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PCAT Biology Animal Behavior

Subject : pcat
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Process in which environmental patterns or objects presented to a devleoping organism during a brief critical period in early life become accepted permanently as an element of their behavioral environment and included in an animal's behavioral respon

2. Innate behavior that has evolved as a signal for communication between members of the same species

3. Ex: coughing and sneezing -operate on the exposure to chemical irritants - toxic vapors - or mechanical stimulation of the respiratory system

4. Trigger a reversible behavioral change in the recipient ex: sex attractant - alarm - toxic defensive

5. Specific time periods during an animal's early development when it is physiologically able to develop specific behavioral patterns

6. Distributing members of the species so that environmental resources are not depleted in a small region - intraspecifc competition is reduced

7. The ability of a conditioned organism to respond to stimuli that are similar but not identical - to the original conditioned stimulus

8. Prevents overexpansion of the lungs during forceful breathing

9. Will prevail over a subordinate

10. Rapid automatic response to a stimulus

11. Include the elements of the environment that occur in familiar cyclic patterns

12. Involves conditioning an organism so that it will stop exhibiting a given behavior pattern

13. Relatively unlikely to be modified by learning

14. System of interactions of many neurons involving the startle response

15. Produce long-term behavioral and physiological alterations in recipient animals ex: male mice may affect the estrous cycles of females

16. Occur as a means of communication between members of a species

17. Response is diminished and finally eliminated in the absence of reinforcement

18. Recovery of the conditioned response after extinction

19. Involves stimulating the brain's pleasure centers with links the lack of pleasure

20. Members of most land-dwelling species defend a limited area or territory from intrusion by other members of the species

21. Involves the association of a normally autonomic or visceral response with an environmental stimulus -aka Conditioned Reflex

22. Substance secreted by animals that influence the behavior of other members of the same species

23. Composed of two different reflexes: the inflation and deflation reflexes

24. Involves neural integration at a higher level -ex: brainstem or even cerebrum

25. Test of conditioning is the determination of whether the condition process is actually necessary for the production of a response by a previously 'neutral stimulus'

26. Includes providing food - light - or electrical stimulation of the brain's 'pleasure centers.'

27. Unconditioned stimulus is removed or was never sufficiently paired with the conditioned stimulus

28. Specific behaviors found in all animals which involve the evolution of a variety of complex actions that function as signals in preparation for mating

29. Affect systemic blood pressure and stimulate the respiratory rate when blood pressure declines

30. Social hierarchy -minimizes violent intraspecific aggressions by defining stable relationships among members of the group

31. Involves the suppression of the normal startle responses to stimuli -repeated stimulation will results in decreased resonsiveness to that stimulus

32. Inhibits the expiratory center and stimulates the inspirator center when the lungs are in danger of collapsing

33. Animals secrete phermones

34. Stimulated by changes in pH - PCO2 - and PO2

35. Instinctual or innate behaviors that are predominant determinants of behavior patterns - and learning plays a relatively minor role in the modification of these predetermined behaviors

36. Involves adaptive responses to the environment

37. Triggered by irritation of the wall of the nasal cavity

38. Stimulus that elicits the behavior of fixed action patterns

39. Alerts an animal to a significant stimulus -involves the interaction of reticular activating system

40. Involves the ability of th learning organism to respond differentially to slightly different stimuli

41. Consisting of threat displays and combat that settles disputes between individuals in population ex: dog growling

42. Controlled at the spinal chord -the reabsorption of water in this zone of the kidney - which permits the concentration of urine - dpeends on the permeability of the collecting tubules to water

43. If the stimulus is no longer regularly applied - the response tends to recover over time

44. Triggered by irritation of the larynx

45. Patterns of behavior that are established and maintained mainly by periodic situations -ex: response to a traffic light

46. The capacity of the nervous system - particularly the cebral cortex - for flexibility -correlated with the capacity for learning adaptive responses

47. Complex reflex - learned motor pattern -ex: step on brakes when animal runs in front

48. The major share of the response to the environment

49. Daily cycles that when isolated from the natural phases of light and dark - they'll continue with approximate day-to-day phasing -have both internal/external

50. Involves conditioning responses to stimuli with the Use of reward or reinforcement