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GRE Psychology: Memory

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Photographic memory - more common in children and rural

2. Organizing and understanding material to transfer to LTM

3. Recollections that seem burned into memory - especially traumatic ones

4. Acoustic dissimilarity - semantic dissimilarity - brevity - familiarity - concreteness - meaning - importance to subject

5. Memories are stored diffusely in the brain

6. Instrument used to present visual material (words/images) to subjects for a fraction of a second - in cognitive or memory experiments

7. Coined by Neisser - --> brief visual memory that lasts about one second

8. By studying sea slug Aplysia - similar ideas to Donald Hebb involving synaptic and neural pathway changes in memory; young chicks brains are altered with learning and memory

9. Measures how much info remains in LTM (information retention) by assessing how long it takes to learn something the second time

10. Anything one might recall is easily recognized - multiple-choice test is easier than essay test

11. Decay (or trace) and interference theory

12. Sperling - sensory memory for vision - people could see more than they can remember - a partial report in an experiment involving random letters showed people forgot other letters by the time they wrote first ones down

13. Subjects more easily state the order of two items far apart on the list than two items close together - Comparing 7 & 597 vs. comparing 133 vs. 136

14. Capable of permanent retention - most learned semantically for meaning - measured by recognition - recall - and savings - Subject to encoding specificity principle - but not primacy/recency effects

15. Memory is reconstructive rather than rote - People are more likely to remember ideas/semantics more than details/grammar

16. Last seconds - connects perception and memory - includes iconic and echoic memory

17. It takes longer to make association between pictures than between words --> Pictures must be mentally put into words before associations can be made

18. Retrieval is better if in the same emotional or physical state as encoding - depressed individuals cannot easily recall happy memories - alcoholics often remember details of their last drinking session only when under the influence of alcohol

19. Grouping items can increase STM capacity

20. Proactive interference causes proactive inhibition - retroactive interference causes retroactive inhibition

21. Memory involves changes in synpases and neural pathways to make a memory tree

22. Primary and recency effects

23. Disrupting information that was learned prior to new items were presented

24. Measured through presenting subjects with items they are not supposed to try to memorize - then test for learning

25. Generate information on their own; cued and free

26. Details - events - discrete knowledge

27. Recall without any cue

28. Sensory memory for auditory sensations

29. Sensory - short term - long term

30. A list of items is learned - and then must be recalled in any order with no cue.

31. When subjects are exposed to bright flash or new pattern before the iconic image fades - the 1st image will be erased

32. Ebbinghaus - sharp drop in savings immediately after learning then levels off downwards; but some psychologists doubt generalization from nonsense syllables

33. Memory cues that aid learning and recall (e.g. OCEAN for the Big Five factors of personality...)

34. The way behaviourists explain memory; one item learned with - then cues the recall of - another

35. Tendency to recall pursued but incomplete tasks better than completed ones - Students who suspend their study - during which they do unrelated activities (such as studying unrelated subjects or playing games) - will remember material better than stud

36. Key to transferring items to LTM; primary (maintenance) rehearsal - secondary (elaborative) rehearsal

37. On the verge of retrieval

38. STM capacity of 72

39. Tendency to group similar items in memory whether learned together or not - often into conceptual or semantic hierarchies

40. Requires subjects to recognize things learned in the past - Multiple choice test

41. Knowing how to do something

42. Temporary - seconds or minutes - largely auditory - items coded phonologically - 7+/- 2 capacity - chunking - subjective to interference and inhibition

43. Forgetting theory - memories fade with time

44. Used when studying foreign languages - we pair that language word with English word

45. Forgetting theory - competing information blocks retrieval (study: memorize list - one group sleeps while other group solves riddles for same amount of time - slept is likelier to remember more)

46. Knowing something and being consciously aware of knowing it - such as knowing a fact

47. Allan Paivio - items better remembered if encoded both visually and semantically (icons/images+understanding)

48. Memory of traumatic events altered by event and by the phrasing of questions (e.g. 'how fast were the cars going when they crashed' vs 'what was the rate of the cars upon impact'); relevant in law-psychology such as witness testimony

49. The first and last few items learned are easiest to remember. first items are due to the benefit of most rehearsal and exposure. last item is easy to remember because there has been less time for decay

50. General knowledge of the world