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GRE Psychology: Physiological/behavioral Neuroscience 1

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Outer half-inch of cerebral hemispheres; - sensory and intellectual functions; - split into frontal - occipital - parietal - temporal lobes; - 90% is neocortex (new in evolution - 6 layers cortex) - 10% < 6 layers and more primitive

2. A type of cell that help support neurons; oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells

3. Aka cell body. largest central portion - and make up gray matter - has a nucleus that directs neuron'S activity

4. Like neurotransmitters but cause long-term changes in postsynaptic cell

5. Decrease effects of a neurotransmitter (e.g. botox is an acetylecholine antagonist that decreases muscle activity)

6. Of cerebral cortex - responsible for vision

7. Dysfunction in certain cortical association area - difficulty processing sensory information

8. Bumps on the brainstem - controls visual reflexes

9. PNS fibers that run away from CNS (to cause effect the brain wants)

10. Neuron branches - receive impulses - branching patterns change throughout life

11. Fatty - insulating sheath on some axons for faster conduction of axon impulses

12. comprises 50% of total sleep at birth - decreases to 25% - 20% sleep time spent in this type of sleep - Interspersed with non-REM every 30-40min - where dreams are experience - characterized by neural desynchrony - also known as paradoxical sleep -->

13. 16 hours of sleep a day - 6 hours

14. Contain synaptic vessels that hold neurotransmitters

15. Changes in a nerve cell'S charge as the result of stimulation - 2 forms: excitatory postsynaptic potential and inhibitory postsynaptic potential

16. Of hindbrain - has pons(connects brain parts to spine) and cerebellum(controls muscle coordination - balance - posture)

17. Stage 1 & 2 non-REM sleep (with sleep spindles) - lower-amplitude and slower frequency waves

18. Transmits impulses of neuron - bundles of these are nerve fibers (white matter); the wider nerve fiber - the faster its conduction

19. Holds neurotransmitters

20. Protects the brain by making it difficult for toxic substances to pass from the blood into the brain - since blood vessel cells in the brain are tightly packed

21. Dysfunction in certain cortical association area - language disorder from damage to Wernicke'S area - in left temporal lobe; can speak but doesn'T understand how to correctly choose words (fluent but nonsensical)

22. Overeating with no satiation of hunger; leads to obesity; damage to ventromedial region of hypothalamus

23. Occurs when people deprived of REM sleep - compensate by spending more time in REM sleep later in the night

24. Areas on cortex that correspond to certain functions; - the larger the area - the more sensitive and highly accessed the function - Damage to a particular area would result in certain dysfunction

25. Made up of somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

26. Positron emission tomography - scans glucose metabolism to measure activity in various brain regions

27. Measures brain wave patterns and have made it possible to study waking and sleeping states

28. Dysfunction in certain cortical association area - language disorder from damage to Broca'S area - in left frontal lobe; can understand speech but has difficulty speaking (slow - laborious - omits words)

29. Organizational and activational

30. Of Hindbrain - aka medulla; Mainly controls for reflexes - but also controls sleep - attention - movement

31. Of diencephalon - controls autonomic nervous system biological motivations (hunger - thirst) and pituitary gland

32. Of mesencephalon - rest of reticular formation; Also involved in the sensorimotor system - analgesic effect of opiates

33. Occur during specific periods in development - permanent or long-lasting effects; - presence of H-Y antigen in development causes fetus to develop into a male - absence to female; - androgens in males and estrogen in females causes secondary sex cha

34. Measures oxygen flow in different brain areas - used most in cognitive psych to measure activity in different brain regions during certain tasks

35. Released from the pituitary and facilitates birth and breast feeding - also involved in pair bonding (mother to child or romantic partners) -

36. Midbrain; contains tectum and tegmentum

37. Covers whole neuron - selective permeability - sometimes lets ions (positive charge) through

38. Process in which neural pathways are connected and then some die out (children go through these process)

39. Provide myelin in central nervous system

40. Bundles of axon - Nerve fiber

41. Of telencephalon - structures around the brainstem involved in 4Fs (fleeing - feeding - fighting - and fornicating)

42. Of telencephalon - involves in memory- transfer STM into LTM - - new neurons can form in adult mammalian brain

43. Include serotonin - lack of serotonin is linked with depression

44. REM-sleep - low-amplitude and fast-frequency waves that characterize waking states

45. Dysfunction in certain cortical association area - inability to write

46. Stage 3 (less sleep spindles) & 4 non-REM sleep - high-amplitude and low-frequency - deepest level of sleep

47. PNS fibers that run towards CNS

48. Bumps seen on cortex surface

49. Anytime during adulthood - short periods - often transient or reversible (current/recent circulation); - menstrual cycle (estradiol - progesterone - luteinizing hormone (LH) - follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)); - LH and FSH in females regulate ovum

50. Comprise two classes of neurotransmitters - indolamines and catecholamines