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GRE Psychology: Physiological/behavioral Neuroscience 2

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Scouting bees look for food and nesting sites; can use landmarks as simple location cues - also sun - polarized light - and magnetic fields as aids

2. Reproductive isolating mechanism - potentially compatible species mate during different seasons

3. dominant gene always beat out recessive gene - recessive gene is not manifested unless it is paired with another recessive gene - combination of dominant and recessive genes determines what he/she looks like

4. Behaviour that solely benefits another - imilar to group mentality - will help if benefit outweighs cost or expect to be repaid

5. Very few drones (male bees) produced - only for mating with queen - same mating areas used year after year even though no bee survives from one year to the next - unknown how they know to gather there

6. Period in which a female is sexually receptive (usually used to describe non-human mammals)

7. How particular genotypes selected out or eliminated from a population over time

8. Reproductive isolating mechanism - different species breed in different areas to prevent confusion or genetic mixing

9. Birds - many birds can use star patterns and movements as navigational cue

10. Contrived breeding - mates intentionally paired to increase chances of producing offspring with particular traits

11. The study of animal behaviors - especially innate behaviors that occur in a natural habitat

12. Ability to reproduce and pass on genes

13. Prevent interbreeding between two different (but closely related / genetically compatible) species - four types: 1) behavioral isolation - 2) geographic isolation - 3) mechanical isolation - 4) isolation by season

14. Behaviours that seem out of place - illogical - and no particular survival function (e.g. scratching your head while thinking)

15. Basic unit of heredity - made of DNA molecules - organized in chromosomes - Human nucleus cells contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Chromosomes in cells act as carriers for genes - and therefore for heredity

16. Aka releasers or sign stimuli - Lorenz - continued by Tinbergen - elicits fixed action patterns from another individual in the same species

17. Form of natural selection - not the fittest that win but those with greatest chance of being chosen as a mate (best fighters - most attractive - etc)

18. Lorenz - triggered by releasing stimuli - automatic and innate - instinctual - complex chains of behaviour; four defining characteristics: 1) uniform patterns - 2) performed by most members - 3) more complex than simple reflexes - 4) cannot be interr

19. Navigate at night but do not use echolocation - like humans localize sound direction and distance by binaural cues (compare intensities - arrival times) - but better at determining elevation of sound source due to asymmetrical ears

20. Worked with chimpanzees and insight in problem solving - chimps could perceive the whole situation to create new solutions rather than by trial and error; chimps had to use tools or create props to retrieve rewards

21. Evolved form of deception - ex: harmless snakes may mimic coloration and pattern of more poisonous ones to escape predation

22. The pair up of possible dominant and recessive gene variations for each characteristic

23. Founder of ethology - imprinting - animal aggression - releasing stimuli - fixed action patterns

24. Lorez - certain aggression necessary for survival of species - instinctual rather than learned

25. coined 'fight or flight' - proposed idea homeostasis

26. Dance of the honeybees - and also studied senses of fish

27. Pigeons can hear extremely low-frequency sounds (e.g. emitted by surf) that travel great distances as a navigational cue

28. Endogenous rhythms that revolve around a 24 hour time period

29. Studied sea slug Aplysia - which have few - large - easily identifiable nerve cells (chose to study this for this reason) - learning and memory evidenced by changes in synapses and neural pathways

30. Bees dance to indicate food is far away

31. Some use map-and-compass navigation (landmarks and sun or stars) - some have true navigational abilities and can point toward their goal with no landmarks and from any position (e.g. captured birds eventually arrive at their usual goal anyway); birds

32. Instrumental learning in animals -- led to law of effect that successful behaviours are likelier to be repeated; cats in puzzle boxes: eventually accidentally press escape door lever and be free - later the cat activates lever right away

33. When animal replaces a trained or forced response with a natural or instinctive response Ex: a dog with the nature to bark at visitors thinking they are intruders might have been taught to sit quietly when a guest enters through reward and punishment

34. Internal rhythms that keep animal in sync with environment; circadian - circannual - lunar - tidal rhythms

35. Bees can see UV light - sees certain markers on flowers (honey guides) that people do not

36. Tinbergen - males develop red coloration on belly - which is the releasing stimulus for attacks; males attacked red-bellied crude models rather than the detailed but non-red models

37. Harlow - the isolated monkeys --> - the lack of interaction and socialization hampered social development - - once brought together with others - males did not display normal sexual functioning and females lacked maternal behaviours

38. Chemicals detected by vomeronasal organ - acts as messengers between animals - primitive form of communication - can transmit states such as fear or sexual receptiveness

39. Harlow - monkeys became better at learning tasks as they acquired different learning experiences - eventually learned after only one trial

40. Sperm or ovum - haploid (23 single chromosomes)

41. Reproductive isolating mechanism - courtship or display behavior of a particular species allows an individual to identify a mate within its own species

42. Made up of external characteristics (eye color - size - etc)

43. Times when a developing animal is particularly vulnerable to the effect of learning (e.g. birds learning their species' song - if reared in isolation cannot develop normal song later. and imprinting)

44. E.g. rodents reared in isolation perform instinctual nest-building but much less efficient and successful than those exposed to learning opportunities

45. Demonstrated the interaction between heredity and environment - bright rats performed better than dull only when both sets raised in normal conditions - both groups performed well in enriched environment (lots of food and activities) - both performed

46. Only one queen bee - which produces a chemical that suppresses ovaries in all other female bees - constantly tended to and fed - lays thousands of eggs in the spring; when eggs mature - scouts finds new site for old queen and her workers - a new quee

47. The internal regulation of body to main equilibrium (decrease in HR after the perceived threat is no longer present)

48. present in all normal members of a species - - stereotypic in form throughout members even for the first time - independent of learning or experience

49. Harlow - study of attachment. mother-infant attachment - -infants attach to mothers through comforting experience rather than through feeding - infants placed with two surrogate mothers (wire with feeding bottle - and terrycloth with no bottle); infa

50. Tinbergen - peck at end of parents' bills which have a red spot on the tip - parents then regurgitates food for chicks; chicks pecked more at a red-tipped model bill than at a plain model bill; the greater the contrast between bill and red spot even