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GRE Psychology: Memory

Subjects : gre, psychology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Knowing a fact






2. Memory is reconstructive rather than rote - People are more likely to remember ideas/semantics more than details/grammar






3. Termed icon for brief visual memory






4. Knowing something without being aware of knowing it 'HM' --> cannot remember anything he did






5. Memory cues that aid learning and recall (e.g. OCEAN for the Big Five factors of personality...)






6. General knowledge of the world






7. Anything one might recall is easily recognized - multiple-choice test is easier than essay test






8. Decay (or trace) and interference theory






9. Temporary - seconds or minutes - largely auditory - items coded phonologically - 7+/- 2 capacity - chunking - subjective to interference and inhibition






10. On the verge of retrieval






11. Recall begins with task Ex: fill-in-the-blank' test






12. Patient 'HM' lesion of hippocampus - remembered things before surgery - STM intact - but could not store new LTMs (anterograde amnesia)






13. Serial learning Serial-anticipation learning Paired-associate learning Free-recall learning






14. Memory of traumatic events altered by event and by the phrasing of questions (e.g. 'how fast were the cars going when they crashed' vs 'what was the rate of the cars upon impact'); relevant in law-psychology such as witness testimony






15. Acoustic dissimilarity - semantic dissimilarity - brevity - familiarity - concreteness - meaning - importance to subject






16. Coined by Neisser - --> brief visual memory that lasts about one second






17. Allan Paivio - items better remembered if encoded both visually and semantically (icons/images+understanding)






18. Measures how much info remains in LTM (information retention) by assessing how long it takes to learn something the second time






19. Disrupting information that was learned after new items were presented






20. By studying sea slug Aplysia - similar ideas to Donald Hebb involving synaptic and neural pathway changes in memory; young chicks brains are altered with learning and memory






21. Primary and recency effects






22. Knowing how to do something






23. Sensory memory for auditory sensations






24. Photographic memory - more common in children and rural






25. Subjects more easily state the order of two items far apart on the list than two items close together - Comparing 7 & 597 vs. comparing 133 vs. 136






26. Dual code hypothesis






27. Used when studying foreign languages - we pair that language word with English word






28. STM capacity of 72






29. Tendency to recall pursued but incomplete tasks better than completed ones - Students who suspend their study - during which they do unrelated activities (such as studying unrelated subjects or playing games) - will remember material better than stud






30. Disrupting information that was learned prior to new items were presented






31. When subjects are exposed to bright flash or new pattern before the iconic image fades - the 1st image will be erased






32. Key to transferring items to LTM; primary (maintenance) rehearsal - secondary (elaborative) rehearsal






33. Ebbinghaus - sharp drop in savings immediately after learning then levels off downwards; but some psychologists doubt generalization from nonsense syllables






34. LTM is subject to...material is easier to be remembered if retrieved in same context as learning/storage






35. Forgetting curve; lists of nonsense syllables to study STM






36. The first and last few items learned are easiest to remember. first items are due to the benefit of most rehearsal and exposure. last item is easy to remember because there has been less time for decay






37. Learning and recall depend on depth of processing; from most superficial phonological (pronunciation) to deep semantic level - the deeper the easier to learn and recall






38. A list of items is learned - and then must be recalled in any order with no cue.






39. Measured through presenting subjects with items they are not supposed to try to memorize - then test for learning






40. Grouping items can increase STM capacity






41. The way behaviourists explain memory; one item learned with - then cues the recall of - another






42. Tendency to group similar items in memory whether learned together or not - often into conceptual or semantic hierarchies






43. Knowing something and being consciously aware of knowing it - such as knowing a fact






44. Temporary memory needed to perform the task that someone is working on at that moment






45. Similar to serial learning but asked to recall one item at a time






46. Organizing and understanding material to transfer to LTM






47. Requires subjects to recognize things learned in the past - Multiple choice test






48. Forgetting theory - memories fade with time






49. Memory involves changes in synpases and neural pathways to make a memory tree






50. Recollections that seem burned into memory - especially traumatic ones