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PCAT Biology Animal Behavior

Subject : pcat
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Involves adaptive responses to the environment

2. Involves neural integration at a higher level -ex: brainstem or even cerebrum

3. Process in which environmental patterns or objects presented to a devleoping organism during a brief critical period in early life become accepted permanently as an element of their behavioral environment and included in an animal's behavioral respon

4. System of interactions of many neurons involving the startle response

5. Instinctual or innate behaviors that are predominant determinants of behavior patterns - and learning plays a relatively minor role in the modification of these predetermined behaviors

6. The ability of a conditioned organism to respond to stimuli that are similar but not identical - to the original conditioned stimulus

7. Occur as a means of communication between members of a species

8. Animals secrete phermones

9. Complex reflex - learned motor pattern -ex: step on brakes when animal runs in front

10. Unconditioned stimulus is removed or was never sufficiently paired with the conditioned stimulus

11. Triggered by irritation of the larynx

12. Response is diminished and finally eliminated in the absence of reinforcement

13. Rapid automatic response to a stimulus

14. Submission display -ex: happy dog wagging tail

15. Established after the organism has been conditioned - whereby stimuli further and further away from the original conditioned stimulus elicit responses with decreasing magnitued

16. Consisting of threat displays and combat that settles disputes between individuals in population ex: dog growling

17. Involves conditioning responses to stimuli with the Use of reward or reinforcement

18. Specific behaviors found in all animals which involve the evolution of a variety of complex actions that function as signals in preparation for mating

19. Daily cycles that when isolated from the natural phases of light and dark - they'll continue with approximate day-to-day phasing -have both internal/external

20. Involves conditioning an organism so that it will stop exhibiting a given behavior pattern

21. Involves stimulating the brain's pleasure centers with links the lack of pleasure

22. Recovery of the conditioned response after extinction

23. Trigger a reversible behavioral change in the recipient ex: sex attractant - alarm - toxic defensive

24. Patterns of behavior that are established and maintained mainly by periodic situations -ex: response to a traffic light

25. Substance secreted by animals that influence the behavior of other members of the same species

26. Involves the association of a normally autonomic or visceral response with an environmental stimulus -aka Conditioned Reflex

27. If the stimulus is no longer regularly applied - the response tends to recover over time

28. Composed of two different reflexes: the inflation and deflation reflexes

29. Includes providing food - light - or electrical stimulation of the brain's 'pleasure centers.'

30. Prevents overexpansion of the lungs during forceful breathing

31. The capacity of the nervous system - particularly the cebral cortex - for flexibility -correlated with the capacity for learning adaptive responses

32. Alerts an animal to a significant stimulus -involves the interaction of reticular activating system

33. Stimulus that elicits the behavior of fixed action patterns

34. Complex - coordinated - and innate behavior responses to specific patterns of stimulation in the environment -innate

35. Distributing members of the species so that environmental resources are not depleted in a small region - intraspecifc competition is reduced

36. Involves the suppression of the normal startle responses to stimuli -repeated stimulation will results in decreased resonsiveness to that stimulus

37. The major share of the response to the environment

38. The gradual elimination of conditioned responses in the absence of reinforcement

39. Test of conditioning is the determination of whether the condition process is actually necessary for the production of a response by a previously 'neutral stimulus'

40. Specific time periods during an animal's early development when it is physiologically able to develop specific behavioral patterns

41. Affect systemic blood pressure and stimulate the respiratory rate when blood pressure declines

42. Produce long-term behavioral and physiological alterations in recipient animals ex: male mice may affect the estrous cycles of females

43. Social hierarchy -minimizes violent intraspecific aggressions by defining stable relationships among members of the group

44. Involves the ability of th learning organism to respond differentially to slightly different stimuli

45. Innate behavior that has evolved as a signal for communication between members of the same species

46. Triggered by irritation of the wall of the nasal cavity

47. Members of most land-dwelling species defend a limited area or territory from intrusion by other members of the species

48. Ex: coughing and sneezing -operate on the exposure to chemical irritants - toxic vapors - or mechanical stimulation of the respiratory system

49. Natural bodily rhythms of eating and satiation

50. Will prevail over a subordinate