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PCAT Biology Reproduction

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 50 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Consists almost entirely of the nucleus - which contains the paternal genome

2. Undergoes disjunction

3. Near the end of telophase - the cytoplasm divides into two daughter cells - each wit a complete nucleus and its own set of organelles -In animal cells - a cleavage furrow forms - and the cell membrane indents along the equator of the cell and finally

4. AKA stolon -woody - underground stems -can develop new upright stems

5. Surrounded by two layers of cells

6. Steroid hormones necessary for normal female maturation -stimulate the development of the female reproductive tract and contribute to the development of secondary sexual characteristics and sex drive -responsible for the thickening of the endometrium

7. Contains elongated cell with head - tail - neck - and body

8. Similar to mitosis in that a cell duplicates its chromosomes before undergoing the process -whereas mitosis preserves the diploid number of the cell - meiosis produces the haploid (1N) number - having the number of chromosomes

9. Nuclear membrane forms around each new nucleus -at this point - each chromosome still consists of sister chromatids joined at the centromere

10. Specialized organs where gametes are produced

11. Released from the ovary into the abdominal cavity and drawn into the nearby oviduct

12. Formed due to cortical reaction -hard layer that surrounds the ovum cell membrane and prevents multiple fertilizations -Followed by the fusion of sperm nucleus and form a diploid zygote

13. Comlex process involving the formation and fertilization of gametes and regulation of these processes by bot parents

14. Flowering plants consisting of a few cells that exist for a very short time

15. Expanding partition that grows outward from the interior of the cell until it reaches the cell membrane

16. Immature ova -all that a female will produce during her lifetime are already in her ovaries at birth

17. Replication of the nucleus followed by unequal cytokinesis -membrane pinches inward to forma new cell that is smaller in size but genetically identical to the parent cell

18. Part of embryo that develops into the lower and root

19. Muscular chamber which is the site of fetal development

20. Occurs midway through the cycle -a mature ovarian follicle bursts and releases an ovum -caused by a surge in LH (Luteinizing Hormone) that is preceded - and in part caused - by a peak in estrogen levels

21. Causes the glands of the endometrium to mature and produce secretions that prepare it for the implantation of an embryo -essential for the maintenance of the endometrium

22. Part of embryo that grows and feeds the embryo

23. Male gonads - produce sperm in the tightly coiled seminiferous tubules

24. The embryonic undifferentiated cells that growth in higher plants are restricted to -undergo active cell reproduction

25. Production of offspring without fertilization -form new organisms by a single parent cell -offspring are genetic carbon copies of their parent cells -genetically identical to the parent cells (except mutations) -ex: fission - budding - regeneration -

26. (In Prophase I) process where homologous chromosomes (chromosomes that code for the same traits - one inherited form each parent) come together and intertwine

27. Central region where - after replication - the chromosomes consist of two identical sister chromatids held together in interphase

28. The process by which gametes are produced -involves two divisions of primary sex cells resulting in four haploid cells called gametes

29. A tubelike structure formed by the sperm once in contact with the membrane -extends to the cell membrane and penetrates it - fusing the sperm cell membrane with that of the ovum -Sperm nucleus now enters the ovum's cytoplasm to complete Meiosis II

30. Union of the egg and sperm nuclei to form a zygote with a diploid number of chromosomes

31. Inner layer of oocyte cell membrane

32. Cell division that follows karyokinesis

33. 1) G1: Initiates interphase. is described as the active growth phase and can vary in length. the cell increases in size and synthesizes proteins. the length of the G1 phase determines the length of the entire cell cycle 2) S: the period of DNA synthe

34. Practiced by terrestrial vertebrates and provides a direct route for sperm to reach the egg cell -increased chance for fertilization success and females produce fewer eggs

35. After ovulation - LH induces the ruptured follicle to develop into the corpus luteum

36. Located on scrotum -site for testosterone

37. Caplike structure - derived from the Golgi apparatus - develops over the anterior half of the head -contains enzymes needed to penetrate the tough outer covering of the ovum

38. The spindle apparatus disappears. A nuclear membrane forms around each set of newly formed chromosomes. Thus - each nucleus contains the same number of chromosomes (the diploid number 2n) as the original or parent nucleus. The chromosomes uncoil - re

39. Diploid cells of spermatogonia

40. Produced when each meiotic division -rapidly degenerate

41. Stems running above and along the gorund - extending form the main stem -can produce new roots and upright stems

42. Common passageway for both the reproductive and exretory systems

43. The production of female gametes -occurs in the ovarian follicles

44. Two haploid cells yielded from meiotic division of primary spermatocytes

45. AKA sperm production -occurs in the seminiferous tubules

46. Part of embryo that develops from the outer covering of the ovule

47. Passes through the penis and opens to the outside at its tip

48. First barrier that the sperm must penetrate -enzymes secreted by the sperm aid in penetration of the corona radiata -arosome is responsible for penetrating the zona pellucida; it releases enzymes that digest this layer - thereby allowing the sperm to

49. Simple form of asexual reproduction seen in prokaryotic organisms -DNA replicates and a new plasma membrane and cell wall grow inward along the midline of the cell - dividing it into two equally size cells with equal maounts of cytoplasm - each conta

50. Menstrual flow