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GRE Psychology: Social Psychology

Subjects : gre, psychology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Assuming 2 unrelated things are related

2. Cross-cultural research; Eastern countries value interdependence over independence; for example - in Japan - individuals likelier to demonstrate conformity - modesty - and pessimism; where in the U.S. - likelier to show optimism - self-enhancement -

3. The tendency that the larger the group - the less likely individuals in the group will act or take responsibility - result of deindividuation (Kitty Genovese care)

4. Humans interact in ways that maximize reward and minimize costs

5. People act in order to obtain gain and avoid loss; people favour situations that start out negative and end positive - even compared to completely positive situations

6. Frustration-aggression hypothesis

7. Groupthink

8. Heider; how people infer causes of other'S behaviour; attribute intentions and emotions to almost anything - even shapes on a screen; 3 elements: locus - stability - controllability

9. Sales tactic - persuader ask for more than they would ever get and then 'Settle' for less

10. Refusal to conform - may occur as result of blatant attempt to control; will not conform if forewarned that others will try to change them

11. Doing a small favour makes people more willing to do larger ones later

12. Illusion of control

13. Presence of others helps with easy tasks but hinders complex tasks

14. Thinking if someone has a good quality then he has only good qualities

15. Fischbein and Ajzen; people'S behaviour in a given situation is determined by attitude about situation and social norms; perceived behavioural control - attitude toward behaviour - behavioural intentions - subjective social norms; grounded in various

16. Likely to occur in a group with unquestioned beliefs - pressure to conform - invulnerability - censors - cohesiveness - isolation - strong leader; to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critical testing - analyzing - or evaluating

17. Inoculation theory

18. Persuasive communication from a source of low credibility may become more acceptable later; perhaps memory+discounting cue is severed over time - later recalling a source is less available - or differential decay: impact of cue decays faster than mes

19. Self-perception theory

20. Tendency to make simple explanations for complex events - people hold onto original ideas about cause even when new factors emerge

21. Occurs when individual identity or accountability is de-emphasized - may be the result of mingling in a crowd - wearing uniforms - or otherwise adopting a larger group identity

22. Interpreting own actions and motives ina positive way - blaming situations for failures and taking credit for successes; think self as better than average

23. Elaboration likelihood model

24. When one'S expectations draw out (in a way - cause) the expected behaviour

25. Lewin; collection of forces (valence - vector - barrier) on the individual - field of perception and action

26. Experiment - people'S descriptions of the autokinetic effect were influenced by others' descriptions; also win/lose game-type competition can trigger conflict in groups - Robbers' cave experiment

27. Sometimes attribute excitement or physiological arousal about one thing to something else (e.g. bungee jumping on first date)

28. Prisoner'S dilemma - trucking company game to illustrate struggle between cooperation and competition

29. Nursing home residents with plants to care for have better health

30. Lewin; life space; + if person thinks region will reduce tension by meeting present needs - - if region with increase tension/ danger

31. Attribution theory - balance theory

32. An instrument that measures physiological reactions in order to measure truthfulness of attitude self-reporting

33. One of the first to apply psychology to business - specifically in advertising; also involved in helping military implement psychological testing to aid with personnel selection

34. Tendency to work less hard in a group as a result of diffusion of responsibility; guarded against when each individual is closely monitored

35. Cognitive dissonance theory

36. Area of study that combines social and clinical ideas - for mental health

37. When people think there is a higher proportion of one thing in a group than there really is because examples of that one thing come to mind more easily; e.g. read a list - half celebrity names - half random - may think more celebrities than random be

38. How stimuli are rated - the more we see/experience something - the more positively we rate it

39. Beliefs are more vulnerable if never faced challenge

40. Tendency for person doing the behaviour to have different perspective on situation than observer

41. Logical fallacy; small - insignificant first step in one direction will lead to greater steps with a significant impact

42. Experiment where participants ordered to give 'painful electric shocks' to a 'learner' when incorrect - explored how people respond to orders; conditions that facilitated conformity: remoteness of victim - proximity of commander - legitimate-seeming

43. Follows from self-perception theory; tendency to assume we must not want to do things we are paid or compensated to do

44. Constant exchange of influences between people - constant factor in our behaviour

45. Berkowitz; there is a relationship between frustration in achieving a goal (no matter how small) and show aggression

46. Conformity; go along publicly but not privately

47. Prejudice - showed group conflict most effectively overcome by need for cooperative attention to a higher superordinate goal; 2 groups of 12-year-old boys - 3 phases of group dynamics: in-group phase (bonding with own group) - friction phase (groups

48. Lewin; life space; block locomotion between regions of person and psychological environment

49. Expense incurred and cannot be recovered; because money already spent is irrelevant to the future - best to ignore these when making decisions but we often do not

50. Stimulus-overload theory; also experiment where participants ordered to give 'painful electric shocks' to a 'learner' when incorrect - explored how people respond to orders; conditions that facilitated conformity: remoteness of victim - proximity of