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GRE Psychology: Personality

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. People often make assumptions about the dispositions of an individual based on the actions of that person

2. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

3. Relatively stable characteristics of behavior that a person exhibits (trait is stable - state is more of temporary feeling or characteristics)

4. In the forefront -a combination of stable - internal factors and situations

5. Fundamental attribution error; tendency for others to think actions are caused more by personality than situation (e.g. lie because he is a liar - not because of the situation)

6. At the top a cardinal trait (always consistent) - then central traits - then secondary traits (may conflict)

7. Many argue that there is no true gender differences - children are reinforced for stereotypical behaviors - prevailing pov -> interactionist

8. Personal constructs determine personality and behaviour

9. Possibility that a person may behave inconsistently - presents problems for labelling people as one internal disposition

10. A trait; how often one generally becomes self-aware; very - if you pay a lot of attention to your self

11. Sheldon - Somatotypes' short - plump means pleasure-seeking - social

12. Dispositional attribution; tendency for others to think actions are caused more by personality than situation (e.g. lie because he is a liar - not because of the situation)

13. Somatotypes personality theory

14. Picking all possible traits out of dictionary

15. Used factor analysis to identify underlying traits of 2 personality-type dimensions (introversion-extraversion and stable-unstable [neuroticism]); - two dimensions formed a cross and four quadrants of phlegmatic - melancholic - choleric - sanguine

16. Criticized trait and type theories that both assume behaviour is stable across situations and people fail to take circumstances into account; - studies show that people often act different in different situations; consistency paradox

17. Women are twice as likely as men to become depressed

18. Skinny - fragile means inhibited - intellectual

19. Shows heritability of personality about 40-50% - identical twins separated at birth; 'Jim' twins had wives and dogs with same name - and same habits; differences shows environmental impact

20. The disposition to view the world as full of power relationships - measured by the F-scale (Fascism scale); - these individuals are either highly domineering (if top dog of situation) or submissive (as if they are in presence of a more powerfulfigure

21. Critical of personality trait theory

22. Allport; his version of the ego - believed it acted relatively consistently based on traits developed through experience

23. Cognitive training against learned helplessness

24. Personality characteristic - causes one to view events as outcome of own actions; too much breeds self-blame

25. Hierarchy of needs

26. Knowing you are worthwhile and in touch with strengths; 50% perceive selves accurately - 35% narcissistically

27. Linked Type A personality to heart disease and other health problems

28. Have a great need for arousal

29. To show personality traits exist in a person - show person exhibits those traits in a variety of situations; cognitive behaviour (e.g. formulation of and attention to prototypes) is examined in social situations; - consistency of behaviour is result

30. Capture individual'S unique - defining characteristics

31. Studies androgyny; created Bem Sex Role Inventory

32. Learned helplessness

33. Found interaction between gender and social status - how easily an individual might be influenced

34. Originally dominated personality theory (Hippocrates) - many placed into type categories based on physical appearance; including using phrenology and somatotypes

35. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and California Personality Inventory (CPI)

36. Suggested personality typology based on personal activity and social interest; ruling-dominant type (choleric; high-low) - getting-learning type (phlegmatic; low-high) - avoiding type (melancholic; low-low) - and socially useful type (sanguine; high-

37. Scrutiny of own behaviour - motivation to act appropriately rather than honestly - ability to mask true feelings

38. Believing you are better than you are or look better than you do; unrealistic self-esteem

39. Androgynous individuals have higher self-esteem - lower anxiety - more adaptability than their highly masculine or feminine counterparts

40. Found few sex differences existed that could not be explained by simple social learning; - most consistent difference that seems independent of social influence is that females have greater verbal ability and males have greater visual/spatial ability

41. Uses large numbers of people to study commonalities of personality

42. Belief that one can effectively perform a task

43. Conscious ideas about the self - others and situations

44. Emphasized idiographic approach to personality theory - as opposed to nomothetic; conscious motives governed by proprium or propriate function; lexical approach (5000 possible traits) - determined trait hierarchy of cardinal - central - secondary tra

45. Suggested females shun masculine-type successes not because of fear or failure or lack of interest - but they fear success and its negative repercussions (i.e. resentment and rejection)

46. Personality characteristic - causes one to view events as result of luck or fate; too much breeds helplessness

47. Organized categorization systems - by statistical techniques for personality

48. Only circumstances determine behavior

49. Focuses on individual'S unique self and experiences

50. 1) dispositionist 2) situationist 3) interactionists