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PCAT Biology Evolution

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Genotypes with favorable variations are selected thorugh natural selection - and the frequency of favorable genes increases with the genepool. genotypes with low adaptive values tend to disappear

2. Organisms in a species have variations that give them an advantage over other members of the species -organisms may have adaptations that are advantageous for survival

3. The evolution of new species - which are groups of individuals who can interbreed freely with each other but not with members of other speies

4. Most organisms demonstrate the same basic needs and metabolic processes -require the same nutrients and contain similar cellular organelles and energy storage forms

5. Formed by minerals deposited in molds

6. A cluster of colloidal molecules surrounded by a shell of water -tend to absorb and incorporate substances from the surrounding environment

7. Common ancestor is found at the trunk and the modern species at the tips of the branches

8. Appear to be useless but apparently had some ancestral functions

9. Individuals that survive (those with favorable variations) live to adulthood - reproduce their own kind - and thus transmit these favorable variations or adaptations to their offspring

10. Only changes in the DNA of the sex cells can be inherited -changes acquired during an individual's life are changes in the characteristics and organization of somatic cells

11. Primitive crustacean (relative to the lobster) - which was dominant form of the early Paleozoic era

12. The process in which minerals replace the cells of an organism

13. Evolutionary history and can be viewed asa branching tree

14. When the gene frequencies of a population are not changing - the gene pool is stable - and population is not evolving

15. More offspring are produced than can survive

16. Population is very large -no mutations affect the gene pool -mating between individuals in the population is random -there is no net migration of individuals into or out of the populations -genes in the population are all equally successful at reprod

17. Preserved in asphalt tar pits

18. Over many generations of natural selection - the favorable changes eventually results in such significant changes of the gene pool that we can say a new species has evolved

19. Populations will become sufficiently different from each other to be able to reproduce

20. Change in the genetic makeup of a population with time -explained by the constant propagation of new variations in the genes of a species - some of which impart an adaptive advantage

21. Refers to changes in the composition of the gene pool due to chance -tend to be more pronounced in small populations - where it is sometimes called the founder effect

22. Real populations have unstable gene pools and migrating populations -agents of this change are natural selection - mutation - assortive mating -genetic drift - and gene flow

23. All members of a particular species inhabiting a given locations

24. Mates are not randoomly chosen but rather selected according to criteria such as phenotype and proximity - the relative genotype ratios will be affected and will depart from the predictions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

25. Species multiplication is generally accompanied by migration to lessen intraspecific competition

26. Ancient animals similar to both reptiles and birds and dominant in the Mesozoic era

27. Offspring naturally show differences in their characteristics compared to their parents

28. Missing link between reptiles (has teeth and scales) and birds (also has feathers)

29. Small local population -closely related genetically since mating between members of the same occurs more frequently =influenced by similar environmental factors and thus are subject to the same selection processes

30. Dissimilar species ahve been found to have evolved from a common ancestor

31. The decimal fraction representing the presence of an allele for all members of a population that have this particular gene locus

32. Migration of individuals between populations that will result in a loss or gain of genes - thus changing the composition of a population's gene pool

33. P^2+2pq+q^2=1 -p^2=frequency of TT (dominant homozygotes) -2pq=frequency of Tt (heterozygotes) -q^2=frequency of tt (recessive homozygotes)

34. The closer the organisms in the evolutionary scheme - the greater the similarity of their chemical constituents

35. Same basic anatomical features and evolutionary origins -demonstrate similar evolutionary patterns with late divergence of form due to differences in exposure to evolutioinary forces

36. Fossil resin of trees

37. First forms of life lacked the ability to synthesize their own nutrients; they required performed molecules which made them heterotrophs -energy was present in the form of heat - electricity - solar radiation - including x rays and ultraviolet light

38. Developing population must compete for the necessities of life. many young must die - and the number of adults in the population generally remains constant from generation to generation

39. Incude teeth - bones - etc. rock - tar pits - ice - and amber

40. Form in hollow spaces of rocks - as the organisms within decay

41. If gene pools within a species become sufficiently different so that two individuals can't mate and produce fertile offspring - two different species have developed

42. Similar functions but may have different evolutionary origins and entirely different patterns of development

43. Colloidal protein molecules tend to clump together to form coacervate Droplets

44. When groups within the branches develop in similar ways when exposed to similar environments -ex: fish and dolphins

45. Results from the geographic isolation of a population

46. Impressions left by an organism ex: footprints

47. Primitive horse the size of a fox with four toes and short teeth with pointed cusps for feeding on soft leaves

48. Stages of development of the embryo resemble the stages in an organism's evolutionary history

49. Discredited theory held that new organs or changes in existing ones arose becaUse of the needs of the organism

50. Change allele frequencies in a population - shifting gene equilibria -can either be favorable or detrimental for the offspring