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GRE Psychology: Physiological/behavioral Neuroscience 1

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Like neurotransmitters but cause long-term changes in postsynaptic cell

2. Of telencephalon - involves in memory- transfer STM into LTM - - new neurons can form in adult mammalian brain

3. Linked to pleasure and analgesia; can be endogenous (opioid peptides) or exogenous (morphine or heroin) - Exogenous endorphine are highly addictive

4. Made up of sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system

5. The basic unit of the nervous system - Consist of: Dentrites - cell body (soma) - axon hillock - axon - myelin sheath - nodes of Ranvier - Terminal buttons - cell membrane - synapse - glial cells

6. Where soma and axon connect

7. Made up of brain and spinal cord

8. Stage 0 & 1 non-REM sleep - low-amplitude and fast-frequency waves

9. Takes about half an hour; (0) prelude to sleep - neural synchrony; alpha waves; person is relaxed and drowsy - closes eye; (1) Eyes begin to roll. alpha waves give way to irregular theta waves; loses responsiveness to stimuli - experiences fleeting t

10. Released from the pituitary and facilitates birth and breast feeding - also involved in pair bonding (mother to child or romantic partners) -

11. PNS fibers that run towards CNS

12. Of cerebral cortex - responsible for vision

13. Changes in a nerve cell'S charge as the result of stimulation - 2 forms: excitatory postsynaptic potential and inhibitory postsynaptic potential

14. Of diencephalon - channels sensory information to cerebral cortex

15. Chemicals that stimulate nearby cells

16. ANS - controls arousal mechanisms (blood circulation - pupil dilation - threat and fear response) - Lie detector test relies on the premise -->lying activates the sympathetic nervous system and cause things like (increase heart rate - blood pressure

17. Once minimum threshold is met - intensity always the same regardless of amount of stimulation

18. Used to implant electrodes into animals' brains in experiments

19. Organizational and activational

20. Aka cell body. largest central portion - and make up gray matter - has a nucleus that directs neuron'S activity

21. Incredible rage easily provoked when cerebral cortex is removed

22. Contain synaptic vessels that hold neurotransmitters

23. Made up of somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

24. Control large voluntary muscle movements - Their degeneration is related to motor dysfunction in Parkinson'S and Huntington'S

25. Dysfunction in certain cortical association area - language disorder from damage to Wernicke'S area - in left temporal lobe; can speak but doesn'T understand how to correctly choose words (fluent but nonsensical)

26. Include dopamine - lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson'S - excess dopamine is linked with schizophrenia - dopamine is also involved in feelings of reward and therefore addiction

27. 4-6 complete ones - each about 90 minutes - early in the night most time in stage 3 and 4 - 2 and REM sleep predominate later

28. Decrease effects of a neurotransmitter (e.g. botox is an acetylecholine antagonist that decreases muscle activity)

29. Anytime during adulthood - short periods - often transient or reversible (current/recent circulation); - menstrual cycle (estradiol - progesterone - luteinizing hormone (LH) - follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)); - LH and FSH in females regulate ovum

30. Of pituitary - stress hormone - increases androgen and cortisol production

31. Divided into diencephalon and telencephalon

32. Increase effects of a neurotransmitter (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [for depression] increase serotonin activity)

33. Neuron branches - receive impulses - branching patterns change throughout life

34. Of telencephalon - structures around the brainstem involved in 4Fs (fleeing - feeding - fighting - and fornicating)

35. Of Hindbrain - aka medulla; Mainly controls for reflexes - but also controls sleep - attention - movement

36. Base in hindbrain - rest in midbrain; oldest brain area; Controls alertness - thirst - sleep - involuntary muscles (i.e. heart)

37. Measures oxygen flow in different brain areas - used most in cognitive psych to measure activity in different brain regions during certain tasks

38. Gray matter - white matter

39. Connections between brain and spine

40. Measures brain wave patterns and have made it possible to study waking and sleeping states

41. Midbrain; contains tectum and tegmentum

42. 16 hours of sleep a day - 6 hours

43. Associated with changes in hormone levels throughout the month - estradiol - progesterone - luteinizing hormone - follicle stimulating hormone

44. Process in which neural pathways are connected and then some die out (children go through these process)

45. The process after a neurotransmitter has done its job - it is reabsorbed by the presynaptic cell

46. Protects the brain by making it difficult for toxic substances to pass from the blood into the brain - since blood vessel cells in the brain are tightly packed

47. An amino acid - most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter.

48. A type of cell that help support neurons; oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells

49. PNS - interacts with external environment by controlling voluntary movements of striated muscles

50. Increase in female during puberty causes genitals to matures and secondary sex characteristics to develop