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PCAT Biology Vascular Systems In Animals And Plants

Subjects : pcat, biology
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1. (earthworm) uses a closed circulatory system to deliver materials to cells that are not in direct contact with the external environment

2. A small mass of specialized tissue located in the wall of the right atrium regulates/originates an ordinary cardiac contraction -spreads impulses through both atria - stimulating them to contract simultaneously

3. When platelets come into contact with the exposed collagen of a damaged vessel - they release a chemical chemical that causes neighboring platelets to adherer to one another

4. Smallest diameter of all three types of vessels; red blood cells must often travel through them single file

5. Responsible for generating the force that propels systematic circulation and pumps against a higher resistance

6. The production of antibodies during an immune response -can be conferred by vaccination

7. Cardiac muscle contracts rhythmically without stimulation from the nervous system - producing impulses that spread through its internal conducting system

8. Specialized of the root epidermis with thin-walled projections increase the surface area for absorption of water and minerals from the soil

9. Skin - mucous-coated epithelia - macrophages - inflammatory - interferons

10. Any liquid in a thin tube will rise becaUse of the surface tension of the liquid and interactions between the liquid and the tube

11. Carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart

12. Phloem - cambium - and xylem layers

13. Epidermis (outer-bark) - cortex - phloem - cambium - xylem - and pith

14. Another antigen that may be present on the surface of red blood cells

15. Defined as the total volume of blood the left ventricle pumps out per minute = heart rate (number of BPM) x stroke volume (volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per contraction)

16. Physical barier against bacterial invasion

17. Functions as the main heart by coordinated contractions in annelids

18. Prevent extensive blood loss while the damaged vessel heals itself

19. Two upper chambers of the heart -thin walled

20. Branch into microscopic capillaries

21. Include arteries - veins - and capilleries

22. Used to lower the immune response to transplants and decrease the likelihood of rejection

23. Supply plant cells with nutrients and remove waste products

24. Modifies the rate of heart contraction

25. Involves cells that combat fungal and viral infection

26. Excess interstitial fluid

27. Primary organ of transport in the plant

28. Located between the atria and ventricles on both sides of the heart - prevent backflow of blood into the atria

29. Composed of muscular - four-chambered heart - a network of blood vessels - and the blood itself

30. Two lower chambers of the heart -extremely muscular

31. Outer layer of xylem that is alive

32. Valve on the right side of the heart has three cusps

33. The period during which the ventricles contract

34. Liquid portion of the blood -aqueous mixture of nutrients - salts - respiratory gases - wastes - hormones - and blood proteins -components are erythrocytes - leukocytes - and platelets

35. Where blood flows through in arthropods

36. Fraction of the blood containing a wide variety of antibodies - that can be used to confer temporary protection against hepatitis and other diseases by passive immunity

37. Branch into arterioles

38. Secrete sweat - which contains an enzyme that attacks bacterial cell walls

39. Where exchange occurs in arthropods

40. Universal recipient as it has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies

41. Converts fibrinogen (another plasma protein) into fibrin

42. Thick-walled - muscular - elastic vessels that transport oxygenated blood away from the heart

43. Relatively thinly walled - inelastic vessels that conduct deoxygenated blood toward the heart

44. AKA immunoglobulins (Igs) -defense mechanism that are complex proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens and trigger the immune system to remove them -either attract other cells to phagocytize the antigen or cause the antigens to clump tog

45. Innervates the heart via the vagus nerve and causes a decrease in the heart rate

46. Pumps deoxygenated blood into pulmonary circulation (toward the lungs)

47. Cell fragments that lack nuclei and are involved in clot formation -involved in injury repair

48. Exerts hormonal control via epinepherine (adrenaline) secretion - which causes an increase in heart rate

49. Attracted to the injury site phagocytize antigenic material

50. Inappropriate response to certain foods and pollen that cause the body to form antibodies and release histamine