last item is easy to remember because there has been less time for decay

37. Learning and recall depend on depth of processing; from most superficial phonological (pronunciation) to deep semantic level - the deeper the easier to learn and recall

38. A list of items is learned - and then must be recalled in any order with no cue.

39. Measured through presenting subjects with items they are not supposed to try to memorize - then test for learning

40. Grouping items can increase STM capacity

41. The way behaviourists explain memory; one item learned with - then cues the recall of - another

42. Tendency to group similar items in memory whether learned together or not - often into conceptual or semantic hierarchies

43. Knowing something and being consciously aware of knowing it - such as knowing a fact

44. Temporary memory needed to perform the task that someone is working on at that moment

45. Similar to serial learning but asked to recall one item at a time

46. Organizing and understanding material to transfer to LTM

47. Requires subjects to recognize things learned in the past - Multiple choice test

48. Forgetting theory - memories fade with time

49. Memory involves changes in synpases and neural pathways to make a memory tree

50. Recollections that seem burned into memory - especially traumatic ones