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PCAT Biology Muscles And Locomotion

Subjects : pcat, biology
Instructions:
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
  • If you are not ready to take this test, you can study here.
  • Match each statement with the correct term.
  • Don't refresh. All questions and answers are randomly picked and ordered every time you load a test.

This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. After the contraction period - this is a brief relaxation period in which the muscle is unresponsive to a stimulus






2. Specialized type of mineralized connective tissue that has the ability to withstand physical stress -designed for body support -hard and strong while - at the same time somewhat elastic and lightweight






3. The cavities in between the spicules are filled with yellow or red bone marrow






4. Serves as the framework within all vertebrate organisms






5. Advance principally by the action of muscles on a hydrostatic skeleton






6. Time between stimulation and the onset of contraction






7. Link between the nerve terminal (synaptic bouton( and the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber






8. Condition where the muscles contract and become rigid - even without action potentials which is caused b an absence of adenosiine triphosphate - which is required for the myosin heads to be released from the actin filaments






9. The response of a single muscle fiber to a brief stimulus at or above the threshold stiulus - and consists of a latent period - a contraction period - and a relaxation period






10. Centers that can issue somatic motor commands as a result of processing performed at the unconscious - involuntary level






11. Inactive and infiltrated by adipose tissue






12. Occurs when both ends of the muscle are fixed and no change in length occurs during the contraction - but the tension increases






13. Move by beating cilia or flagella






14. Spans the entire length of the thick filaments and any overlapping portions of the thin filaments






15. Provides channels for ion flow throughout the muscle fibers - and can also propagate an action potential






16. The primary source of energy for muscle contraction






17. Contraction that becomes continuous when the stimuli are so frequent that the muscle can't relax and is stronger than a simple twith of a single fiber






18. Consists of a central microscopic channel called a Haversian Canal - surrounded by a number of lamellae






19. Dense bone that does not appear to have any cavities when observed with the naked -bony matrix is deposited in structural units called osteons






20. Units of diveded myofibrils






21. Muscle tissues of the heart






22. Striations of light and dark bands of skeletal muscle






23. Capable of propagating an action potential and is connected to a system of transverse tubules (T system) oriented perpendicularly to the myofibrils






24. Multinucleated cell created by the fusion of several mononucleated embryonic cell






25. Existing cartilage is replaced by bone






26. Occurs whne a muscle shortens against a fixed load while the tension on that remains constant






27. Type of connective tissue that is softer and more flexible than bone -retained in adults in places where firmness and flexibility are needed






28. Type of dynamic contraction where the muscle fibers shorten and the tension on the muscle increases






29. The region containing thin filaments only






30. HGb-like protein found in muscle tissue -has a high oxygen affinity and maintains the oxygen supply in muscles by bind oxygen tightly






31. Modified endoplasmic reticulum that stores calcium ions that envelop myofibrils






32. In vertebrates and some invertebrates - particularly echinoderms - energy can be temporarily stored in a high-energy compound






33. Amoeba use for locomotion where the advancing cell membrane extends forward






34. Region containing thick filaments only






35. Concentric circles of bony matrix






36. Composed of organized bundles of myosin molecules






37. Indicates a straightening of a join






38. Able to provide rapid commands to the skeletal muscles and variious other organs






39. Cells responsible for synthesizing cartillage






40. The basic framework of the body - consisting of the skull - vertebral column - and the rib cage






41. Skeletal muscle - smooth muscle - and cardia muscle






42. A hard skeleton that covers all muscles and organs of some invertebrates -found principally in arthropods -composed of noncellular material secreted by the epidermis






43. Involved in blood cell formation






44. Point of attachment of a muscle to the bone that moves (distal end in limb muscles)






45. State of partial contraction






46. Much less dense and consists of an interconnecting lattice of bony spicules






47. Responsible for involuntary actions and is innervated by the autonomic nervous system -found in the digetive tract - bladder - uterus - and blood vessel walls - among other places






48. Mesenchymal (embryonic or undifferentiated) connective tissue is transformed into - and replaced by - bone






49. Stimulated by a message from the somatic nervous system sent via a motor neuron






50. Synthesize and secrete the organic constituents of the bone matrix; once they have become surrounded by their matrix - they mature into osteocytes