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Journalism Law

Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Lowest court handles: Tickets - civil matter - Misdemeanor - Felonies






2. In Michigan - there's an absolute right of public to be present during jury selection.






3. Series of pre trail hearings: court created devices to weed out inadmissible evidence prior to trial. Often determine bargaining of prosecution and defendant to come up with plea bargain. Most cases are ended with plea bargain and don't go to trial.






4. Reading of the charges against a person






5. The burden of proof imposed on public officials extends to anyone involved in a matter of public concern - regardless of whether they were famous or unknown.






6. The declaration of a final judgment based on the evidence presented






7. Under FOIA - personell records may be released - subject to 'appropriate redactions.'






8. If you obtain material from a third party illegally - media are still protected and can publish.






9. MI Supreme Court ruled directory information of teachers cannot be disclosed. (home address and phone number)






10. Newspapers do not have an equal time requirement like broadcast has.






11. Compensatory damages are a proper remedy to avoid the injustice under a promissory estoppel claim.






12. The power of authority of a particular court to hear and adjudicate matters in dispute






13. Institutes procedures to ensure every citizen has the right to access government documents - as well as the right to inspect and receive copies of records from state and local government bodies.






14. For presidential searches - MI supreme court ruled universities are 4th arm of government - and must conduct search in public.






15. School officials can prohibit students from displaying messages that promote illegal drug use.






16. An invasion of privacy tort which occurs when information about a person's private life is published - and there is not relevant newsworthy tie.






17. As long as speech was about a public official (figure) could not reasonably be construed to state actual facts about its subject - it is protected by the first amendment.






18. Reconfirmed that you cannot censor news media and its coverage unless theirs a clear and present danger.






19. The First Amendment protection for students does not require a public school to print speech when they can justify their decision by stating an educational purpose.






20. There is a first amendment right of access to the public to cover and attend trials.






21. Failure to obey an order made by the court






22. Reporters have no greater rights than any other citizen - there is no reporter shield from grand jury testifying. If you're attempting to harass - then reporters are protected and do not have to testify.






23. Plaintiffs are not entitled to an order unmasking an anonymous author when the statements in question cannot support a cause of action for defamation.






24. Written defamation which causes injury to another's reputation






25. Any communication - true or false - which exposes a person to hatred - ridicule or contempt. the person's reputation is harmed or damaged






26. Limited decision. Closure of preliminary hearing is unconstitutional in California because they act as mini trials to ensure defendants right to a fair trial. Unique to that state however.






27. Criminal matters anything less than a year in jail






28. To claim exemption for investigative records - they must show how disclosure would interfere with proceedings. The burden of proof is on the party claiming exemption.






29. Innocent and negligent misstatement in a newspaper are protected under constitutional freedoms of speech and press.






30. (Privacy)a. Very close to libel - If you're a public official/figure you have the actual malice rule - Portraying someone in a lie - Truth is a defense - Consent is a defense - Public newsworthy event is okay






31. A proper search warrant could be applied to a newspaper as well as to anyone else without necessarily violating the First Amendment rights to freedom of the press.






32. For purposes of defamation - a person who has thrust themself into the spotlight and has the power to gain media publicity. these individuals must prove actual malice to prevail in a libel suit






33. A constructive trust is a proper manner of relinquishing the profits of one who abuses a confidential position.






34. Reckless disregard for the truth; knowing falsity






35. Publication - identification - defamation - harm and damages






36. In an invasion of privacy tort - the right an individual has to profit from their likeness - or to prevent others from gaining value for their own commercial benefit






37. NYT actual malice rule is extended form just public officials to include public figures






38. The Sixth Amendment rights of a defendant outweigh the First Amendment of the press in cases where the press can have prejudicial outcome of the defendant's trial.






39. Opinion - privilege - fair comment - truth - constitutional defenses






40. The media must make sure that permission is acquired in commercial situations.






41. A court created device to weed out inadmissible evidence in advance of trial






42. Motions for summary judgment is applicable if the publication is not private facts and is newsworthy.






43. The press has no greater constitutional right to access penal facilities than any member of the general public






44. Prevents ISPs from liability except on copyright.






45. 3rd party has no obligation to notify media when there's been a government subpoena of phone records. Also includes any form of electronic communication.






46. First Amendment protects even false statements about the conduct of public officials except when statements are made with knowledge that they are false or in reckless disregard of their truth or falsity. (actual malice)






47. Broadcasters are immune from liability if political candidates defame someone while under section 315






48. If an ongoing - criminal investigation is actively underway - discretion may be used under the exemption claim in FOIA to withhold some documents.






49. No liability for publishing information that was lawfully obtained.






50. Friend of the court.