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GRE Psychology: Physiological/behavioral Neuroscience 2

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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  • Match each statement with the correct term.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Made the concept of evolution scientifically plausible by asserting that natural selection was at its core

2. Animals invest in the survival of not only their own genes but also the genes of their kin

3. Contrived breeding - mates intentionally paired to increase chances of producing offspring with particular traits

4. Von Frisch - once a scouting bee locates a promising food source - returns to hive and conveys the location through movements; round or waggle dance - the longer the dance the farther the food - the more vigorous display the better food; performed on

5. Behaviour that solely benefits another - imilar to group mentality - will help if benefit outweighs cost or expect to be repaid

6. Founder of ethology - imprinting - animal aggression - releasing stimuli - fixed action patterns

7. Bees when sun is obscured by clouds - bees can use this navigational cue to infer sun positioning

8. Pigeons can hear extremely low-frequency sounds (e.g. emitted by surf) that travel great distances as a navigational cue

9. Harlow - study of attachment. mother-infant attachment - -infants attach to mothers through comforting experience rather than through feeding - infants placed with two surrogate mothers (wire with feeding bottle - and terrycloth with no bottle); infa

10. The internal regulation of body to main equilibrium (decrease in HR after the perceived threat is no longer present)

11. dominant gene always beat out recessive gene - recessive gene is not manifested unless it is paired with another recessive gene - combination of dominant and recessive genes determines what he/she looks like

12. Form of natural selection - not the fittest that win but those with greatest chance of being chosen as a mate (best fighters - most attractive - etc)

13. coined 'fight or flight' - proposed idea homeostasis

14. Tinbergen - artificial stimuli that exaggerate naturally occurring sign stimulus or releaser - more effective than natural

15. Very few drones (male bees) produced - only for mating with queen - same mating areas used year after year even though no bee survives from one year to the next - unknown how they know to gather there

16. Worked with chimpanzees and insight in problem solving - chimps could perceive the whole situation to create new solutions rather than by trial and error; chimps had to use tools or create props to retrieve rewards

17. Fertilized egg cell - two separate sets of 23 chromosomes (from each parent) come together for 23 pairs - diploid

18. Some use map-and-compass navigation (landmarks and sun or stars) - some have true navigational abilities and can point toward their goal with no landmarks and from any position (e.g. captured birds eventually arrive at their usual goal anyway); birds

19. Made up of external characteristics (eye color - size - etc)

20. Lorez - certain aggression necessary for survival of species - instinctual rather than learned

21. Lorenz - certain species (often birds) young attach to first moving object they see - displayed by a 'following response' - subjective to sensitive learning period - after that period this would not occur

22. Bees dance to indicate food is far away

23. The study of animal behaviors - especially innate behaviors that occur in a natural habitat

24. The internal physiological changes that occur in an organism in response to a perceived threat (increase in HR or respiration)

25. Reproductive isolating mechanism - different species breed in different areas to prevent confusion or genetic mixing

26. The total of all genetic material that an offspring received (23 pairs or 46 total chromosomes) - an individual'S complete genetic make up - include both dominant and recessive genes

27. How particular genotypes selected out or eliminated from a population over time

28. Demonstrated the interaction between heredity and environment - bright rats performed better than dull only when both sets raised in normal conditions - both groups performed well in enriched environment (lots of food and activities) - both performed

29. Bred 'maze bright' and 'maze full' rats to demonstrate heritability of behaviour

30. Reproductive isolating mechanism - potentially compatible species mate during different seasons

31. Reproductive isolating mechanism - courtship or display behavior of a particular species allows an individual to identify a mate within its own species

32. Dance of the honeybees - and also studied senses of fish

33. Period in which a female is sexually receptive (usually used to describe non-human mammals)

34. Founder of modern ethology - models in naturalistic settings - stickleback fish and herring gull chicks

35. Aka releasers or sign stimuli - Lorenz - continued by Tinbergen - elicits fixed action patterns from another individual in the same species

36. Reproductive isolating mechanism - different species have incompatible genital structures

37. Chemicals detected by vomeronasal organ - acts as messengers between animals - primitive form of communication - can transmit states such as fear or sexual receptiveness

38. The pair up of possible dominant and recessive gene variations for each characteristic

39. Experiments that attempt to separate effects of heredity and environment - sibling mice separated at birth and placed with different parents or situations; later differences in aggression attributed to experience rather than genetics

40. Harlow - monkeys became better at learning tasks as they acquired different learning experiences - eventually learned after only one trial

41. Atmospheric pressure - infrasound - magnetic sense - sun compass - star compass - polarized light

42. Learning happens through trial - error and accidental success - animals then act based on previous successes

43. present in all normal members of a species - - stereotypic in form throughout members even for the first time - independent of learning or experience

44. Times when a developing animal is particularly vulnerable to the effect of learning (e.g. birds learning their species' song - if reared in isolation cannot develop normal song later. and imprinting)

45. Structural differences between sexes - arisen through both natural and sexual selections

46. Bees can see UV light - sees certain markers on flowers (honey guides) that people do not

47. Lorenz - triggered by releasing stimuli - automatic and innate - instinctual - complex chains of behaviour; four defining characteristics: 1) uniform patterns - 2) performed by most members - 3) more complex than simple reflexes - 4) cannot be interr

48. Behaviours that precede sexual acts that lead to reproduction - to attract and isolate a mate

49. Prevent interbreeding between two different (but closely related / genetically compatible) species - four types: 1) behavioral isolation - 2) geographic isolation - 3) mechanical isolation - 4) isolation by season

50. Basic unit of heredity - made of DNA molecules - organized in chromosomes - Human nucleus cells contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Chromosomes in cells act as carriers for genes - and therefore for heredity