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GRE Psychology: Physiological/behavioral Neuroscience 1

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Control large voluntary muscle movements - Their degeneration is related to motor dysfunction in Parkinson'S and Huntington'S

2. Of pituitary - stress hormone - increases androgen and cortisol production

3. Outer half-inch of cerebral hemispheres; - sensory and intellectual functions; - split into frontal - occipital - parietal - temporal lobes; - 90% is neocortex (new in evolution - 6 layers cortex) - 10% < 6 layers and more primitive

4. Of cerebral cortex - responsible for vision

5. PNS - interacts with internal environment - - Responsible for the 'fight or flight' response - - It controls the involuntary functions including movement of smooth muscles - digestion - blood circulation - breathing

6. Beginning of neuron (dendrites)

7. Provide myelin in peripheral nervous system

8. Include serotonin - lack of serotonin is linked with depression

9. Presence during development causes a fetus to develop into a male (absence cause the fetus to develop into a female)

10. PNS fibers that run away from CNS (to cause effect the brain wants)

11. Of diencephalon - channels sensory information to cerebral cortex

12. Process in which neural pathways are connected and then some die out (children go through these process)

13. Stage 1 & 2 non-REM sleep (with sleep spindles) - lower-amplitude and slower frequency waves

14. Bundles of axon - Nerve fiber

15. An amino acid - most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter

16. Increase effects of a neurotransmitter (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [for depression] increase serotonin activity)

17. Jumping from one node of Ranvier to the next due to insulation by myelin sheath

18. Gray matter - white matter

19. (1) resting potential - neuron negatively charged - cell membrane does not let ions in; (2) presynaptic cell releases neurotransmitters from terminal buttons; (3) postsynaptic receptors in postsynaptic cells detects neurotransmitter and open ion chan

20. Inner core of spine - cell bodies and dendrites

21. Consists of limbic system - hippocampus - amygdala - cingulate gyrus

22. Fast frequency bursts of brain activity - inhibits processing to keep tranquil state

23. Dysfunction in certain cortical association area - inability to read

24. Occurs when people deprived of REM sleep - compensate by spending more time in REM sleep later in the night

25. Of telencephalon - links brain areas dealing with emotion and decisions

26. REM-sleep - low-amplitude and fast-frequency waves that characterize waking states

27. Of hindbrain - has pons(connects brain parts to spine) and cerebellum(controls muscle coordination - balance - posture)

28. PNS - interacts with external environment by controlling voluntary movements of striated muscles

29. Dysfunction in certain cortical association area - inability to write

30. Of pituitary - activates thyroid

31. PNS fibers that run towards CNS

32. Of cerebral cortex - responsible for hearing - also Wernicke'S area (related to speech)

33. Present in fast-acting - directed synapses

34. Base in hindbrain - rest in midbrain; oldest brain area; Controls alertness - thirst - sleep - involuntary muscles (i.e. heart)

35. Extension of the spine - developed from base to the front

36. Connections between brain and spine

37. Consists of myelencephalon - metencephalon - and reticular formation

38. Stage 3 (less sleep spindles) & 4 non-REM sleep - high-amplitude and low-frequency - deepest level of sleep

39. Takes about half an hour; (0) prelude to sleep - neural synchrony; alpha waves; person is relaxed and drowsy - closes eye; (1) Eyes begin to roll. alpha waves give way to irregular theta waves; loses responsiveness to stimuli - experiences fleeting t

40. A type of cell that help support neurons; oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells

41. Between myelin sheath - help send impulse down axon

42. Controlled by hypothalamus - regulation of hormones in the body - The 'master gland' of the endocrine/hormone system

43. End of a neuron (terminal buttons)

44. Of mesencephalon - vision and hearing

45. Changes in a nerve cell'S charge as the result of stimulation - 2 forms: excitatory postsynaptic potential and inhibitory postsynaptic potential

46. Outer covering of spine - nerve fibers - axon bundles - myelin sheathing

47. Dysfunction in certain cortical association area - language disorder from damage to Wernicke'S area - in left temporal lobe; can speak but doesn'T understand how to correctly choose words (fluent but nonsensical)

48. Tough connective tissues that cover/protect brain and spinal cord

49. Of pituitary - regulate water levels in body and therefore BP

50. Provide myelin in central nervous system