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GRE Psychology: Memory

Subjects : gre, psychology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. General knowledge of the world






2. Details - events - discrete knowledge






3. Memory involves changes in synpases and neural pathways to make a memory tree






4. The way behaviourists explain memory; one item learned with - then cues the recall of - another






5. Dual code hypothesis






6. Memory of traumatic events altered by event and by the phrasing of questions (e.g. 'how fast were the cars going when they crashed' vs 'what was the rate of the cars upon impact'); relevant in law-psychology such as witness testimony






7. Knowing something and being consciously aware of knowing it - such as knowing a fact






8. Tendency to group similar items in memory whether learned together or not - often into conceptual or semantic hierarchies






9. It takes longer to make association between pictures than between words --> Pictures must be mentally put into words before associations can be made






10. Recall begins with task Ex: fill-in-the-blank' test






11. Forgetting theory - memories fade with time






12. A list of items is learned - and then must be recalled in any order with no cue.






13. Recollections that seem burned into memory - especially traumatic ones






14. Repeating material to hold in STM






15. Learned and recalled in order; primacy and recency effects; serial-position U-curve demonstrates savings






16. Patient 'HM' lesion of hippocampus - remembered things before surgery - STM intact - but could not store new LTMs (anterograde amnesia)






17. Memories are stored diffusely in the brain






18. Allan Paivio - items better remembered if encoded both visually and semantically (icons/images+understanding)






19. Measured through presenting subjects with items they are not supposed to try to memorize - then test for learning






20. Memory cues that aid learning and recall (e.g. OCEAN for the Big Five factors of personality...)






21. Proactive interference causes proactive inhibition - retroactive interference causes retroactive inhibition






22. Memory is reconstructive rather than rote - People are more likely to remember ideas/semantics more than details/grammar






23. Sensory memory for auditory sensations






24. Organizing and understanding material to transfer to LTM






25. Instrument used to present visual material (words/images) to subjects for a fraction of a second - in cognitive or memory experiments






26. Learning and recall depend on depth of processing; from most superficial phonological (pronunciation) to deep semantic level - the deeper the easier to learn and recall






27. Sensory - short term - long term






28. Tendency to recall pursued but incomplete tasks better than completed ones - Students who suspend their study - during which they do unrelated activities (such as studying unrelated subjects or playing games) - will remember material better than stud






29. By studying sea slug Aplysia - similar ideas to Donald Hebb involving synaptic and neural pathway changes in memory; young chicks brains are altered with learning and memory






30. When subjects are exposed to bright flash or new pattern before the iconic image fades - the 1st image will be erased






31. Disrupting information that was learned prior to new items were presented






32. Key to transferring items to LTM; primary (maintenance) rehearsal - secondary (elaborative) rehearsal






33. Temporary - seconds or minutes - largely auditory - items coded phonologically - 7+/- 2 capacity - chunking - subjective to interference and inhibition






34. STM capacity of 72






35. Ebbinghaus - sharp drop in savings immediately after learning then levels off downwards; but some psychologists doubt generalization from nonsense syllables






36. Forgetting theory - competing information blocks retrieval (study: memorize list - one group sleeps while other group solves riddles for same amount of time - slept is likelier to remember more)






37. LTM is subject to...material is easier to be remembered if retrieved in same context as learning/storage






38. Retrieval is better if in the same emotional or physical state as encoding - depressed individuals cannot easily recall happy memories - alcoholics often remember details of their last drinking session only when under the influence of alcohol






39. Knowing a fact






40. Recall without any cue






41. Temporary memory needed to perform the task that someone is working on at that moment






42. The first and last few items learned are easiest to remember. first items are due to the benefit of most rehearsal and exposure. last item is easy to remember because there has been less time for decay






43. Disrupting information that was learned after new items were presented






44. Used when studying foreign languages - we pair that language word with English word






45. Iconic memory people could see more than they can remember






46. Measures how much info remains in LTM (information retention) by assessing how long it takes to learn something the second time






47. Generate information on their own; cued and free






48. Similar to serial learning but asked to recall one item at a time






49. Decay (or trace) and interference theory






50. Primary and recency effects