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GRE Psychology: Memory

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Disrupting information that was learned after new items were presented

2. Acoustic dissimilarity - semantic dissimilarity - brevity - familiarity - concreteness - meaning - importance to subject

3. Temporary - seconds or minutes - largely auditory - items coded phonologically - 7+/- 2 capacity - chunking - subjective to interference and inhibition

4. Sperling - sensory memory for vision - people could see more than they can remember - a partial report in an experiment involving random letters showed people forgot other letters by the time they wrote first ones down

5. Forgetting theory - competing information blocks retrieval (study: memorize list - one group sleeps while other group solves riddles for same amount of time - slept is likelier to remember more)

6. Tendency to group similar items in memory whether learned together or not - often into conceptual or semantic hierarchies

7. Allan Paivio - items better remembered if encoded both visually and semantically (icons/images+understanding)

8. A list of items is learned - and then must be recalled in any order with no cue.

9. General knowledge of the world

10. Photographic memory - more common in children and rural

11. Forgetting curve; lists of nonsense syllables to study STM

12. On the verge of retrieval

13. Memory is reconstructive rather than rote - People are more likely to remember ideas/semantics more than details/grammar

14. By studying sea slug Aplysia - similar ideas to Donald Hebb involving synaptic and neural pathway changes in memory; young chicks brains are altered with learning and memory

15. Memories are stored diffusely in the brain

16. Disrupting information that was learned prior to new items were presented

17. The first and last few items learned are easiest to remember. first items are due to the benefit of most rehearsal and exposure. last item is easy to remember because there has been less time for decay

18. Last seconds - connects perception and memory - includes iconic and echoic memory

19. Patient 'HM' lesion of hippocampus - remembered things before surgery - STM intact - but could not store new LTMs (anterograde amnesia)

20. Ebbinghaus - sharp drop in savings immediately after learning then levels off downwards; but some psychologists doubt generalization from nonsense syllables

21. Capable of permanent retention - most learned semantically for meaning - measured by recognition - recall - and savings - Subject to encoding specificity principle - but not primacy/recency effects

22. Measured through presenting subjects with items they are not supposed to try to memorize - then test for learning

23. Sensory memory for auditory sensations

24. Proactive interference causes proactive inhibition - retroactive interference causes retroactive inhibition

25. Repeating material to hold in STM

26. LTM is subject to...material is easier to be remembered if retrieved in same context as learning/storage

27. Measures how much info remains in LTM (information retention) by assessing how long it takes to learn something the second time

28. Anything one might recall is easily recognized - multiple-choice test is easier than essay test

29. Memory of traumatic events altered by event and by the phrasing of questions (e.g. 'how fast were the cars going when they crashed' vs 'what was the rate of the cars upon impact'); relevant in law-psychology such as witness testimony

30. Knowing something without being aware of knowing it 'HM' --> cannot remember anything he did

31. Retrieval is better if in the same emotional or physical state as encoding - depressed individuals cannot easily recall happy memories - alcoholics often remember details of their last drinking session only when under the influence of alcohol

32. Used when studying foreign languages - we pair that language word with English word

33. Termed icon for brief visual memory

34. Iconic memory people could see more than they can remember

35. Memory involves changes in synpases and neural pathways to make a memory tree

36. Recall begins with task Ex: fill-in-the-blank' test

37. Recall without any cue

38. When subjects are exposed to bright flash or new pattern before the iconic image fades - the 1st image will be erased

39. Coined by Neisser - --> brief visual memory that lasts about one second

40. Recollections that seem burned into memory - especially traumatic ones

41. It takes longer to make association between pictures than between words --> Pictures must be mentally put into words before associations can be made

42. Tendency to recall pursued but incomplete tasks better than completed ones - Students who suspend their study - during which they do unrelated activities (such as studying unrelated subjects or playing games) - will remember material better than stud

43. STM capacity of 72

44. Memory cues that aid learning and recall (e.g. OCEAN for the Big Five factors of personality...)

45. Key to transferring items to LTM; primary (maintenance) rehearsal - secondary (elaborative) rehearsal

46. Requires subjects to recognize things learned in the past - Multiple choice test

47. Generate information on their own; cued and free

48. Grouping items can increase STM capacity

49. Decay (or trace) and interference theory

50. The way behaviourists explain memory; one item learned with - then cues the recall of - another