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PCAT Biology Respiration

Subjects : pcat, biology
  • Answer 40 questions in 15 minutes.
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Oxidation reaction that - during respiration - high-energy hydrogen atoms are removed from organic molecules

2. Disaccharides are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides - most of which can be converted into glucose or glycolytic intermediates

3. Diaphragm contracts and flattens - and the external intercostal muscles contract - pushing the rib cage and chest wall up and out

4. Stored in adipose tissue in the form of triglyceride -must be activated in the cytoplasm; this process requires two ATP -transported into the mitochondrion and taken through a series of beta-oxidation cycles that convert it into two- carbon fragments

5. First stage of glucose catabolism that is a series of reactions that lead to the oxidative breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate - the production of ATP - and the reduction of NAD+ into NADH and occurs in cytoplasm

6. Glycolysis yields 2 ATP/glucose -cell respiration yields 36-38 ATP

7. Cycle begins when the two carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate - a four-carbon molecule - to form the six carbon citrate -For each turn - one ATP is produced by substrate level phosphorylation via a GTP intermediate (e- are

8. Regulated by neurons located in the medulla oblongata

9. Organ whose rhythmic discharges stimulate the intercostal muscles or the diaphragm to contract

10. Converts the energy of the sun into the chemical energy of bonds in comopunds such as glucose

11. Electron carriers that resemble hemoglobin in the structure of their active site

12. These sources are used by the body in the following preferential order: other carbohydrates - fats - and proteins

13. Refers to all of the reactions involved in this process (i.e. - glycolysis and the additional steps leading to the formation of ethanol or lactic acid) and only produces only two ATP per glucose molecule

14. Degradation of one glucose molecules yields a net of two ATP from glycolysis and one ATP for each turn of the Krebs cycle. thus - a total of four ATP are produced by substrate level phosphorylation

15. Degraded only wen not enough carbohydrate or fat is available

16. Aerobic process; oxygen acts as the final acceptor of electrons that are passed from carrier to carrier during the final stage of glucose oxidation -can be divided into three stages: pyruvate decarboxylation - the citric acid cycle - and the electron

17. The entrance of air into the lungs and the gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood

18. The conversion of the chemical energy in these bonds into the usable energy needed to drive the processes of living cells

19. Pyruvate is reduced during the process of fermentation in the absence of oxygen

20. Occurs only in yeast and some bacteria -the pyruvate produced in glycolysis is converted to ethanol -NAD+ is regenerated and glycolysis can continue

21. Every cell is in contact with the external environment (water) - and respiratory gases can be exchanged between the cell and the environment by simple diffusion through the cell membrane

22. Removes an ammonia molecule directly from the amino acid

23. Reductions occur in a series of these steps

24. Isomerized into PGAL (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate) so that it can be used in subsequent reactions

25. Toxic substance in vertebrates

26. The pyruvate formed during glycolysis is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix where it is decarboxylated (loses a CO2) - and the acetyl group that remains is transferred to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA; NAD+ is reduced to NAD

27. Air enters the lungs after traveling througha series of respiratory airways -gas exchange between the lungs and the circulatory system occurs across the very thin walls of the alveol -primary function is to provide the necessary energy for growth - m

28. When amino acids lose an amino group to form an a-keto acid

29. Complex carrier mechanism located on the inside of the inner mitochondrial membrane -During oxidative phosphorylation - ATP is produced when high-energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen by a series of carrier molecule

30. Pyruvate is further oxidized during cell respiration in the mitochondria in the presence of oxygen

31. Occurs in certain fungi and bacteria and in human muscle cells during strenuous activity -glycolysis is regenerated when pyruvte is reduced

32. In living cells - carbohydrates and fats

33. The ionized form of pyruvic acid

34. Air filled sacs at the terminals of the airway branches

35. Generally a passive process where the lungs and chest wall are highly elastic and tend to recoil to their original positions after inhalation

36. The process that produces more than 90% of the ATP used by the cells in our body

37. ATP synthesis is directly coupled with the degradation of glucose without the participation of an intermediate molecule such as NAD+

38. Trachaea open to the surface in openings called spiracles which permits the intake - distribution - and removal of respiratory gases directly between the air and the body cells by diffusion

39. Mucus secreted by cells on the external surface of the earthworm's body provides a moist surface for gaseous exchange by diffusion

40. The exchange of gas exchange between the blood and the cells and the intracellular processes of respiration