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PCAT Biology Muscles And Locomotion

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. After the contraction period - this is a brief relaxation period in which the muscle is unresponsive to a stimulus

2. Specialized type of mineralized connective tissue that has the ability to withstand physical stress -designed for body support -hard and strong while - at the same time somewhat elastic and lightweight

3. The cavities in between the spicules are filled with yellow or red bone marrow

4. Serves as the framework within all vertebrate organisms

5. Advance principally by the action of muscles on a hydrostatic skeleton

6. Time between stimulation and the onset of contraction

7. Link between the nerve terminal (synaptic bouton( and the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber

8. Condition where the muscles contract and become rigid - even without action potentials which is caused b an absence of adenosiine triphosphate - which is required for the myosin heads to be released from the actin filaments

9. The response of a single muscle fiber to a brief stimulus at or above the threshold stiulus - and consists of a latent period - a contraction period - and a relaxation period

10. Centers that can issue somatic motor commands as a result of processing performed at the unconscious - involuntary level

11. Inactive and infiltrated by adipose tissue

12. Occurs when both ends of the muscle are fixed and no change in length occurs during the contraction - but the tension increases

13. Move by beating cilia or flagella

14. Spans the entire length of the thick filaments and any overlapping portions of the thin filaments

15. Provides channels for ion flow throughout the muscle fibers - and can also propagate an action potential

16. The primary source of energy for muscle contraction

17. Contraction that becomes continuous when the stimuli are so frequent that the muscle can't relax and is stronger than a simple twith of a single fiber

18. Consists of a central microscopic channel called a Haversian Canal - surrounded by a number of lamellae

19. Dense bone that does not appear to have any cavities when observed with the naked -bony matrix is deposited in structural units called osteons

20. Units of diveded myofibrils

21. Muscle tissues of the heart

22. Striations of light and dark bands of skeletal muscle

23. Capable of propagating an action potential and is connected to a system of transverse tubules (T system) oriented perpendicularly to the myofibrils

24. Multinucleated cell created by the fusion of several mononucleated embryonic cell

25. Existing cartilage is replaced by bone

26. Occurs whne a muscle shortens against a fixed load while the tension on that remains constant

27. Type of connective tissue that is softer and more flexible than bone -retained in adults in places where firmness and flexibility are needed

28. Type of dynamic contraction where the muscle fibers shorten and the tension on the muscle increases

29. The region containing thin filaments only

30. HGb-like protein found in muscle tissue -has a high oxygen affinity and maintains the oxygen supply in muscles by bind oxygen tightly

31. Modified endoplasmic reticulum that stores calcium ions that envelop myofibrils

32. In vertebrates and some invertebrates - particularly echinoderms - energy can be temporarily stored in a high-energy compound

33. Amoeba use for locomotion where the advancing cell membrane extends forward

34. Region containing thick filaments only

35. Concentric circles of bony matrix

36. Composed of organized bundles of myosin molecules

37. Indicates a straightening of a join

38. Able to provide rapid commands to the skeletal muscles and variious other organs

39. Cells responsible for synthesizing cartillage

40. The basic framework of the body - consisting of the skull - vertebral column - and the rib cage

41. Skeletal muscle - smooth muscle - and cardia muscle

42. A hard skeleton that covers all muscles and organs of some invertebrates -found principally in arthropods -composed of noncellular material secreted by the epidermis

43. Involved in blood cell formation

44. Point of attachment of a muscle to the bone that moves (distal end in limb muscles)

45. State of partial contraction

46. Much less dense and consists of an interconnecting lattice of bony spicules

47. Responsible for involuntary actions and is innervated by the autonomic nervous system -found in the digetive tract - bladder - uterus - and blood vessel walls - among other places

48. Mesenchymal (embryonic or undifferentiated) connective tissue is transformed into - and replaced by - bone

49. Stimulated by a message from the somatic nervous system sent via a motor neuron

50. Synthesize and secrete the organic constituents of the bone matrix; once they have become surrounded by their matrix - they mature into osteocytes