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PCAT Biology Muscles And Locomotion

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Spans the entire length of the thick filaments and any overlapping portions of the thin filaments

2. Occurs when both ends of the muscle are fixed and no change in length occurs during the contraction - but the tension increases

3. Purpose is to convert lactic acid in the liver to glucose for discharge into the bloodstream during period of strenuous activity

4. The primary source of energy for muscle contraction

5. Cells responsible for synthesizing cartillage

6. Dense bone that does not appear to have any cavities when observed with the naked -bony matrix is deposited in structural units called osteons

7. State of partial contraction

8. Centers that can issue somatic motor commands as a result of processing performed at the unconscious - involuntary level

9. HGb-like protein found in muscle tissue -has a high oxygen affinity and maintains the oxygen supply in muscles by bind oxygen tightly

10. Refers to a bending of a joint

11. Contraction that becomes continuous when the stimuli are so frequent that the muscle can't relax and is stronger than a simple twith of a single fiber

12. Point of attachment of a muscle to a stationary bone (the proximal end in limb muscles)

13. Skeletal muscle - smooth muscle - and cardia muscle

14. Muscles contract against the resistance of the incompressible fluid within the animal's tissues (this fluid is termed the hydrostatic skeleton)

15. The cavities in between the spicules are filled with yellow or red bone marrow

16. When fibers of a muscle are expoed to a very frequent stimuli - the muscle can't fully relax and the contractions begin to combine - becoming stronger and more prolonged

17. Type of dynamic contraction where the muscle fiber lengthens and the tension on the muscle increases

18. After the contraction period - this is a brief relaxation period in which the muscle is unresponsive to a stimulus

19. Filaments embedded in fibers of muscles - which are divided into sarcomeres

20. Includes both concentric and eccentric types of contractions -results in the chang in length of the muscle with a corresponding change in tension on that muscle

21. Time between stimulation and the onset of contraction

22. Modified endoplasmic reticulum that stores calcium ions that envelop myofibrils

23. Specialized type of mineralized connective tissue that has the ability to withstand physical stress -designed for body support -hard and strong while - at the same time somewhat elastic and lightweight

24. Occurs whne a muscle shortens against a fixed load while the tension on that remains constant

25. Achieve movement by means of the power stroke -a thrusting movement generated by the sliding action of microtubules

26. Able to provide rapid commands to the skeletal muscles and variious other organs

27. Synthesize and secrete the organic constituents of the bone matrix; once they have become surrounded by their matrix - they mature into osteocytes

28. Mesenchymal (embryonic or undifferentiated) connective tissue is transformed into - and replaced by - bone

29. Type of connective tissue that is softer and more flexible than bone -retained in adults in places where firmness and flexibility are needed

30. Point of attachment of a muscle to the bone that moves (distal end in limb muscles)

31. The region containing thin filaments only

32. Units of diveded myofibrils

33. Indicates a straightening of a join

34. Region containing thick filaments only

35. In vertebrates and some invertebrates - particularly echinoderms - energy can be temporarily stored in a high-energy compound

36. Striations of light and dark bands of skeletal muscle

37. Responsible for voluntary movements and is innervated by the somatic nervous system

38. Concentric circles of bony matrix

39. Composed of organized bundles of myosin molecules

40. Involved in blood cell formation

41. Consists of a central microscopic channel called a Haversian Canal - surrounded by a number of lamellae

42. Muscle tissues of the heart

43. Amoeba use for locomotion where the advancing cell membrane extends forward

44. Chains of actin molecules

45. Existing cartilage is replaced by bone

46. Multinucleated cell created by the fusion of several mononucleated embryonic cell

47. A hard skeleton that covers all muscles and organs of some invertebrates -found principally in arthropods -composed of noncellular material secreted by the epidermis

48. The response of a single muscle fiber to a brief stimulus at or above the threshold stiulus - and consists of a latent period - a contraction period - and a relaxation period

49. Attach skeletal muscle to bones and bend the skeleton at the movable joints

50. Condition where the muscles contract and become rigid - even without action potentials which is caused b an absence of adenosiine triphosphate - which is required for the myosin heads to be released from the actin filaments