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PCAT Biology Evolution

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Primitive horse the size of a fox with four toes and short teeth with pointed cusps for feeding on soft leaves

2. Form in hollow spaces of rocks - as the organisms within decay

3. Dissimilar species ahve been found to have evolved from a common ancestor

4. Offspring naturally show differences in their characteristics compared to their parents

5. The closer the organisms in the evolutionary scheme - the greater the similarity of their chemical constituents

6. If gene pools within a species become sufficiently different so that two individuals can't mate and produce fertile offspring - two different species have developed

7. Fossil resin of trees

8. Ancient animals similar to both reptiles and birds and dominant in the Mesozoic era

9. Appear to be useless but apparently had some ancestral functions

10. Change allele frequencies in a population - shifting gene equilibria -can either be favorable or detrimental for the offspring

11. Refers to changes in the composition of the gene pool due to chance -tend to be more pronounced in small populations - where it is sometimes called the founder effect

12. Population is very large -no mutations affect the gene pool -mating between individuals in the population is random -there is no net migration of individuals into or out of the populations -genes in the population are all equally successful at reprod

13. Over many generations of natural selection - the favorable changes eventually results in such significant changes of the gene pool that we can say a new species has evolved

14. The process in which minerals replace the cells of an organism

15. P^2+2pq+q^2=1 -p^2=frequency of TT (dominant homozygotes) -2pq=frequency of Tt (heterozygotes) -q^2=frequency of tt (recessive homozygotes)

16. Same basic anatomical features and evolutionary origins -demonstrate similar evolutionary patterns with late divergence of form due to differences in exposure to evolutioinary forces

17. Stanley L. Miller demonstrated the application of UV rays - heat or a combination of these to a mixture of methane - hydrogen - ammonia - and water could result in the formation of complex molecules -after circulation of the gases for one week - he a

18. The evolution of new species - which are groups of individuals who can interbreed freely with each other but not with members of other speies

19. The most direct evidence of evolutionary change -represent the remains of an extinct ancestor -generally found in sedimentary rocks

20. First forms of life lacked the ability to synthesize their own nutrients; they required performed molecules which made them heterotrophs -energy was present in the form of heat - electricity - solar radiation - including x rays and ultraviolet light

21. Migration of individuals between populations that will result in a loss or gain of genes - thus changing the composition of a population's gene pool

22. Formed by minerals deposited in molds

23. Genotypes with favorable variations are selected thorugh natural selection - and the frequency of favorable genes increases with the genepool. genotypes with low adaptive values tend to disappear

24. Incude teeth - bones - etc. rock - tar pits - ice - and amber

25. A cluster of colloidal molecules surrounded by a shell of water -tend to absorb and incorporate substances from the surrounding environment

26. Individuals that survive (those with favorable variations) live to adulthood - reproduce their own kind - and thus transmit these favorable variations or adaptations to their offspring

27. Species multiplication is generally accompanied by migration to lessen intraspecific competition

28. Colloidal protein molecules tend to clump together to form coacervate Droplets

29. Populations will become sufficiently different from each other to be able to reproduce

30. More offspring are produced than can survive

31. Small local population -closely related genetically since mating between members of the same occurs more frequently =influenced by similar environmental factors and thus are subject to the same selection processes

32. Mates are not randoomly chosen but rather selected according to criteria such as phenotype and proximity - the relative genotype ratios will be affected and will depart from the predictions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

33. Preserved in asphalt tar pits

34. Stages of development of the embryo resemble the stages in an organism's evolutionary history

35. Missing link between reptiles (has teeth and scales) and birds (also has feathers)

36. When the gene frequencies of a population are not changing - the gene pool is stable - and population is not evolving

37. Real populations have unstable gene pools and migrating populations -agents of this change are natural selection - mutation - assortive mating -genetic drift - and gene flow

38. Common ancestor is found at the trunk and the modern species at the tips of the branches

39. The decimal fraction representing the presence of an allele for all members of a population that have this particular gene locus

40. Similar functions but may have different evolutionary origins and entirely different patterns of development

41. Hairy elephant found in the Siberian ice

42. Most organisms demonstrate the same basic needs and metabolic processes -require the same nutrients and contain similar cellular organelles and energy storage forms

43. Primitive heterotrophs slowly evolved complex biochemical pathways which enabled them to use a wider variety of nutrients -evolved anaerobic respiratory process to convert nutrients into energy -photosynthesis and autotrophic nutrition was developed

44. Evolutionary history and can be viewed asa branching tree

45. Change in the genetic makeup of a population with time -explained by the constant propagation of new variations in the genes of a species - some of which impart an adaptive advantage

46. Pressures in the environment select for the organism most fit to survive and reproduce -concluded that a member of a particular species that is equipped with beneficial traits - allowing it to cope effectively with the immediate environment - will pr

47. Developing population must compete for the necessities of life. many young must die - and the number of adults in the population generally remains constant from generation to generation

48. Discredited theory held that new organs or changes in existing ones arose becaUse of the needs of the organism

49. Results from the geographic isolation of a population

50. The emergence of a number of lineages from a single ancestral species -may diverge into a number of distinct species; the differences between them are those adaptive to a distinct lifestyle - or niche