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PCAT Biology Vascular Systems In Animals And Plants

Subjects : pcat, biology
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This is a study tool. The 3 wrong answers for each question are randomly chosen from answers to other questions. So, you might find at times the answers obvious, but you will see it re-enforces your understanding as you take the test each time.
1. Include arteries - veins - and capilleries

2. A small mass of specialized tissue located in the wall of the right atrium regulates/originates an ordinary cardiac contraction -spreads impulses through both atria - stimulating them to contract simultaneously

3. Modifies the rate of heart contraction

4. Inappropriate response to certain foods and pollen that cause the body to form antibodies and release histamine

5. Two upper chambers of the heart -thin walled

6. Smallest diameter of all three types of vessels; red blood cells must often travel through them single file

7. Phagocytic cells that filter the lymph - removing and destroying foreign particles and pathogens

8. Epidermis (outer-bark) - cortex - phloem - cambium - xylem - and pith

9. Leukocytes involved in immune response and the production of antibodies (B cells) or cytolysis of infected cells (T cells)

10. Released by injured cells - which causes blood vessels to dilate - thereby increasing blood flow to the damaged region

11. Leukocytes that phagocytize foreign matter and organisms such as bacteria

12. Thick-walled - muscular - elastic vessels that transport oxygenated blood away from the heart

13. The driving force of the circulatory system

14. Branches into a series of arteries

15. Cell fragments that lack nuclei and are involved in clot formation -involved in injury repair

16. Prevent extensive blood loss while the damaged vessel heals itself

17. Branch into microscopic capillaries

18. Outer layer of xylem that is alive

19. Leukocytes that migrate from the blood to tissue - where they mature into stationary cells

20. Exchange of gases - nutrients - and cellular waste products occurs via diffusion across this

21. Secondary circulatory system distinct from the cardiovascular circulation - =vessels transport lymph to the cardiovascular system - thereby keeping fluid levels in the body constant

22. When hemoglobin bind to oxygen

23. The period of cardiac muscle relaxation during which blood drains into all four chambers

24. Involves the production of antibodies and cell-mediated immunity

25. Liquid portion of the blood -aqueous mixture of nutrients - salts - respiratory gases - wastes - hormones - and blood proteins -components are erythrocytes - leukocytes - and platelets

26. With the aid of its cofactors calcium and Vitamin K - converts the inactive plasma protein prothrombin to its active form - thrombin

27. Fetal red blood cells (which will have the Rh factor) enter maternal circulation during birth which cause the anti-Rh antibodies she produced when sensitized by the first birth may cross the placenta and destroy fetal red blood cells

28. Universal donor since it will not elicit a response from the recipient's immune system because it does not possess any surface antigens

29. Have body walls that are two cells thick -all cels are direct contact with either the internal or external environments so there is no need for a specialized circulatory system

30. Universal recipient as it has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies

31. Blood transports nutrients and O2 to tissue and wastes and CO2 from tissue -transport of gases - transport of nutrients and wste - and clotting

32. Where exchange occurs in arthropods

33. Responsible for both of these immune mechanisms

34. Any liquid in a thin tube will rise becaUse of the surface tension of the liquid and interactions between the liquid and the tube

35. Secrete sweat - which contains an enzyme that attacks bacterial cell walls

36. Converge into venules and eventually into veins - leading deoxygenated blood back toward the heart

37. Specialized of the root epidermis with thin-walled projections increase the surface area for absorption of water and minerals from the soil

38. Blood is confined to blood vessel

39. Attracted to the injury site phagocytize antigenic material

40. Swellins along lyph vessels containing phagocytic cells that filter the lymph - removing and destroying foreign particles and pathogens

41. Skin - mucous-coated epithelia - macrophages - inflammatory - interferons

42. Valve on the right side of the heart has three cusps

43. Functions as the main heart by coordinated contractions in annelids

44. Involves cells that combat fungal and viral infection

45. Another antigen that may be present on the surface of red blood cells

46. Thin walled cells on the outside of the vascular bundle that transport nutrients down the stem -are living and include sieve tube cells and companion cells

47. Functions to absorb materials through the root hairs and anchor the plant -provide storage for energy reserves

48. Produced by cells under viral attack and diffuse to other cells - where they help prevent the spread of the virus

49. Transport deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs

50. (earthworm) uses a closed circulatory system to deliver materials to cells that are not in direct contact with the external environment