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USMLE Step 1 Prep
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1. Familial hypercholesteremia is due to a mutation in the LDL receptor gene. What chromosome carries it?
2. Name the antidote - Arsenic
Agoraphobia. It also means having a sense of humiliation or hopelessness.
Dimercaprol - D- penicillamine
1. Lowers surface tension - so it decreases recoil and increases compliance 2. Reduces capillary filtration 3. Promotes stability in small alveoli by lowering surface tension
3. What classical conditioning therapy or modification is described as x Triage of a hierarchy of fears (from least to most) - then teaching muscle relaxation techniques in the presence of those fears until the subject is not afraid anymore?
'Lady between two Majors': latissimus dorsi - pectoralis major - and teres major
Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN or choriocarcinoma)
4. What is the term for nonneoplastic abnormal proliferation of cell size - shape - and cellular organization?
Type II error (beta error). (Remember it as saying something doesn't work when it does.)
5. What papillae are responsible for sweet taste?
'Lady between two Majors': latissimus dorsi - pectoralis major - and teres major
Affinity decreases; they are inversely proportional.
Metaplasia (usually to a more protective cell type)
6. What is the name of the spinal cord passing within the subarachnoid space and forming the spinal nerves that exit the lumbar and sacral foramina?
7. What diseases are associated with the HLA- DR3 allele
Five pairs through five lumbar vertebrae. Totaling 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
Sjogren's syndrome - active hepatitis - systemic lupus erythematosus (with HLA- DR2) and type 1 diabetes (with HLA- DR4)
GP IIb and IIIa receptors
8. What nerve is associated with the following functions? - Flex the wrist and digits - pronate the wrist and the LOAF (Lumbricales - Opponens pollicis - Abductor pollicis brevis - Flexor pollicis brevis) muscles of the hand
14 L - 33% of body weight
One - way ANOVA
9. What subunit of hCG is used to detect whether a patient is pregnant?
Yes. It increases the rate of suicide to nearly 50 times that of the general population.
1. Plicae circularis (3 times) 2. Villi (30 times) 3. Microvilli (600 times)
The Beta- subunit; remember - the a - subunit is nonspecific.
10. What epidermal layer's function is to release lipids to act as a sealant?
Third M PITS for pharyngeal pouch derivatives
11. What is the relationship between chance of error and x Sample size?
False - negative rate
As sample size increases - the lower the chance of error.
12. What is the term for the strength of the association between Ags and Abs?
Avidity. There is a positive correlation between valence numbers and avidity.
13. Name the most common type or cause - Liver transplantation in adults
When it crosses the teres major
Orotic acid (purine metabolism)
14. Which IV agent has the lowest incidence of postoperative emesis and has the fastest rate of recovery?
15. What AA is a precursor of the following substances? - Creatine
The submandibular ganglion. (Submandibular ganglion innervates the submandibular gland; easy enough.)
16. What is the most common one? - Site for carcinoid tumors
Appendix (second is terminal ileum)
17. What class of pharmaceuticals are inactive until they are metabolized to their active products?
Direct fluorescent Ab test
18. What is the longest and most convoluted segment of the nephron?
Specificity (it deals with the healthy)
19. Name the form of spina bifida - Meninges project through a vertebral defect
Meningocele All except occulta cause elevated - fetoprotein levels.
Plasma cell (mature B lymphocyte)
20. What statistical test checks to see whether the groups are different by comparing the means of two groups from a single nominal variable?
The T- test (used when comparing two groups)
CN VI - VII - and VIII
21. What hormone is required for 1 - 25- dihydroxy- vitamin D (1 - 25- diOH- D) to have bone resorbing effects?
Biotin. Avidin is found in raw egg whites.
1. Masseter 2. Temporalis 3. Medial pterygoid 4. Lateral pterygoid
22. Describe What type of fluid is either gained or lost with the following changes in body hydration for the ECF volume - ICF volume - and body osmolarity - respectively: x ECF - decrease; ICF - no change; body - no change
Loss of isotonic fluid (diarrhea - vomiting - hemorrhage)
Budd - Chiari syndrome
23. What components of the coagulation cascade are affected by estrogen?
Estrogen can result in a hypercoagulable state because of the decrease in AT III and increase in factors II - VII - IX - and X.
In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord on the primary afferent neurons
24. Why is spermatogenesis decreased with anabolic steroid therapy?
Exogenous steroids suppress LH release and result in Leydig cell atrophy. Testosterone - produced by Leydig cells - is needed for spermatogenesis.
Hirschsprung's disease (colonic gangliosus)
25. Name the compartment of the mediastinum associated with the following thoracic structures: Pulmonary artery and veins
From the wall of the yolk sac
26. What mushroom poisoning is associated with fulminant hepatitis with extensive liver necrosis?
27. Which medication requires an acidic gastric pH for activation to form a protective gel - like coating over ulcers and GI epithelium?
Normally corticobulbar fiber innervation of the CNs is bilateral (the LMN receives information from both the left and right cerebral cortex) - but with CN VII the LMN of the upper face receives bilateral input but the lower facial LMNs receive only c
It repeats every 90 to 120 minutes and correlates with elevated levels of motilin.
28. From What aortic arch are the following structures derived?
Burr cells (echinocytes)
29. In the alveoli - what cell type is x responsible for producing surfactant?
Alveoli; they are part of the respiratory portion.
Type II pneumocytes
Five pairs through five sacral vertebrae. Totaling 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
Treacher Collins syndrome
30. What antifungal agent is used to treat dermatophyte infections by inhibiting squalene epoxidase?
Test - retest reliability
Ions diffuse in the direction to bring the membrane potential toward the equilibrium potential.
31. What stage of sleep is associated with somnambulism?
Sleepwalking is associated with stage 4 and occurs most often in the first third of sleep.
32. What disease is seen in children younger than 5 years of age and is characterized by X- linked recessive cardiac myopathies - calf pseudohypertrophy - lordosis - protuberant belly - an increase then a decrease in CPK - and death commonly in the secon
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
80S ribosomes (because they are eukaryotic)
Red blood cell distribution width index (RDW)
33. In which syndrome does a person present with intentionally produced physical ailments with the intent to assume the sick role?
Surface tension - the force to collapse the lung - is greatest at the end of inspiration.
34. What happens to the following during skeletal muscle contraction? - Sarcomere
Leucine and lysine
35. Which subset of MEN syndrome is associated with the following? - Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid - pheochromocytoma - and parathyroid adenomas (or hyperplasia)
Celiac - aorticorenal - and superior mesenteric ganglias. (Remember all ' Splanchnics' are Sympathetic except for the Pelvic splanchnics - which are Preganglionic Parasympathetic fibers.)
If positive - hypotonic urine (osmolarity <300 mOsm/L); if negative - hypertonic urine (osmolarity > 300 mOsm/L)>>
MEN IIa (or Sipple syndrome)
36. What muscle type is characterized by low ATPase activity - aerobic metabolism - myoglobin - association with endurance - and small muscle mass?
EBV infections resulting in infectious mononucleosis can be diagnosed by the Monospot test. (Remember - it may be negative in the first week of the illness - so retest if you have a high index of suspicion.)
37. With What three enzymes is thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) associated?
With arteriolar constriction both the flow and pressure downstream decrease.
Dyspareunia. It is a common complaint in women who have been raped or sexually abused.
Selective erectile disorder
1. a - Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase 2. Pyruvate dehydrogenase 3. Transketolase Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) functions as a coenzyme vital to tissue respiration. It is required for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl - coenzyme A -
38. There are no persistent infections with...
Gerstmann's syndrome; spoken language is usually understood.
P = .05; P < .05 rejects the null hypothesis
39. What is the respiratory compensation mechanism for metabolic alkalosis?
Hypoventilation - which increases CO2 - shifting the reaction to the right and increasing H+
Truncus (1) arteriosus Transposition of the (2) great vessels Tri(3)cuspid atresia Tetra(4)logy of Fallot They all begin with T
Supraoptic nuclei; lesions here result in diabetes insipidus.
40. What nerve lesion presents with ape or simian hand as its sign?
Median nerve lesion
Citrate - via the citrate shuttle
Ductus epididymis - Which is lined by pseudostratified epithelium with stereocilia.
Lente insulin and either NPH or protamine zinc insulin (PZI)
41. What selective Cox-2 inhibitor should be avoided in patients with a history of sulfonamide allergy?
42. Which carcinoma
Leydig cell tumor
Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with hepatitis B and C infections - not with EBV.
Large segment deletions
43. What prostaglandin is associated with maintaining patency of the ductus arteriosus?
Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
PGE (along with low oxygen tension)
C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH)
44. What component of an ECG is associated with the following? - Atrial depolarization
env structural protein
Bipolar disorder (manic - depressive disorder)
45. Name the MCC of death - In patients with cystic fibrosis
Constriction of efferent arteriole
Because creatinine is filtered and a small amount is secreted
Long - term memory is impaired in hippocampal lesions; it is spared in medial temporal lobe lesions.
46. Name the B- cell CD marker: x Used clinically to count B cells in blood
Succinylcholine and halothane (Treatment is with dantrolene.)
47. What family do the following viruses belong to? - California encephalitis
Uroporphyrinogen III cosynthase
Nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test (NBT). It is negative in patients with CGD because there is no production of oxygen radicals.
Posterior compartment of the thigh - tibial nerve
48. What is the largest organ in the body?
Integument (skin and its derivatives)
1. CNS 2. Renal tubules 3. Beta Islet cells of the pancreas 4. RBCs 5. GI mucosa
Hormone - sensitive lipase - Which breaks down triglyceride into glycerol and free fatty acid
49. What type of fiber or fibers are carried in (answer motor - sensory - or both) x Spinal nerve?
50. What structure or structures cross the diaphragm at x T8 level?
Imipenem and meropenem
Production of HCO3- - shifting the reaction to the left and thereby decreasing H+
IVC Remember: 1 at T8 - 2 at T10 - and 3 at T12
Naloxone - naltrexone
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